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INTRODUCTION
1. Reasons to choose the topic of the thesis
Internship is a basic form of teaching with a very important
position and role, contributing to the implementation of the educational
principle "Learning coupled with practice, education combined with
working and production, theory attached with practice” [49, p.1].
Internship activities help cadets reinforce supplement and develop their
knowledge, professional skills; political qualities, ethics, lifestyles,
motivation, love of career according to objectives and requirements of
training. Management of cadet’s internship activities is a basic content of
educational management, helping the military officers-training colleges
to self-check and evaluate their training outcomes, thereby adjusting the
training programs and contents to meet the requirements of building
military in each revolutionary period.
At present, management of internship activities of cadets in
general and of cadets at military officers-training colleges in particular
according to the orientation of competence development has become a
basic and urgent requirement to successfully implement the Party’s
viewpoint and policies in educational reforms and requirements and

tasks of building the Army and protecting the Fatherland in the new
situation. However, until now, research on management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development is still a gap of theory and practice.
In theory, although there have been many researches on
internship activities, management of internship activities of cadets, they
are mainly based on the traditional approach. In recent years, there have
been some approaches according to modern teaching and management
theories such as: managing by objectives, by content; by functions, by
synchronized quality approach ...Some works following the above research
directions have pointed out the output standards, professional standards and
how to organize and manage internship activities to form cadets with
standards of knowledge, techniques, motives, attitudes to meet training
objectives and requirements. But no work has studied intensively and
systematically on management of internship activities of cadets in the
direction of competence development. In particular, there is no work on
management of internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the direction of competence development to perform the duties
and tasks of officers and military officers. Therefore, the study clarifies the
rationale and the approach in management of internship activities of cadets


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at military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development is really an issue that needs to be clarified.
In practice, though, there have been innovations, but the quality
of management of internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges still has limitations and inadequacies such as: inadequate awareness;
unrealistic determination of objectives and contents of the Curriculum; short
practice time; simple check and evaluation, low reliability, favouring
encouragement...As a result, when graduating from the university, there are
still cadets who are currently not performing their tasks and duties
effectively. The above situation raises the requirement of management
of internship activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in
the direction of competence development.
From the above reasons, the study "Management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development" is a matter of practical and theoretical significance.
2. Purposes and tasks of the research
* Purposes of the research


Based on the practical and theoretical basis on management of
practicing activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development. Accordingly, the thesis proposes
measures to manage practicing activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the direction of competence development, improving the
effectiveness of management of practicing activities so as to improve the
quality of education and training at military officers-training colleges.
* Tasks of the research
The dissertation gives an overview of the research related to the
dissertation topic and identifies issues need addressing in the thesis.
The dissertation clarifies basic theoretical issues on management of
practicing activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development.
The dissertation clarifies practical issues on management of
practicing activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges.
The dissertation proposes some basic solutions to manage
practicing activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development.
The dissertation tests the necessity and feasibility of the proposed
solutions and experiments one of them.
3. Subject, object, scope and scientific hypothesis
* Object of the research: Management of training activities at
military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development.


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* Subject of the research: Management of practicing activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development.
* Scope of the research
In terms of content: The thesis researches on the practical and
theoretical issues on management of practicing activities, mainly on
management of practicing activities of graduation of officers-training
cadets, tertiary level at military officers-training colleges. The thesis
proposes measures to manage practicing activities of cadets accessing to
management function.
In terms of object: Managers, teachers, officials and cadets with
practicing activities of graduation at military officers-training colleges.
In terms of survey area: Some military officers-training
colleges and units in the North: Political Military Officers-Training
College, Army Number 1 Officers-Training College, Commando
Military Officers-Training College; some units where cadets practicing
in Military Zone 3.
In terms of time: Data and surveys are collected from 2013 to the
present.
* Scientific hypothesis
In the recent years, management of practising activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges has obtained certain
achievements. However, the current management of practising
activities is inadequate, not in accordance with the theoretical
development of education management and the reality. If the measures
of management with functional assessing combined with management
assessing in managing practicing activities in the direction of
competence development are proposed, then it will contribute to
improve the quality of education, meeting the army’s demands and tasks
in the new situation.
4. Methodology and research method
4.1. Methodology: The thesis is based on the thorough understanding
of the materialist dialectics of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and Ho Chi Minh’s
thoughts and the Communist Party of Vietnam’s view on education and training.
At the same time, it bases on research method of education management and
different ways of accessing, typically: the system-structure, history - logics;
approach to functions and approach to the standard outcome.
4.2. Research method: The thesis uses different methods:


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* Theoretical methods: Analysing, generalizing, and systemizing
the related documents.
* Practical methods: Summing up experience, observation,
survey questionnaire, and interview and experts constancy.
* Supportive methods: Method of using statistical mathematics,
Microsoft Xcel software and testing.
5. New contributions of the research
The dissertation builds up the theory on practising activities and
management of practising activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the orientation of competence development.
The dissertation evaluates and analyses the actual situation,
identifying the causes of achievements and limitations if the reality of
practising activities and management of practising activities of cadets at
military officers-training colleges in the orientation of competence
development today.
The dissertation combines different ways to clarify the theoretical
frame of the thesis. On management of practising activities of cadets in
the orientation of competence development, the thesis combines the
access of management function (mainly) with management access.
The dissertation proposes 5 solutions to manage practising
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the orientation
of competence development. The experimental results show that the
proposed measures are necessary and highly feasible.
6. Theoretical and practical significance of the research
6.1. Theoretical significance
The findings of the dissertation contribute to the development of
research on education management, practising activities and management
of practising activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
orientation of competence development; proposing a system of practical
and feasible solutions to improve the effectiveness of practising activities
of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the orientation of
competence development, contributing to improve the quality of education
and training at military officers-training colleges.
6.2. Practical significance
The thesis provides scientific arguments for leaders, commanders,
especially the managing officials, teachers and cadets at military officerstraining colleges to apply into managing practising activities of cadets in the
direction of competence development. Accordingly, it contributes to improve
the quality of training army officers and it can be used as references for
officials, teachers and cadets at military officers-training colleges in teaching,
researching and organizing management of practising activities.
7. Structure of the thesis


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The thesis includes: Introduction, 4 chapters (14 periods),
conclusions, list of scientific works of the author related to the
dissertation, list of references and Appendices.
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION
RELATED TO THESIS TOPIC
1.1. The works related to the thesis topic
1.1.1. The works related to practising activates
There are some scientific works on the content and program of
practising activities, skills of practising for students before their apprentice
in Soviet Union and some West European countries, typical authors:
Gutsev,
Ivanov,
Socolov,
O.A.Abdoullina...(Soviet
Union);
N.M.Iacovalev, Iu.K.Babansky...(Democratic Republic of Germany);
C.Denhec, F.Januskiewiez.. (Poland).
In America and Western countries, there are a number of works
training-program transformation, from theory preparation to practice,
typical model: “Professional Development School”; the works of the
fund Carnegie, Annenberg and Ford in America (2001) conclude “The
programs of pedagogical practice need to focus on practice, apprentice
and model”. Students of California University - Davis in America along
with secondary school teachers conduct practising activities before the
school year: “Learning how to organize the class, preparing the teaching
plan and meeting students on the very first day of the school year”.
Typical works in Vietnam: “Pedagogical practice” by Nguyen
Dinh Chinh (1991); “Pedagogical visiting and practice” by Nguyen
Dinh Chinh and Pham Trung Thanh (1998);: “Nurturing capacity of
practising party work, political work of political officials-training cadets
at section level at Military Political Academy in the current period” by
Nguyen Chinh Ly (2006); “Solutions to improve the quality of practising
at local units for political instructors-training cadets at Military
Officers-Training Collegẹ” by Trinh Xuan Loc (2010); “Training the
skill of teaching for pedagogic students in the flexible assess in teaching
practice’’ by Nguyen Thi Nhan (2015); “Developing career adapting
skill through practice for students of technical college” by Nguyen
Thanh Long (2017).
These works emphasize the role of practising activities in
consolidating knowledge, forming skills for students and cadets. However,
there have been no works thoroughly research on forming necessary
competence for cadets, students in organizing practising activities.


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Notably, in military officers-training colleges, there have been no works
on practising activities and management of practising activities in the
direction of competence development.
1.1.2. The works related to training and management of
practising activities in competence access
Competency-based training has been applied in America in the
field of career training since the 1970s - 1980s and has become a popular
model in education and then spread to Britain, Australia, New Zealand,
Canada, Germany, etc. In the end of the 20th century, competency-based
training has become a popular trend in the world. In the book
“Competence-based Assessment Techniques”, Shirley Fletcher (1995)
has analysed the differences in competency-based training between
Britain and America. Roger Harris, Hugh Guthrie, Bary Hobart, and David
Lundberg (1995) published the book: “Competency-based Education and
Training: Between a Rock and a Whirlpool. South Melbourne”; Thomas
Deissinger and Slilke Hellwig (2011) published the book: “Structures
and functions of competency- based education and training (CBET): a
comparative perspective”.
In our country, researches on training in the direction of
competence development first appeared in the field of career training,
typical: “Teaching in the direction of competence access in technical
pedagogic universities” (2012) by Cao Danh Chinh, “Management of
competence training for construction technical careers in construction
colleges” (2014) by Dao Viet Ha; “Developing the teaching staff of technical
pedagogic universities the direction of competence access” (2016) by Nguyen
The Dan; “Organizing seminars in teaching pedagogics in universities in
competence access” (2014) by Nguyen Thi Bich Lien.
There are some typical works on management of practising
activities in the direction of competence access: My Giang Son,
“Management of pedagogical practice in training secondary school
teachers in the orientation of career standard of secondary school
teachers” (2014); Do Thi Thu Hang “Management of practising
activities of students of education management in accordance with the
standard outcome” (2017); Do Van Hieu, “Management of students’
graduation practising activities at People’s Security Academy in the
assess of CIPO” (2017).
1.2. Brief overview of research findings of published works
and issues for the thesis to deal with.
1.2.1 Brief overview of research findings of published works
Firstly, many authors in the world and in the country have been
interested in studying issues related to internship activities with many
different approaches. The works all emphasize the position and role of


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the internship activities in strengthening and supplementing knowledge
for students and trainees, contributing to improving the training quality
of the schools.
Secondly, studying issues related to capacity-based training is
currently a trend to attract the attention of countries in the world and
in our country. The research works have provided important
theoretical and practical issues as a basis for determining the
objectives, methods and competence development of learners in
management of internship activities of students in the direction of
competence development.
Thirdly, in our country, regarding to study on management of
internship activities of students in the direction of competence
development, there are a number of works and dissertations in different
directions. They are works that are directly related, contributing to
providing theoretical and practical basis for the process of deployment
and research of the thesis.
Fourthly, there is no research on management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development to perform the responsibilities and duties of
officers, leaders and commanders in the Military units after graduation.
1.2.2. Issues for the thesis to deal with
Firstly, clarify the objective requirements and practical
significance of the need to transfer the management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges from the old
form and content with too general targets, monotonous contents, general
inspection and evaluation ... to manage internship activities in the
direction of competence development.
Secondly, continue researching to supplement and clarify the
concepts of tools related to internship and management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges; determine the
content and specify the factors that affect the management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development.
Thirdly, be based on the objectives and training requirements
of military officers-training colleges; provisions of the Ordinance on
management of the army; practical implementation of the
responsibilities and tasks assigned after graduation to determine the
standard of output capacity and contents of the orientation of
competence development of cadets at military officers-training colleges


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as a basis for managing and evaluating the internship activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development.
Fourthly, in order to improve the quality of internship activities
and management of internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges in the direction of competence development, the
dissertation must propose, analyse and clarify the system of measures for
management of internship activities and management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development with practicality and high feasibility.
Fifthly, organize tests, testing measures to manage internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development to prove the theory of the thesis.
Conclusion of Chapter 1
Overview of research projects related to internship activities and
management of internship activities has affirmed the very important
position and role of this issue for the training of skills and competence
development for cadets and trainees. However, until now, there has not
been any works intensively studying the management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development.
In the current trend of educational innovation today, it requires
the management of internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges to be renewed according to modern approaches.
Therefore, the study clarifies the theoretical and practical basis and
proposes measures to manage internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development as
an urgent issue both in theory and practice. From the successes of
relevant research projects and scientific issues that have not been
resolved thoroughly, the author receives and determines new
directions in the thesis development process.
Chapter 2
RATIONALE OF MANAGEMENT OF INTERNSHIP
ACTIVITIES OF CADETS AT MILITARY OFFICERSTRAINING COLLEGES IN THE DIRECTION OF
COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT
2.1. Theoretical issues of internship activities of cadets at
military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development
2.1.1. Internship and internship activities of cadets in military
officers-training schools


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* Internship is content, an important stage of the training
program, helping learners manipulates the knowledge, skills and
attitudes that have been accumulated in the learning process to solve the
situation according to their authority and tasks to be assigned after
graduation to strengthen, supplement, and improve the quality and
professional capacity according to training objectives and requirements.
Internship is content, a stage in the training program ranked
after the lectures. It is a planned activity with defined content, program
and time. With internship activities, learners conduct activities
according to responsibilities and tasks they will undertake after
graduation, under the direction and of faculty and instructors.
* Internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges
Internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges are a positive and purposeful process of learners in order to
apply the knowledge, skills, attitudes and personality qualities that are
formed during the training process in solving tasks according to their
responsibilities and tasks assigned in the grassroots units, under the
guidance and help of teachers and managers at schools and grassroots
units to develop the qualities and capabilities according to training
objectives and requirement.
The content of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges is the work of the platoon leader, political
officers of company in the grassroots units to perform according to
the assigned responsibilities and tasks stipulated in Article 14. 15, 16,
17 "Soldier Management Ordinance". In particular, focus on a number of
main contents such as: organize military education and training activities
(technical, tactical activities); conduct Party and political activities in the
units (education, youth union and youth activities, emulation activities,
forums, seminars ...); manage and maintain strict military discipline;
organize units to improve life of soldiers; build good relationships in the
units; coordinate with party committees, local authorities where the
troops are stationed, etc.
2.1.2. Capacity and orientation for competence development at
military officers-training colleges
* Capacity and orientation for competence development in
education and training


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Capacity is the combination of the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of individual responding to requirement of an activity, ensuring
that the activity achieves results according to the defined purposes.
Capacity is a combined quality of knowledge, skills and
attitudes of individuals associated with a certain type of activity.
Capacity formation and development are based on the integrated
development of mind, physiological factors, ensuring that individuals
have profound knowledge about the field of activity that they participate
in; have the skills to practice actions in accordance with the nature,
characteristics, requirements and circumstances of the operation. At the
same time, there is a passionate attitude, hard work, high responsibility
for the operation. The organic combination of knowledge, skills and
attitudes towards operations will constitute a capacity to ensure
individuals quickly find ways and measures to carry out activities and
ensure activities to have results consistent with the defined purpose.
Competence development orientation in education and training
is a system of purposeful and organized impacts of schools and training
institutions to determine training objectives, programs and methods to
promote the activeness of learners in training activities to step by step
formulate and develop themselves with capabilities corresponding to
training objectives and requirements of schools and society.
2.1.3. Output capacity standard and competence development
orientation in internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges
* Output capacity standards of cadets at military officerstraining colleges in the direction of competence development
Based on the charter of schools in Vietnamese People's Army;
Resolutions of the Central Military Commission, the Ministry of Defense
and the responsibilities and duties of the commanders, political commissars
and politicians stipulated in Articles 14,15,16,17, the dissertation defines
output capacity standard of cadets at military officers-training colleges
including 7 criteria: 1. Political quality, moral lifestyle; 2. Knowledge level;
3. Capacity to make plans for training, educating, commanding and
managing soldiers ; 4. Capacity to implement training, education and
commanding and management plans; 5. Capacity to build and solve
relationships during the internship; 6. Capacity to inspect and evaluate;
7. Professional development capacity and self-evaluation.
* Competence development orientation in internship activities
of cadets at military officers-training colleges.
Based on the capacity output standard and theoretical models of
comprehensive competence development; the opinions of experts and
results of surveys with officials and lecturers of military officers-training


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colleges and key commanders in some regiments, divisions, the thesis
determines that contents of internship activities of cadets in the direction
of competence development should focus on comprehensive
development, professional capacity; method capacity; social capacity,
individual capacity and indicate specific capacities among those
capacities (total 18), meeting the assigned tasks of each type of learner
according to training objectives and requirements.
2.1.4. Internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges in the direction of competence development
Internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the direction of competence development are the purposeful
and organized process of learners in order to comprehensively apply
knowledge, skills and attitudes collected in the training process in
solving tasks according to their responsibilities and duties assigned in
the grassroots units, under the guidance and assistance of teachers and
managers at schools and grassroots units to develop qualities and
capabilities according to training objectives and requirements.
To determine the basis for the process of management of internship
activities of cadets in the direction of competence development, the thesis
deeply analyzed and clarified purposes, subjects, objects, contents, forms,
procedures, programs, timing, organizational methods and test and
evaluation activities in grassroots unit of learners at military officerstraining colleges in the direction of competence development.
2.2. Theoretical issues of management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development
2.2.1. The concept of management of internship activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development
* Management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges are the purposeful, planned and lawful
impacts of management subjects on planning, organizing, directing and
controlling internship activities to effectively use the school's existing
resources to achieve the goal of internship activities.
* Management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development
are the purposeful, planned and lawful impacts of the management
subjects in order to create favorable conditions for cadets to consolidate
and supplement their capacity to perform assigned tasks and
responsibilities according to city development orientation.


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Management objective: to create a coordinated cooperation
between management subjects and cadets to create favorable
conditions for cadets to comprehensively develop their capacity
according to the content of capacity orientation.
Subject of management: including many forces, in particular,
the school's Board of Directors headed the Principals that are subjects
to lead and direct all internship activities of cadets.
Object of management: cadets and activities of cadets taking
place during the internship. They are both objects and subjects that
directly determine the effectiveness of their internship activities in the
direction of competence development.
Management contents: Develop plans and issue guiding
documents; organize the implementation of the plans; direct the
participating forces; manage conditions to ensure that internship
activities of cadets are in the direction of competence development.
Managing methods: a combination of management methods
including: administrative management; education and retraining;
psychological preparation; motivation, encouragement and stimulation
to learners.
Management conditions, means and tools: documents of
military commands and orders; school regulations; regulations and
process of organizing internship activities; the preparation for cadets and
the assurance of facilities for the cadets' internship activities; the
coordination of the schools with the units of the cadets during internship.
2.2.2. Contents of management of internship activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development
* Develop plans and promulgate documents to guide cadet’s
internship activities in the direction of competence development
* Organize the implementation of internship activities in the
direction of competence development
* Direct the participating forces to implement the plan of
cadet’s internship activities in the direction of competence development
* Ensure conditions for cadet’s internship activities to take
place in the direction of competence development.
* Check and evaluate cadet’s internship activities in the
direction of competence development
2.3. Factors affecting the management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development
2.3.1. Requirement for innovating education and training in
the direction of competence development


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2.3.2. Rules and regulations on internship activities
2.3.3. Places of internship, units of internship
2.3.4. Program and content of training in the direction of
competence development
2.3.5. Qualifications and experience in organizing internship
activities of managers and lecturers
2.3.6. Knowledge, skills and attitudes of cadets
Conclusion of Chapter 2
In order to gain high efficiency in organizing and management
of internship activities of cadets in the direction of competence
development, the one hand, it is required to inherit good ways or
experiences in tradition. On the other hand, it must be based on the
output capacity standard of cadets according to training objectives and
requirements in the direction of competence development and practical
tasks and responsibilities assigned to cadets after graduation to identify
the content of competence development orientation in a comprehensive
way including: professional capacity, method capacity, social capacity
and individual capacity. On that basis, determine the objectives and
contents of internship activities; formulate and organize the
implementation of the plan of internship activities of cadets in the
direction of competence development; check and evaluate internship
activities of cadets in the direction of competence development; ensure
the conditions of scientific implementation and high feasibility.
Management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development is
a new issue and affected by many objective and subjective factors.
Therefore, management entities must understand to make management
measures suitable for each object to achieve the highest quality.
Chapter 3
PRACTICAL BASIS OF MANAGING CADET’S INTERNSHIP
ACTIVITIES AT MILITARY OFFICERS-TRAINING COLLEGES
IN THE DIRECTION OF COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT
3.1. Overview of the situation of education and training at
military officers-training colleges
3.1.1. Introduction of military officers-training colleges
The military officers-training colleges are a part of the system
of military academies and schools, which are part of the state's higher
education system, playing an important role in the cause of military
education, training and research and humanities social science etc.


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Currently, in the army, there are 11 military officers-training colleges of
graduate and postgraduate levels at section level with majors in politics
and advisory commanders.
* Organizational structure: including Board of Management,
functional agencies (departments, committees), and faculties, student
management units (system, battalion, class, company, and platoon).
Party committees of military officers-training colleges are higher-level
party organizations than Party committees at grassroots units, Party
grassroots organizations are established at agencies, faculties and
systems, battalions of cadets; mass organizations and military councils;
being always concerned, meeting the requirements of education and
training tasks, scientific researches and other tasks.
Functions and duties: an organization with legal status,
performing the tasks of education and training, scientific research,
building a regular military school, issuing diplomas and certificates
according to regulations of the State and the Ministry of Defense.
Models and objectives: Training cadres with strong political
bravery, absolute loyalty to the Communist Party of Vietnam, the
Fatherland, and the people; determination to follow the socialist path,
sticking to the army's combat and construction career, being ready to
receive and complete the assigned tasks; creative thinking, university
level knowledge and military skills as required by the positions;
collective democracy, formal and solidarity style; morality, a healthy
lifestyle, modesty, needing to save integrity, being social with people,
attached to the masses; suitable health for the position of work.
3.1.2. Characteristics of training cadets at military
officers' schools
* Cadets at military officers-training colleges: more outstanding
in age psychology, educational qualification, political quality, morality
compared to those of students at universities outside the army.
* Programs and contents of education and training: built in
the direction of comprehensive development of qualities and capabilities
of military officers; there is a balance of both the theoretical content and
the professional practice; attaching academic training to the title and
positions after graduation.
*Training organization: In the form of concentration, 100% of
cadets study and practice in the camp of the school; under 24/24 hour
supervision in accordance with the regimes of living, studying, training,
combat readiness according to the command of the army management;
The training period of the whole courses in commanding officer schools
of combined armies and armies is. Particularly, training period in
Political Officer School is 5 years.


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3.2. Organization and method of studying the situation
3.2.1. General overview of organization and
methods of research
* Purpose of the survey: Collect practical and objective data on
the actual situation of internship activities and management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges.
* Contents of the survey: Situation of awareness of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges; actual situation of
internship activities and management of internship activities and factors
affecting the management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development.
* Subjects, time and scope of survey: Surveying 786 subjects
including: 170 managers, teachers of military officers-training colleges,
516 cadets under their internship; 100 cadres where cadets have their
internship. Trial survey was from September to December 2016; Official
survey was from March 2017 to July 2018 in some military officerstraining colleges and units in the north.
3.2.2 Researching the situation
The actual research process was divided into 3 phases: trial
survey; official survey and data processing.
3.2.3. Methods of research
Using a combination of practical research methods including:
Expert method; pedagogical observation method; Method of soliciting
opinions by questionnaires; Method of talking and discussing; Studying
summary reports; Methods of analysing product activities; Methods of
processing data by mathematical statistics
3.2.4. The way of processing data
In order to accurately assess the survey results, the thesis divided
evaluation results according to the criteria into 3 levels with the following
convention points: Good is 3 points (M1); The average is 2 points (M2);
Weakness is 1 point (M3) and using mathematical formulas including point
interval calculation (L); average score calculation ( ); Spearman correlation
coefficients (rs) to process and propose evaluation and observation.
3.3. Actual situation of internship activities of cadets at
military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development
3.3.1. Awareness about the role of internship
Survey results show that the respondents highly appreciated the
position and role of the internship activities. There are still disparities in
the evaluation results, but the average score of the two groups of


16
managers, teachers and officers is 2.29 points; the group of cadets
achieved 2.31 points in fair good level.
3.3.2. Executing objectives of internship activities
Survey results show that: evaluation of managers and
teachers; officers on achievement in targets of internship activities in
the direction of competence development is relatively similar, including
general and specific objectives. However, the results are not high, only at
the weak average level.
3.3.3. The level of expression of cadet’s capacity according to
the content of competence development orientation
The survey results show that all four capabilities were
understood and evaluated by managers and teachers; officers and cadets
quite relatively uniformly. This proves that the internship contents in in
the direction of competence development that the thesis surveyed are
appropriate, close to the responsibilities and tasks of the cadet’s position.
3.3.4. Methods of organizing internships
In order to determine the optimal and effective practice method,
the thesis offered 3 basic internship methods and surveyed respondents.
The results show that the internship method was divided into 2 phases:
Phase 1 at the beginning of the third school year, the second phase at the
end of the fourth school year (for Political Officer Schools in the 4th and
5th school years) to be the most effective practice method
3.3.5 Check and evaluate the results of internship activities
The survey results show that the evaluation of respondents is
relatively uniform; the average gap between the surveyed respondents is not
too far from each other. However, it only reached the weak average level.
3.4. Actual situation of management of internship activities
of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development
3.4.1. Basic advantages and limitations
Basic advantages
Firstly, the construction of internship activities is relatively
detailed, creating favourable conditions for cadets to perform their duties
and tasks assigned according to training objectives and requirements.
Secondly, the organization of internship activities of cadets is
done relatively strictly, seriously at all stages, steps from preparing for
cadets before internship; organizing internship activities according to the
defined plan and achieving the set objectives and requirements; learning
experience after finishing internship, act.
Thirdly, instruction to internship activities of cadets is
conducted regularly through the leadership and commanding systems at


17

all levels, promptly discovering advantages, limitations and problems
arising to take measures closely and accurately.
Fourthly, the check and evaluation of cadet’s internship activities are
in accordance with the guidelines of the Ministry and the regulations on
education and training of military officers-training colleges.
Fifth, the military officers-training colleges invest and equip
basic facilities to meet the requirements of internship activities, creating
conditions for cadets to perform their assigned duties and tasks at the
grassroots units.
Limitations and shortcomings
Firstly, awareness of a part of managers and teachers; officers
and cadets about internship activities and management of internship
activities are incomplete and uneven; some officials are still not close
in understanding and guiding cadets in their activities.
Secondly, some schools develop plans and organize internship
activities not strictly; not providing enough training to cadets before
their internship; the management and organization of implementation
of internship activities has not been directed regularly and strictly.
Thirdly, determination of target of internship activities is still
general and not comprehensive; the innovation in building content of
internship activities in the direction of competence development is
slow; methods of organizing internship activities are still rigid, the
internship time is still short, not enough for cadets to observe learn and
experience to meet the requirements of competence development.
Fourthly, the system of documents directing the organization
of internship activities of the Ministry is old; many contents are no
longer suitable with current requirements.
Fifthly, check and evaluation of results of internship activities is
subjective, simple, qualitative, there are no standards to evaluate each
content; forms of evaluation are not flexible.
3.4.2. Causes of advantages and limitations
* Causes of advantages
The military officers-training colleges have many measures to
raise the awareness and responsibilities of related forces in the process
of management of internship activities of cadets.
Managers have paid close attention to and coordinated in the
process of developing plans, organizing and directing internship
activities.


18
The military officers-training colleges and units have been
invested in facilities and equipment to meet the requirements of
internship activities.
* Cause of the limitations, weaknesses
The formulation of regulations and rules for internship activities
are still incomplete, failing to meet the requirements of organizing
internship activities in the direction of competence development.
Organization, direction and establishment of goals and content
of internship activities are still general; determination of the mode of
internship activities; inspection and assessment of internship activities
are still slow to innovate and lack of comprehensiveness.
A part of cadets is not self-aware, active in their internship
activities. The training for cadets before internship at some schools has
not been respected and practical.
Some military officers-training colleges have not contacted and
coordinated closely with the grassroots units in management of
internship activities of cadets.
Facilities, equipment, model of learning tools, practice ground,
funding for internship activities are limited and not uniform.
3.5. Current situation of factors affecting the management
of internship activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges
in the direction of competence development
The results showed that, groups of surveyed respondents all
stated that the impacts of 6 elements determined by the thesis to
management of internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges re relatively strong. In particular, the impact from
"qualification and experience of teachers and managers in
organizing internship activities" and from "qualifications,
knowledge, skills and attitudes of cadets" are considered to be the
two most influential factors, followed by the elements of "Program
and content of training in the direction of competence development";
"Regulations, rules on internship activities" and "Internship places and
unit". Factor of fewer impacts is "Requirement for innovation of
education and training in the direction of competence development".
Conclusion of Chapter 3
Although many advantages have been achieved, the
management of cadet internship activities still has many shortcomings,
not keeping up with the development of theory and practice, failing to
meet the requirements of training with output capacity standards.
Management of internship activities of cadets at military officers-


19

training colleges in the direction of competence development is a new
issue that needs to be fully recognized and carefully resolved. The
results of surveying actual situation of internship activities and
management of internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the direction of competence development together with
advantages, limitations and causes of the situation are an important basis
for proposing measures to manage internship activities of cadets at
military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development with efficiency and feasibility.


20
Chapter 4
MEASURES AND TESTING OF MEASURES FOR
MANAGEMENT OF INTERNSHIP ACTIVITIES OF CADETS AT
MILITARY OFFICERS-TRAINING COLLEGES IN THE
DIRECTION OF COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT
4.1. The system of measures for management of internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the
direction of competence development
4.1.1. Educate to awareness and responsibility for managers
management of internship activities in the direction of competence
development
This is a measure to create the basis and premise for the next
measures. In order to well implement this measure, it requires managers
to have documents clearly defining the responsibilities and powers of the
concerned forces; regularly direct the work of education, thoroughly
grasp the position, role and the need to manage internship activities in
the direction of competence development; Actively coordinate with each
other to improve the effectiveness of management of internship activities
in the direction of competence development.
4.1.2. Develop plans of internship activities in the direction of
competence development
This is a measure of great significance, which is the basis for
unifying action and coordination of forces and means in the organization
of internship activities. In order to implement this measure, the Board of
Directors of each military officers-training college should closely guide
the relevant departments in the process of developing the plan; the
implementation of the plan must ensure consistency; the plan must be
consistent with the conditions and capabilities of each school and the
units where cadets are doing their internship.
4.1.3. Direct the renewal of the mode of organizing internship
activities according to an appropriate and scientific process with
orientations for competence development
This is a significant measure, directly related to other measures.
The basic content of the measure is to increase the number of
internships, the internship time at the grassroots units from 1
time/session to 2 times/session, the internship time is 3 to 4 weeks
higher than the previous one and organize internship according to a
scientific process suitable to competence development orientation. In
order to implement this measure, the military officers-training colleges
need to: Adjust training programs and content in the direction of
reducing the theory of increasing practice time; In the course of training,
it is necessary to clearly determine the output capability standards of the


21

subjects, the semesters and the school years in conformity with the
output capability standards; Clearly define the work to be done in the
stages and steps of the organization of internship activities; Organizing,
directing, inspecting, evaluating and summarizing internship activities in
accordance with competence development orientation.
4.1.4. Ensure the conditions to improve the
quality of internship
This measure aims to ensure conditions on regulations, training
programs, relevant documents, facilities; practice grounds and practice
units to support internship activities effectively. In order for the
implementation of this measure military officers-training colleges
should: Recommend and coordinate with the competent authorities of
the Ministry of Defense to add and complete regulation on organizing
internship activities of cadets in the direction of competence
development; Direct the renovation of training contents and programs
according to competence development orientation; Plan to find sources
of investment, upgrading facilities to serve teaching and internship
activities of cadets in the direction of competence development; Closely
coordinate with grassroots units to ensure facilities, equipment and
policies for cadets.
4.1.5. Direct the renewal of methods in inspecting and
evaluating results of internship activities of cadets in the direction of
competence development
This is an indispensable and important measure for
management of internship activities of cadets in the direction of
competence development. In order to well implement this measure, the
management subjects need: To direct the determination of principles and
the process of inspection and evaluation; Direct the functional agencies
and faculty members to develop criteria and standards for inspection and
evaluation; determine criteria for inspection and evaluation; Well
organize inspection and evaluation activities to ensure the nature,
objectivity, reliability and comprehensiveness.
4.2. Surveying the necessity and feasibility of the proposed
measures
4.2.1. General problems of surveying
* Purpose of surveying: To confirm the necessity and feasibility
of measures in management of internship activities of cadets in the
direction of competence development. Thereby completing the measures
to suit the reality


22
* Contents and methods of surveying: find out the necessity and
feasibility of measures in management of internship activities of cadets
in the direction of competence development according to proposed
measures. Through surveys by questionnaires, the opinions are ranked as
follows: Very necessary, very feasible: 3 points; necessary: feasible: 2
points; Less necessary, less feasible: 1 point.
4.2.2. Respondents
Include 225 scientists, education management experts,
managers, teachers and internship officers.
4.2.3. Survey results on the necessity and feasibility of the
proposed measures
* Assessing the necessity: the proposed measures have the
evaluation necessity with a general average score of 2.39 and relatively
uniformly.
* Assessing the feasibility: the measures have proposed the
evaluation is highly feasible, with a general average score = 2.38 levels,
variation between measures from 2.29 to 2, 41 is relatively uniform.
* Assessing correlation between the necessity and feasibility of
measures: Through verification by Specrman formula, rs = 0,9 shows
the necessity and feasibility have tight and positive correlation, meaning
that the measures are both necessary and highly feasible.
4.3. Experiment
4.3.1. Organizing experiment
* The purpose of experiment: to verify the scientific hypothesis
and at the same time evaluate the effectiveness of management of
internship activities of cadets in the direction of competence
development. Due to legal conditions, the author only experimented the
method of "Direct the renewal of the mode of organizing internship
activities according to an appropriate and scientific process with
orientations for competence development" in order to improve quality of
management of internship activities of cadets.
* Experimental hypothesis: It is possible to improve the ability
of cadets to perform their assigned responsibilities and tasks at military
officers-training colleges via internship activities if applying the
following measures: "Direct the renewal of the mode of organizing
internship activities according to an appropriate and scientific process
with orientations for competence development”.
* Subjects and institution: Internship activities of cadets of 3rd
Battalion, School of Political Officers.
* Experiment method: Experiment with control.
* Experiment procedure: Step 1, prepare for experiment; Step 2,
conduct experiment; Step 3, finish experiment


23

* Experiment period: from 2/2018 to 7/2018.
4.3.2. Process and analyze experiment results
From the results, between test class and control class,
mathematic statistics were used to test the mean value of the two classes
with results obtained in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1. Compare the mean value of expression capacity of
the test and control classes after testing
The mean value (
)
Test class
Control class
capacity expression level
after testing
1 Pretty good
40.4
33.4
2 Normal
52.0
50.3
3 Weak
7.6
16.3
Compared to the results of the pre-test survey, it is shown that
the level of expression of cadet’s capacity in test class and control class
has increased. However, in test class: The rate of "Pretty good" increased
higher than before testing; the "average" rate increased not much,
especially the "weak" rate significantly reduced. As for the control class,
the "Pretty" rate also increased but not high, the "Average" rate increased
insignificantly, the "Weak" rate also decreased but not much.
To test if the increase in test class is statistically significant or
not? Reliable or not? The thesis has used inspection quantity (t) to test.
The results show that:
Test mean value of Pretty good (40,3 and 33,4) of the two
classes, then t> t α (because 9,408> 2,110)
Test mean value of Normal (52.0 and 50.3) results obtained t> t
α (because 2,420> 2,110)
Test mean value of Weak (7.6 and 16.3) results obtained t (because - 12,572 <2,110)
The results of the above test confirm the proven hypothesis.
Then, draw out the proposed measures that positively affect the
effectiveness of management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development.
Conclusion of Chapter 4
The proposed measures to manage internship activities of cadets
at military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development have a dialectical and close relationship. Test results show
No.


24
that the proposed measures are highly appreciated both in terms of
necessity and feasibility. Test results have proven management
measures: "Direct the renewal of the mode of organizing internship
activities according to an appropriate and scientific process with
orientations for competence development", in accordance with reality,
contributing to improving the quality and effectiveness of competence
development in performing responsibilities and duties of cadets at
military officers-training colleges with their internship activities at
grassroots units. That allows affirming the application of measures to
manage internship activities of cadets at military officers-training
colleges in the direction of competence development.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusions
1.1. From an overview of the researches related to the thesis
topic and identifying the issues that need further solutions, the author has
supplemented and developed the theoretical basis of the internship
activities, management of internship activities of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in the direction of competence development.
1.2. The thesis conducted surveys and assessment of the current
situation of internship activities, management of internship activities; the
impact level of factors affecting the management of internship activities
of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction of
competence development. From there , specify advantages, limitations
and causes; opportunities and challenges as a basis for proposing
measures to manage internship activities of cadets at military officerstraining colleges in the direction of competence development.
1.3. From the results of theoretical and practical research, the
thesis proposed 5 measures to manage internship activities of cadets at
military officers-training colleges in the direction of competence
development: Educate to awareness and responsibility for managers
management of internship activities in the direction of competence
development; Develop plans of internship activities in the direction of
competence development; Direct the renewal of the mode of organizing
internship activities according to an appropriate and scientific process
with orientations for competence development; Ensure the conditions to
improve the quality of internship; Direct the renewal of methods in
inspecting and evaluating results of internship activities of cadets in the
direction of competence development. Measures to manage internship
activities of cadets at military officers-training colleges in the direction
of competence development have a dialectical and close relationship.
1.4. The thesis tested the necessity and feasibility of the
measures proposed and tested 01 measure, results allow to confirm that
the proposed measures ensure the necessity and feasibility, possibly to be


25

deployed in the practice of managing manage internship activities of
cadets at military officers-training colleges.
2. Recommendations
2.1. For the Ministry of Defense
Develop and promulgate new regulations on internship activities
for cadets at military officers-training colleges to meet the current
theoretical and practical development requirements, creating a legal
basis for military officers-training colleges to implement.
Build and issue documents stipulating the coordination
mechanism between military officers-training colleges and the grassroots
units where cadets practice; clarify duties, responsibilities, rights and
obligations of the parties involved in the process of organizing internship
activities for cadets at military officers-training colleges.
Study, supplement and complete documents guiding the military
officers-training colleges to organize internship activities for cadets in
the direction of competence development.
2.2. For military officers-training colleges
Review and innovate training contents and programs according
to competence development orientation; study to change method of
internship activities as proposed by the thesis.
Promulgate new regulations and documents guiding internship
activities for cadets in the direction of competence development;
determine the principles, process of content, criteria, methods of testing
and evaluating internship activities of cadets in the direction of
competence development.
Strengthen the organization of training and fostering courses for
managers, teachers, staff, cadets such as internship objectives, internship
contents, methods of examining and evaluating results of internship
activities of cadets in the direction of competence development.
2.3. For internship units
Clearly define the responsibilities and obligations of the units in
accepting cadets coming for internship, create conditions for cadets to have
good opportunities to perform their duties and tasks in the position; assign
staff with good professional skills to guide cadets in internship activities.
Closely coordinate with the military officers-training colleges,
adjust the work plan and schedule when proposing the change from one
time at the end of the course to two times during the course.
Implement the regulations of military officers-training colleges
in innovating management of internship activities in the direction of
competence development.


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