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Đối chiếu thuật ngữ dầu khí tiếng anh việt tt tiếng anh

VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

NGUYEN THI THU HA

A CONTRAST OF PETROLEUM TERMS
IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE

Major: Comparative and Contrastive Linguistics
Major Code: 9222024

A SUMMARY OF DOCTOR THESIS ON LINGUISTICS

HA NOI - 2019


This dissertation is completed at:

VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
VIỆN NGÔN NGỮ HỘC VIỆN KHOA HỌC XÁC HỘI

VIỆT NAM
Supervisors: Assoc.Prof. Dr. Pham Hung VietNg
uyễn Văn Khang
Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Khang
Reviewer 2: Prof. Dr. Do Viet Hung
Reviewer 3: Assoc.Prof. Dr. Ho Ngoc Trung

This dissertation is presented to the Academy-Level Dissertation
Examination Committee at Vietnam Academy of Social Science,
477 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi

The dissertation can be found at
- National Library of Vietnam
- Library of Social Science Academy 2018


INTRODUCTION
1. The importance of the research
In the process of global integration and development, the
requirement to use English effectively in learning, communication and other
scientific fields is very important. In this situation, English is also considered
a prerequisite for petroleum industry workers. The activities of the petroleum
industry not only use common words but also use words that identify
concepts, symbols, categories, phenomena ..., that is terminology However,
the initial survey showed that many Vietnamese terms have not yet achieved
the accuracy of the concept, many terms, which were borowed from foreign
language, are used with many different variants that have not been
standardized, or existed in English language but not in Vietnamese
language... Therefore, the requirement to improve and gradually develop the
Vietnamese scientific terminology system to match the general standards of
the world to meet all the activities as well as to promote the integration
process is a necessary task and should be implemented.
2.1. Research goals.
The thesis aims to clarifie the structural and nomination characteristics of the
petroleum terms (PT) systems in English and Vietnamese. On that basis, the
thesis identifies the similarities and differences between the PT systems in the
two languages as well as find out the points to consider when building
Vietnamese PT.
2.2. Research missions.
To achieve this goal, the thesis focuses on the following tasks: Establish a
theoretical views on terminology and linguistics, thereby establishing a
theoretical foundation for the research; Define the structural and nomination
characteristics of PT in English and Vietnamese; Compare the structural


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characteristics of PT between English and Vietnamese; Compare the nomination
characteristics of PT between English and Vietnamese; Directions and solutions
to build and standardize Vietnamese PT.
3. Subjects and scope of research
3.1. Subjects
The research subjects of the thesis are 4190 English-language PT and their
respective 4190 Vietnamese-language counterparts, collected according to the
criteria of English-Vietnamese Petroleum Dictionary.
3.2. Scope of the research
Compare the structural characteristics, the nomination characteristics of PT
between English and Vietnamese, and directions and solutions to build and
standardize Vietnamese PT.
4. Research Methodology
To perform this study, we used the following research methods: description
method,

comparison

method, direct component

analysis, statistics

and

classification.
5. The contribution
The thesis can be considered as the first research project in Vietnam to
systematically and comprehensively study the basic characteristics of
petroleum terminology in English and Vietnamese on the structure and
nomination. Based on the research results, the thesis has proposed specific
directions and measures to build and standardize PT in Vietnamese PT.
6. Composition of the thesis
In addition to the Introduction, Conclusion, Reference List, Appendix, the
thesis consists of 4 chapters as follows: 1) Chapter 1: Overview of research
status; 2) Chapter 2: Basic theory; 3) Chapter 3: Compare the structural


3
characteristics of PT between English and Vietnamese; 4) Chapter 4: Compare
the nomination characteristics of PT between English and Vietnamese.
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH STATUS
1.1. The study of terminology in the world and in Vietnam
1.1.1. The study of terminology in the world
Except the very famous European-American linguists such as Eugen
WUSTER - an Austrian linguist, Alfred Schlomann - German scholar,
Ferrdinand de Saussure (Switzerland) and E. Dresen (Russia), R.W. Brown
(USA), J.C. Boulanger (England), W.E. Flood (USA), J.C. Segen (USA), thể
are many famous Soviet linguists such as: A.S. gerd, B.N.Golovin,
S.V.Grinev, A.A. Reformatskij, V.P. Danilenko, V.M. Leichik ... Their
studies contribute significantly not only to the preparation of written
instructions for compiling terminologies to build documents, to revise the
terminology system later on the whole world, but also to the basis for many
later studies.
1.1.2. The study of terminology in Vietnam

Compared to Western countries, the terms in Vietnam appears later. It is
until the beginning of the twentieth century, the research and construction of
terms have been noticed. Pioneering, in this area, can be mentioned as Duong
Quang Ham, Nguyen Ung or Nguyen Trieu Luat. In the following period,
there were Hoang Xuan Han (1948), Vo Xuan Trang (1977), Luu Van Lang
(1977), Nguyen Duc Dan (1977); Hoang Trong Pha (1985), ... The recent
works of Nguyen Duc Ton, and in some specific fields such as
telecommunications and financial informatics Ha Quang Nang have been
discussed the construction issues and standardize Vietnames PT, along with
the doctoral dissertations that research on building and standardizing the
terminology, health, music, ...


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Thus, in Vietnam, the reaserch on terminology has mainly discussed the
standards, the medthods, the borowings, the transcriptions, … some recent
studies have focused on the contrast of term.
1.2. The study of PT in English and in Vietnamese
1.2.1. The study of PT in English

The English PT is built on a heterogeneous model, is the result of a
interaction between a number of areas of human knowledge. These include
the terms geology, geophysics, geochemistry, drilling terms, economic terms,
etc. There have been a number of studies on some aspects of English PT
under the theoretical aperspectives [92], [110], [115], [116], ... Besides,
there are a series of Ennglish –English petroleum specialized dictionaries
were born with online dictionary products, petroleum websites, .
1.2.2. The study of PT in Vietnamese
Through surveys, we’ve found no in-depth study of PT from the theoretical
approach that points out the advantages and disadvantages. In Vietnam, the main
achievements on the petroleum only have dictionaries, software geological
dictionaries, geodetic dictionaries, GIS, …
CHAPTER 2: BASIC THEORY .
2.1. Basic theory of terminology and petroleum terminology
2.1.1 The concept of "terminology"
On the basis of terminology, we agree with the view of Nguyen Thien Giap
on the concept of terminology: "Terminology is the special part of a language. It
consists of fixed words and phrases which are the exact names of concepts and
objects belonging to the fields of human expertise. " [9].
2.1.2. Distinguish terminology and some related concepts
2.1.2.1. Terminology and scientific nomenclature
1.2.2.2. Terminology and job vocabulary
2.1.3. Stantards of terminology


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It can be seen that researchers give a lot of criteria for the term, but in thí
thesis, they can be generalized into standards: scientific, international, and
national.
2.1.4. Structure of terminology
According to Lê Khả Kế, there are two basic methods to put the term,
namely:
a) Terminologizarion from common words based on Vietnamese language
In essence, it is the path that allows the movement of the meaning of
words to create terms. “This movement may not lead to the transformation or
transformation, the ordinary word is narrowed to the scope of the activity or
is transferred from one field to another with diferent views” [13, p.26-28].
By the this way, there are many words in daily life that participate in creating
scientific terms which are easy-to-remember, easy-to-use, maintain the
nationality and also contribute to enrich Vietnamese vocabulary.
b) Borowing from foreign terms
The borrowing, according to common understanding, is a form of
transferring foreign terms into Vietnamese [10, p.39]. In the process of
developing and enriching the Vietnamese terms, the borrowing from foreign
terms is inevitable. The advantage of these terms is to ensure the
internationality in terms of morphology and semantics. In fact, the foreign
terms are adopted into Vietnamese based on the following ways: replicate,
transcribe and remain.
2.1.5. Composition of terminology
In this thesis, we call the structural unit of the PT as a term component
(referred to as a component) and agree with the view that the component of
PT is a morpheme if the PT is a word; is a word or phrase if the PT term is a
compund word. The term component is the last structural unit of the term
petroleum which indicate a concept or a criteria of concepts in the petroleum


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field. Thus, each and every element participating in the building of PT has
meaning.
2.1.6. Petroleum term and its criterion
2.1.6.1. The concept of petroleum term
Based on the concept of terminolgy, we, in this thesis, define: Petroleum
terms are words, phrases used in the industry to express concepts, properties,
objects, phenomena, subjects ... in the field of petroleum including (1)
Exploration; (2) Exploiting; (3) Processing; (4) Technical support và (5)
petroleum economy.
2.1.6.2. Criteria for identifying petroleum term
Based on the references [56, 58 and 59] and having an adjustment to suit
the subjects and scope of the thesis, 04 criteria to identify Enflish and
Vietnames PT are established: (1) In terms of composition, components
should have a close relationship with each other, in which each component
has a specific function to form the term; (2) In terms of meaning, the
components must have a specification of the concept; (3) In terms of
functions, terminology is a unit of nomination so that petroleum term must be
a word or a phrase; and (4) In terms of scope of use, the English and
Vietnamese PT must be a part of words used to express the concepts or the
subjects in the petroleum field.
2.1.6.2. Petroleum term areas

Petroleum term is devided into 05 main areas beased on the criteria and
strategy

development

of

petroleum

industry,

exploitation, processing, technical support, economy.
2.1.7. Terminology and theorical nomination
2.1.7.1. The concept of nomination
2.1.7.2. The process and unit of nimination
2.2. Basic theory on the comparative study of language

namely

exploration,


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This thesis is based on the rules of comparative research of the author Bui
Manh Hung [17, p. 131-146] and adapt to the content of the thesis.
2.3. Summary
In this chapter, the thesis has presented the concept, the features of
terminology, the difference between terminology and some related concepts,
the methods and the composition of term, and address the concept of
petroleum terminology, criteria to identify petroleum term with 5 petroleum
term areas. In addition, the basic principles in comparision has also been
mentioned as a basic of comparision between English and Vietnamese PT.
CHAPTER 3: COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION AND WORD TYPING
OF PETROLEUM TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE

3.2. Construction of English and Vietnamese terminologies
3.2.1. Structure of English terminologies
English PT is divided into 4 categories depending on the number of
morphemes and components: a) English PT that are single words, example: oil
(dầu), drill (khoan).... b) English PT that are derived words, (i) The derived
words with prefix/ suffix,

example: driller (thợ khoan),… (ii) Blend/

appreciation, example LFO (Light Fuel Oil – Dầu nhiên liệu nhẹ),.... c)
English PT that are compound words, example: brainstorm (thợ khoan),…
d)English PT that are word combination. If only considering structural form,
the terminoloy that is word combination is a phrase consisting of a central
component along with other sub-components, example: formation oil ratio (tỉ số
dầu của vỉa),…
3.2.2. Structure of Vietnamese terminology:
Vietnamese PT are: a) single words, example: dầu, khí, khoan, etc... b)
compound words: example: tháo gỡ, van dẫn, ...


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Vietnamese PT are composed of phrases: the components are usually
composed a primary component and one ore more sub-components, example:
dầu trưởng thành (mature oil), giàn khoan nhiều cấu kiện (modular rig), ...
3.3. The contrast of a number of components in English and Vietnamese
petroleum terminology
3.3.1. The number of components in English and Vietnames PT
English

Number of
components

Number of
Terms

Vietnamese

Percent%

Number

Number of

of Terms

Terms

1 component

305

7.28

71

1.69

2 components

3363

80.26

2488

59.38

3 components

336

8.02

1145

27.33

4 components

49

1.17

354

8.45

5 components

3

0.07

111

2.65

6 components

0

0

18

0.43

7 components

0

0

3

0.07

Abbreviation

134

3.20

0

0

Total

4190

100%

4190

100%

3.3.2. The similarities and diferences of PT in English and Vietnamese
Both of English PT and Vietnamese PT are composed of one to many
components, the number of terms that are composed of two components has the
highest proportion in both terminology systems, (80.26% in English and 59.38%
in Vietnamese).
However, some of the biggest differences between these two
terminologies are that the English PT system has a short structure, with 3363


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terms composed of two components, the number of terms having three, four
elements only accounts for 9.19% with 385 terms and only 3 terms with 5
components. Meanwhile, the number of terms that are composed of three
components in Vietnamese is nearly higher three and half times than in
English, not to mention the number of terms that has a brief composition
with one conponent accounts for a very small with 1.69% compared to
7.28% of the group of terms with equivalent structure in English. In addition,
the terms that are composed of four and five components also account for a
small proportion (9.1%), along with the terms that are composed for six and
seven components make Vietnamese PT system tend to describe, loose in
composition and lack of briefness compared to English PT system,
3.4. Word typing of petroleum terms in English and Vietnamese

3.4.1. Petroleum terms composed of one component
3.4.1.1. English PT: The number of English PT composed of one component
is 305/4190 terms. Of these, 127 are single words (3.03%), for example:
barel (thùng), core (lõi),…; 178 terms are derived words (accounting for
4.25%), example: geophone (máy thu địa chấn), cementer (thợ tráng xi
măng), …
2.3.1.2. Vietnamese PT: The number of Vietnamese PT composed of one
component is 71, accounting for 1.69%. All of these terms are single words,
in which 59 are nouns, accounting for 1.41%, example: dầu, trục, lõi ,… 11
are verbs, accounting for 0.26%, example: khoan, trám, bơm,…; 01 thuật are
adjectives, accounting for 0.02%, example: vênh …
3.4.2. Petroleum terms composed of two components
3.4.2.1. English PT: The number of English PT composed of two
components is 3363, accounting for 80.26%. There are 44 terms that are
compound words, accounting for 1.04%, example: traveltime (đường


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truyền), sandstone (cát kết),… There are 3106 terms that are noun phrases,
accounting for 74.13%, example: expendable well (giếng khoan mở rộng),
barge engineer (kỹ sư tàu khoan)…. There are 206 terms that are verb
phrases, accounting for 4.92%, example: geochemical prospecting (thăm dò
địa hóa), …. The number of terms that are adjective phrases is very small,
there are 07 adjective phrases, 0.17%, example: marginal allowable (lượng
sản xuất cho phép), …
3.4.2.2. Vietnamese PT: the number of Vietnamese PT composed of two
component is 2488, accounting for 59.38%. In which, terms that are
coordinate compound phrases account for the greatest proportion, with 1663
(39.69%), the second is coordinate compound words with 816 (accounting
for 19.47%), and the lowest belongs to primary-second compound words,
with 9 (accounting for 0.21%), example: tuần hoàn dưới nước, bơm chân
không, bơm lại, giếng khô, tháo gỡ, đứt gãy, …
3.4.3. Petroleum terms composed of three components
3.4.3.1. English PT: In the total of 336 English PT composed of 3
components, 319 are noun phrases, accounting for 7.86%; 17 are verb
phrases, accounting for 0.41%. Example: area rate clause (điều khoản tỷ
suất vùng), condensing gas drive (kích thích bằng khí ngưng), …
3.4.3.2. Vietnamese PT: In the total of 1145 Vietnames PT composed of 3
components, There are 963 are noun phrases, accounting for 22.98%, 172 are
verb phrases, accounting for 4.10%, and 10 are adjective phrases, accounting
for 0.24%.
3.4.4 Petroleum terms composed of four components
3.4.4.1. English PT: There are 49 English PT composed of four
components and all are noun phrases, accounting for 1.17%, example: net


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operating profts interest (lợi nhuận điều hành thực), associated gas well
allowable (lượng khí kết hợp được phép khai thác), …
3.4.4.2. Vietnamese PT: There are 354 Vietnamese PT, accounting for
8.45%, in which 290 are noun phrases (6.92%), 62 are verb phrases (1.48%),
and 02 are adjective phrases, example: người phụ trách công tác xi măng,
tập hợp hệ thống trầm tích cùng thời, chênh lệch độ sâu chiều thẳng đứng,..
3.4.5 Petroleum terms composed of five components
3.4.5.1. English PT: There are only 03 out of 4190, accounting for 0.07%,
example: seventy-two hour continuous efforts clause (Điều khoản 72h),
deeper drilling dry hole costs (chi phí khoan sâu hơn giếng khoan khô), ...
3.4.5.2. Vietnamese PT: There are 111, accounting for 2.65%, in which there
are 96 are noun phrases (2.29%) and 15 are verb phrases (0.36%), example:
tăng cường thu hồi dầu bằng vi khuẩn, thiết bị khoan có động cơ máy phát,

3.4.6. Petroleum terms composed of six and seven components
3.4.6.1. English PT: There is no Enflish PT composed of six and seven
components
3.4.6.2. Vietnamese PT: There are 21 composed of six and seven
components, accounting for 0.05%, and all of them are noun phrases,
example: dụng cụ kiểm tra thiết bị bảo hiểm chống phun dầu, phương pháp
định tỷ lệ sản xuất theo độ sâu, mũi khoan lấy mẫu có ống bọc bằng cao su,
v.v…
3.4.7. Petroleum Acronyms
Through the survey of PT in the two languages, we found that the
abbreviation method exists only in English PT, not in Vietnamese PT. In
total of 4190 English PT surveyed, there were 134 acronyms, accounting for


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3.20%, for example: BFL - Barrels of fluid, BLED - Bleeding oil, C & R Cellar and pits, BMUD - Barrels of mud, v.v …
3.4.8. The similarities and differences in composition and word types of
English and Vietnamese petroleum terms
The composition: Is created by the same popular method, most of them
are coordinate compounds. There are single words, compound words and
phrases in both PT systems; in which nouns, compound nouns and noun
phrases are mainly. The biggest difference between the two PT systems is
that, along with the compound method, the adding additives and abbreviation
methods are used in English, not used in Vietnamese. In addition, the PT
system has two components made up of phrases such as phrasal verbs,
adjectives and nouns, while, in addition to creating terms that have two
components as in English, Vietnamese PT are also made up of compound
words, including the coordinate compound and the primary-second
compound.
The word types: Both of them are composed of nouns / noun phrases,
adjectives / adjectives, verbs / verb phrases. The number of terms is nouns
and noun phrases in both terminology systems with the highest proportion,
English has 3805 terms (90.81%) and Vietnamese with 3606 terms (86.06%),
the terms are verbs and verb phrases, adjectives and adjectives account for a
very small proportion. However, the biggest difference between these two
terminology systems is the English PT has the acronym form (with 134
words, accounting for 3.20%) but is not available in the Vietnamese PT. In
addition, the number of terms is verbs and verb phrases, adjectives and
adjectives in English PT less than in Vietnamese PT.
3.5. Structure models of English and Vietnamese petroleum terminology


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We denote T as a component of the term; T1 is the first component, T2 is
the second component, and Tn is the nth component. Results of studying
4190 terms indicate that the Vietnamese and English PT are mainly
constructed from the following typical models.
3.5.1. Structure models of English petroleum terminology
3.5.1.1. Structure models of the two components in English PT
Model 1:

T1

T2

There are 3219/4190 PT formed by this model, accounting for 76.82%.
Example: active well (giếng hoạt động), adjustable choke (van điều tiết), …
Model 2:

T1

T2

There are 144/4190 units, accounting for 3.44%. Example: Lap of wire = lớp
bọc cát, summation of fluids = phép cộng chất lưu, …
3.5.1.2. Structure models of the three components in English PT
Model 3:

T1

T2

T3

There are 148 English PT formed by this model, accounting for 3.53%.
Example: gas production unit (xưởng sản xuất khí), crude oil analysis (phân
tích dầu thô),…
Model 4:

T1

T3

T

There are 182/4190 units, accounting for 4.34%. Example: unstablized crude
oil (dầu mỏ không ổn định), inhibited drilling fluid (dung dịch khoan ức
chế), …
Model 5:

T1

T2

T3


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There are 06 English PT formed by this model, accounting for 0.14%. Example:
proration of depth-bracket met (phương pháp định tỉ lệ theo độ sâu), rate of
take provision (điều khoản về tốc độ lấy khí), …
3.5.1.3. Structure models of the four components in English PT
Model 6:

T1

T2

T3

T4

There are 16/4190 units, accounting for 0.38%. Example: Low temperature
separation unit (thiết bị tách rời ở nhiệt độ thấp), …
Model 7:

T1

T2

T3

T4

There are 10 English PT formed by this model, accounting for 0.24%.
Example: retrievable hollow carrier gun (súng khoan nổ mìn thu hồi được),..
Model 8:
T1

T2

T3

T4

There are 05 units, accounting for 0.12%. Example: compensated dual
resitivity log (log điện trở bù kép), asscocated gas well allowable (lượng khí
kết hợp được phép khai thác), …
Model 9:
T1

T2

T3

T4

There are 18 units, accounting for 0.34%. Example: net operating profits
interest (lợi nhuận điều hành thực), daily mud check report (báo cáo kiểm tra
bùn hàng ngày), …
3.5.1.4. Structure models of the five components in English PT


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Model 10:
T1

T2

T4

T3

T5

T4

There are 03 English PT formed by this model, accounting for 0.07%.
Example: seventy-two hour continuous efforts clause = điều khoản 72h,
phoelectric absorption cross section index = chỉ số hấp thụ điện tiết kiệm
quang điện, …
3.5.2. Structure models of Vietnamese petroleum terminology
3.5.2.1. Structure models of the two components in Vietnamese PT
Model 11:

T1

T2

There are 16 Vietnamese PT formed by thí model, accounting for 0.38%.
Example:: tiềm năng mỏ, liên kết giếng, …
Model 12:

T1

T2

There are 2472 units, acccounting for 58.60%, Example: đầu nối, ống dẫn,
bơm nhỏ,…
3.5.2.2. Structure models of the three components in Vietnamese PT
Model 13:

T1

T2

T3

There are 865 Vietnames PT formed by this model, accounting for 20.64%.
Example: máy thu phát âm thanh, thăm dò địa chấn cấp tốc, …
Model 14:

T1

T2

T3

There are 232 units, accounting for 5.54%. Example: biểu đồ chỉ số sản xuất,
hệ thống định vị kép …


16
Model 15:

T1

T3

T2

There are 48 Vietnames PT formed by this model, accounting for 1.15%.
Example: bơm trám xi măng, thợ khoan non tay nghề,…
3.5.2.3. Structure models of the four components in Vietnamese PT
Model 16:

T1

T3

T2

T4

There are 123/4190 units, accounting for 2.93%. Example: người giám sát
thiết bị khoan, người điều hành thiết bị log, …
Model 17:

T1

T4

T3

T2

There are 202 units, accounting for 4.82%. Example: hiệu chỉnh đới vận tốc
thấp, tập hợp hệ thống trầm tích cùng thời,...
Model 18:

T1

T4

T3

T2

There 29 Vietnames PT formed by thí model, accounting for 0.69%.
Example: nhân viên điều khiển thiết bị nặng, sàn giao dịch xăng dầu quốc tế,
v.v...
3.5.2.4. Structure models of the five components in Vietnamese PT
Model 19:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

There are 15 units, accounting for 0.36%. Example: nhân viên theo dõi sản
xuất để đóng thuế, tăng cường thu hồi dầu bằng vi khuẩn, v.v…


17
Model 20:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

There are 60/4190 units, accounting for 1.43%. Example: cơ cấu nâng cụm
nắp bít an toàn, dầu nhiên liệu chứa lưu huỳnh cao,…
Model 21:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

There are 36/4190 units, accounting for 0.86%. Example: thiết bị ghi tốc độ
cơ học khoan, người phân tích hợp đồng thuê đất, …
3.5.2.5. Structure models of the six components in Vietnamese PT
Model 22:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

There are 10/4190 units, accounting for 0.24%. Example: phương pháp xác
định độ sâu theo ngày lịch thực tế, bình tách nằm ngang trong dòng chảy
thẳng đứng, v.v…
Model 23:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

There are 08 Vietnames PT formed by this model, accounting for 0.19%.
Example: thời gian truyền sóng biểu kiến trong khung đá, phương pháp định
tỉ lệ sản xuất theo độ sâu, …
3.5.2.6. Structure models of the seven components in Vietnamese PT
Model 24:

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7


18
There are 03 units, accounting for 0.07%. Example: dụng cụ kiểm tra thiết bị
bảo hiểm chống phun dầu,…
3.5.3. The similarities and differences in structural model of English and
Vietnamese petroleum terms
Of the 24 structural models, English PT are formed by 10 models, while
Vietnamese PT are formed by 14 models. In English, the models of
compound words or compound phrases, the order of components follow the
English grammar rules, which the primary component often goes behind the
secondary component which has the role to modify the primary component
by expressing the basic nature or characteristics of the primary conponent.
On the contrary, Vietnames PT follows the Vietnamese grammatical rules,
the primary component is usually preceded, the following is the secondary
component which modifies for the primary component, the model No. 12 is a
model that clearly demonstrates this grammatical characteristic in
Vietnamese and also is conssistent with Vietnamese conception.
3.6. Summary
In terms of number of components, Compared to the Vietnames PT,
the English PT has brief with the 05 components (maximum), and has only
03 term, while Vitenamese has 07 components (maximum). In terms of
word type, both of these two term systems are mainly nouns, and nouns
phrases. In terms of composition, there are single words, derived words,
acronyms, compound words and phrases in English PT. Vietnames PT has
single words, compound words and phrases; In terms of model, English PT
are formed by 10 models, Vietnamese PT are primarily formed by 14
models.


19
CHAPTER 4: COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION AND
NOMINATION OF PETROLEUM TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH AND
VIETNAMESE
4.1. Construction of English and Vietnames petroleum terminology
4.1.1. Terminology from common words based on Vietnamese language
According to the survey, there are 735 out of 4190 English PT formed by
this method, accounting for 17.54% and 454 Vietnamese PT, accoutning for
10.83%. Most of them tend to narow their meaning.
4.1.2. Borrowing
4.1.2.1. English PT
Except petroleum terms which have English origin, there are 869
petroleum terms, accountign for 20.74%, coming from different languages
like Latin, German, French, Holland, Greek, …
4.1.2.2. Vietnamese PT
a) Replication: Approximaetly 88% formed this method, in which 1933
petroleum terms are structural replication, accounting for 46.13%, example:
black oil (dầu đen), coal oil (dầu than), …. 1753 petroleum terms are meaning
replication, accounting for 41.48%, example: run ticket (phiếu ghi lượng dầu
chuyển đi) …
b) Transcription: There are 55 Vietnames PT borowed from foreign languages
by this method, accounting for 1.31%. They are read and written by different
ways, example: cheque – séc, bunker – bunke, …
c) Remain: There are 57 petroleum term, accounting for 1.36%. example:
Nodal, laterolog, Aquagel, …
4.1.3. Acronym
This onnly appears in English petroleum term, with 134 terms, accounting for
3.19%. Example: ACDA: Actual calendar day allowance (mức khai thác theo ngày


20
lịch thực tế), LSF oil: Low sulfur fuel oil (dầu nhiên liệu chứa lưu huỳnh thấp),

4.2. Petroleum terminology nomination
4.2.1. Nomination by semantic
Based on the survey results of PT in two languages, we found that
Vietnamese and English PT can be divided into two categories: direct name of
concept and indirect name of subject nominated in PT.
4.2.2. Nomination by expression
In terms of expression, we divide the terms surveyed into two categories: 1)
the first has simple form as single words (từ đơn) consists of terms with one
component, defining objects, phenomenons, processes, basic characteristics of
mechanical engineering; 2) the second was created based on the first consists of
words formed by 2 or more components, defining objects, phenomenons,
processes, characteristics accurately, in details.
4.3.Nomination model of petroleum terminology
Through study, we found that five distinct features were chosen to identify
the group of petroleum terms inclduing: (1) Exploration; (2) Exploiting; (3)
Processing; (4) Technical support và (5) petroleum economy.
4.3.1. Petreoleum terms in exploration
Model 1: Terms refer to the feature of documents
English
feature + map/ log

Vietnmaese
map/ log + characteristics

Model 2: Terms refer to the feature/ property of tools
English
features/ property + gun/
barier

Vietnmaese
gun/ barier/ box+ feature/
property

Model 3: Terms refer to the form/ way of testing/surveying


21
English

Vietnmaese

form/ way + survey/ test

survey/ test + forms/ ways

Model 4: Terms refer to the topographic features
English
feature + well/zone/area

Vietnmaese
well/zone/area + feature

Model 5: Terms refer to the types of methods
English
types + trap/ core/ sample

Vietnmaese
trap/ core/ sample + types

Model 6: Terms refer to the feature of time in the process of exploration
English
feature + time

Vietnmaese
time + feature

Model 7: Terms refer to the nature of work
English
Nature of work + geologist

Vietnmaese
geologist + nature of work

4.3.2. Petreoleum terms in exploiting
Model 1: Terms refer to the types of names of equipments
English
types + machine/ pipe/ pump/
unit/ wheel/ tree ….

Vietnmaese
machine/ pipe/ pump/ unit/
wheel/ tree … + types

Model 2: Terms refer to the ways/ forms of implementation
English
way/form + completion/ flood/
drilling …

Vietnmaese
completion/ flood/ drilling +
way/ form

Model 3: Terms refer to the types of reports and administrative procedures
English
types + report/ program

Vietnmaese
report/ program + types

Model 4: Terms refer to the engineer/ manager’s expertise
English

Vietnmaese


22
expertise + engineer/
manager/ man

engineer/ manager/ man +
expertise

Model 5: Terms refer to the features of topography
English
feature + rating/ deck/ pit

Vietnmaese
rating/ deck/ pit + feature

Model 6: Terms refer to specification
English
specification + compression/
union/ location ….

Vietnmaese
compression/ union/
location ….+ specification

Model 7: Terms refer to working time
English
time + tour

Vietnmaese
tour + time

Model 8: Terms refer to the types/ methods of the implementation
English
type/ method + pumping/
treatment

Vietnmaese
pumping/ treatment + type/
method

Model 9: Terms refer to the names of organization
English
name + contractor/ crew

Vietnmaese
contractor/ crew + name

Model 10: Terms refer to the features/properties of materials
English
feature/property + mud/
fluid/sand/ cement/ oil…..

Vietnmaese
mud/ fluid/sand/ cement/ oil…
+ feature/property

Model 11: Terms refer to the types of loads
English
types + load/ weight

Vietnmaese
load/ weight + types

Model 12: Terms refer to the directions, parameters of the topography and
materials


23
English
topography/material + depth/
sensivity/ factor

Vietnmaese
depth/ sensivity/ factor +
topography/material

Model 13: Terms refer to the types of operating systems
English
type + system

Vietnmaese
system + type

4.3.3. Petreoleum terms in processing
Model 1: Terms refer to the features/ properties of oil/ gas,…
English
feature/ property + oil/ gas

Vietnmaese
oil/ gas + feature/ property

Model 2: Terms refer to the function of materials
English
function + separator/plant

Vietnmaese
separator/plant + function

Model 3: Terms refer to the ways/ forms of the processing
English
ưay/ form + processing/
separation/ cut

Vietnmaese
processing/ separation/ cut +
way/ form

Model 4: Terms refer to the names of the processing units
English
name + unit/ work

Vietnmaese
unit/ work + name

Model 5: Terms refer to the function of pits
English
function + pit

Vietnmaese
pit + function

4.3.4. Petreoleum terms in technical support
Model 1: Terms refer to the types of supporting equipments
English
type + pattern/ spot/ televiewer ..

Vietnmaese
pattern/ spot/ televiewer + type

Model 2: Terms refer to different types of methods in processing
English

Vietnmaese


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