Tải bản đầy đủ

Sử dụng sơ đồ tư duy cải thiện khả năng ghi nhớ từ vựng cho sinh viên năm thứ nhất trường cao đẳng y tế thái nguyên

THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

VU THI HONG NHUNG

USING MIND-MAPPING APPROACH TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’
VOCABULARY MEMORY FOR THE FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS
AT THAI NGUYEN MEDICAL COLLEGE
(Sử dụng sơ đồ tư duy để cải thiện khả năng ghi nhớ từ vựng cho sinh viên năm
thứ nhất Trường Cao đẳng Y tế Thái Nguyên)

M.A. THESIS

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 8220201

THAI NGUYEN – 2018

1



THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

VU THI HONG NHUNG

USING MIND-MAPPING APPROACH TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’
VOCABULARY MEMORY FOR THE FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS
AT THAI NGUYEN MEDICAL COLLEGE
(Sử dụng sơ đồ tư duy để cải thiện khả năng ghi nhớ từ vựng cho sinh viên năm
thứ nhất Trường Cao đẳng Y tế Thái Nguyên)

M.A. THESIS
(APPLICATION ORIENTATION)

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 8220201
Supervisor 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Van Canh
Supervisor 2: Dr. Nguyen Thi Minh Loan

THAI NGUYEN – 2018

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DECLARATION
I certify that the minor thesis entitled “Using mind-mapping approach to
improve students’ vocabulary memory for the first-year students at Thai Nguyen
Medical College” is my own study in the fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree
of Master of Arts at Foreign Language Faculty, Thai Nguyen University.

Signature:

Vu Thi Hong Nhung

Thai Nguyen, 2018.

i


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Thanks to the support of many people, this research has been completed. I would
like to start by expressing my great gratitude to my supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Van
Canh and Dr. Nguyen Thi Minh Loan for their valuable comments, constant support and
encouragement.
I want to give my special thanks to teachers and first-year students of Thai
Nguyen Medical College for their support in my lessons, attendence in tests and response
to my survey questionnaires.
Last but not least, I am truly greatful to my family for their wholehearted care and
support me during the time I conducted the research and encourage me all the time when
I encountered difficulties in completing the thesis.

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ABSTRACT
This thesis was an attempt to explore the application of mind-mapping technique
in teaching and learning vocabulary for the first-year students at Thai Nguyen Medical
College. The thesis began with liturature review on vocabulary teaching and mindmapping approach. Then quasi-experimental design was applied to find out the
improvement of students in retaining vocabulary by using mind-maping technique. A
questionnaire was employed to 70 first-years students at Thai Nguyen medical College
after tests and lessons with and without applying mind-mapping technique to explore the
benefits and difficulties of students in learning vocabulary with mind-mapping
technique. The findings of the research show that mind-mapping technique has been used
in many subjects, and it is also applicable and effective to teach English vocabulary.
Therefore, the technique was suggested to be exploited more in the context of teching
vocabulary for non-English major students at Thai Nguyen Medical College.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Declaration

i

Acknowledgement

ii

Abstract

iii

Table of content

iv

List of tables

vii

List of figures

viii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1

1. Rationale for the study

1

2. Aims of the study

3

3. Scope of the study

4

4. Significance of the study

4

5. Structure of the study

4

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

6

1. Vocabulary and vocabulary learning

6

1.1. Definitions of vocabulary

6

1.2. Kinds of vocabulary

7

1.3. Difficulty of learning vocabulary

9

1.4. Vocabulary retention

10

2. Mind-mapping

11

2.1. Definitions of mind-mapping

11

2.2. The functions of mind-mapping

14

2.3. Classifications of mind-mapping

14

2.4. Advantages of using mind-mapping

17

2.5. Previous studies on using mind-mapping in teaching and learning

19

vocabulary
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

22

1. Research questions

22

2. Methods of research

22

3. Participants

23
iv


4. Data collection

24

4.1. Data collection instruments

24

4.1.1. Vocabulary test

24

4.1.2. Questionnaire

27

4.2. Data collection procedure

28

4.2.1. Pre-test

28

4.2.2. Training

29

4.2.3. Post-test 1

31

4.2.4. Questionnaire

31

5. Data analysis

32

5.1. Test result analysis

32

5.2. Questionnaire analysis

32

CHAPTER IV: FINDING AND DISCUSSION

34

1. Research question 1

34

1.1. The students’ pre-test scores of the experimental and control group

34

1.2. The students’ scores in post – test 1

36

1.3. The students’ scores in post – test 2

39

2. Research question 2

42

3. Discussion

47

CHAPTER V: IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION

51

1. Implications

51

1.1. To the teachers

51

1.2. To the students

51

2. Limitations of the study

52

3. Suggestions for future research

52

4. Conclusion

53

REFERENCE

54

APPENDIXES

I

Appendix A: Vocabulary pre-test

I

Appendix B: Vocabulary post-test 1

III
v


Appendix C: Vocabulary post-test 2

V

Appendix D: Questionnaire for students

VII

Appendix E: Lesson plan for control group

IX

Appendix F: Lesson plan for experimental group

X

Appendix G: Mind-mapping of students in experimental group

XI

Appendix H: The students’ scores and the realibility coefficient of the test

XIV

items in pre-test
Appendix I: The students’ scores and the realibility coefficient of the test

XVII

items in post-test 1
Appendix K: The students’ scores and the realibility coefficient of the test
items in post-test 2

vi

XX


LISTS OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Test description
Table 3.2: Questionnaire description
Table 3.2: Procedure of training
Table 3.4: Conversion of percentage range
Table 4.1: Students’ scores of experimental group in pre-test
Table 4.2: Students’ scores of control group in pre-test
Table 4.3: Students’ scores of experimental group in post-test 1
Table 4.4: Students’ scores of control group in post-test 1
Table 4.5: Students’ scores of experimental group in post-test 2
Table 4.6: Students’ scores of control group in post-test 2
Table 4.7: Mean scores of two groups in vocabulary tests
Table 4.8: Students’ opinions about the benefits of applying mind-mapping technique in
teaching and learning vocabulary
Table 4.9: Students’ opinions about the limitation of applying mind-mapping technique
in teaching and learning vocabulary

vii


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Mind-mapping example 1
Figure 2.2: Mind-mapping example 2
Figure 2.3: Mind-mapping example 3
Figure 2.4: Mind-mapping example 4
Figure 2.5: Mind-mapping example 5
Figure 3.1: Illustration of Pretest – Posttest designs
Figure 3.2: Data collection procedure
Figure 4.1: The comparison between scores in post-test 1 of control and experimental
group.
Figure 4.2: Comparison between pre-test score and post-test 2 score of experimental
group
Figure 4.3: Example 1 of mind-mapping of students in experimental group in the field
“CLOTHES”
Figure 4.4: Example 2 of mind-mapping of students in experimental group in the field
“CLOTHES”
Figure 4.5: Example 3 of mind-mapping of students in experimental group in the field
“ANIMALS”
Figure 4.6: Example 4 of mind-mapping of students in experimental group in the field
“ANIMALS”

viii


CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, the writer presents the rationale, objectives, scopes and the
structure of this study.
1. Rationale of the study
English is an international language so studying English is getting important in
the world communication. There is no language without vocabulary and English is not
an exception. That is the reason why vocabulary is becoming one of the most important
elements of language. Vocabulary plays an essential role in the process of studying
English. While learning English vocabulary, students have difficulties in mastery and
memory, so it is hard for them to understand reading materials, understand other
speaking, given responses, listening and writing materials. In the Depth of Processing
Hypothesis, Craik and Tulving (1975) stated that “the more cognitive energy a person
exerts when manipulating and thinking about a word, the more likely it is that they will
be able to recall and use it later”. Saleh (1997:12) argued, “[…] the success in mastering
a language is determined by the size of the vocabulary one has learned”. However, it was
not only important how many words learned but also how many words remembered. So
knowledge of memory sensory played an important value involving in vocabulary
memory.
Learning new words related to how we understand them and how long we
remember them. There were many factors affecting word retention such as how words
were presented and recycled or word frequency. According to Thornbury (2002: 23),
“the learner needs not only to learn a lot of words, but also to remember them”.
Therefore, memory sensory had important value in learning vocabulary.
In the past, teachers often used the traditional ways to teach vocabulary such as
providing word explanations and repetitive practices. However, that was not a really
effective method. According to Singer, A.J. (2003:39), “teaching is helping learners to
acquire new knowledge or skills. Teaching consisted, mainly, of telling, showing,
guiding the learner in performance tasks and then measuring the results”. So, many

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researchers had given out many methods to help students easily to mastery and memorize
vocabulary. One of the approaches that might be useful in teaching and learning
vocabulary was using mind-mapping. As Buzan (2009:4) stated, “mind-mapping is an
easy way to place information to brain and take information out from brain. Mindmapping was a creative and effective way to write and would map your mind by a simple
way”. In process of memorizing vocabulary students had to use all the right and the left
brain. Right brain was for creativity and visualization. Left brain was for logical and
rational. Mind mapping combined both and became whole-brained. The brain was
inspired by appealing to both the creative and logical side.
According to DePotter and Hernacki as translated into English (2008: 152), “mind
mapping uses visuals reminder and sensory into a pattern from the ideas which are
related”. Mind mapping permitted the students to illustrate their thoughts by categorizing
and grouping into connected ideas. It began with the students’ main topic or the theme
as the central idea and allowed the main branches of mind-mapping to constitute the
main points of their thought then united by the interesting colours and imaged which
would stimulate the brain.
Thornbury (2002: 18) stated that “acquiring a vocabulary requires not only
labeling but categorizing skills. In Thornbury (2002: 144) it was said that “vocabulary
cannot be taught, it can be presented, explained, included in all kind of activities and
experienced in all manner of association, but it is ultimately it is learned by the
individual”. Therefore, mind-mapping teachnique was believed to be used in teaching
and learning vocabulary in order to improve vocabulary retention by classsifying
vocabulary in various strategies. There were no concrete instructions for learning
vocabulary efficiently; however, teachers might apply mind-mapping approach in
teaching vocabulary by using various strategies relating to the main ideas.
A mind-mapping was a visual organizer using a sketch organizer for developing
vocabulary, in which students had to think about terms or concepts in several ways. A
mind-mapping took students on developing a definition, synonyms, antonyms, and a

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graphics for a given vocabulary word or concept. Enriching students’ vocabulary was
important in developing their English skills. Therefore, mind-mapping was expected to
stimulate students’ mastery and be useful for students to memorize vocabulary. It was a
dominant graphic technique which provided a universal key for the potential of the brain
being unlocked.
In Thai Nguyen medical college, English was not a major subject, almost all
students was not good at studying English. They were only required to reach A2 level
(pre-intermediate level) until graduation. Traditional technique – English – Vietnamese
translation was a major technique which most of teachers at Thai Nguyen Medical
College had used in vocabulary lessons. They also applied power point with pictures in
teaching vocabulary, but students only got passive from the teachers. They were not
practiced with those words and those words did not make impression on them, therefore
vocabulary memory ability of students was not good. If learners had limited vocabulary,
they had to face many difficulties in learning foreign language. So it was necessary to
apply a new and effective technique to improve students’ vocabulary memory.
For all reason above paving the way for the researcher to study on using mindmapping approach to improve students’ vocabulary memory in expect that the study
could be contribute to teaching and learning vocabulary for the freshmen. The writer
aimed to explore the influence and effectiveness of applying mind-mapping approach in
teaching and learning vocabulary in order to improve students’ retention of English
vocabulary. Then this research targeted at introducing mind-mapping as a technique to
teaching and learning vocabulary for the first-year students at Thai Nguyen medical
college. And the writer aspired that this study would give a contribution in the
educational side to the development of language teaching and learning about vocabulary
by applying mind-mapping technique.

2. Aims of the study

3


This study aimed to explore the influence of mind-mapping technique on
students’ retention of English vocabulary. The study targeted at introducing mindmapping as a technique in teaching and learning vocabulary to improve vocabulary
retention for the first-year students at Thai Nguyen medical college.
There were two research questions based on the aims of the study, they were:
1) To what extent does the use of mind-mapping help students to retain vocabulary?
2) What are the limitations of mind-mapping in vocabulary learning?
3. Scope of the study
The study limited itself to the exploration of the influence of mind-mapping
techniques on students’ word retention within the context of teaching and learning
English as a minor subject at Thai Nguyen Medical College.
The study was conducted on the 70 first-year students at Thai Nguyen Medical
College. Due to the fixed curriculum and limited time, the study was carried out on the
second semester of school year 2017 – 2018.
4. Significance of the study
Essentially, the practical consideration of the research was the significance of the
expected research. Hence, the result of this study was expected to be useful to the
teachers, the students and the researcher in using mind-mapping in teaching and learning
vocabulary.
The research was expected to explore and prove the effectiveness of applying
mind-mapping technique in teaching and learning English vocabulary. Therefore,
teachers and students at Thai Nguyen Medical College would conduct the teaching and
learning activities more effectively.
English teachers at Thai Nguyen Medical College were looked forward to
increasing their strategy in teaching vocabulary and the writer aspired that this study
would give a contribution in the educational side to the development of language
teaching and learning about vocabulary by applying mind-mapping technique.

4


This research was expected to overcome the difficulties of students at Thai
Nguyen Medical College in retaining their vocabulary and it could help the students to
remember longer and be interested in learning vocabulary.
For the researchers, it was anticipated that this study to be one of the references
for other researchers to get information about teaching through mind-mapping technique.
5. Structure of the study
This study is divided into five chapters. They are:
Chapter I: “Introduction” – covers academic works required for research paper, consists
of rationale for the study, aims of the study, research questions, scope of the study and
organization of the study.
Chapter II: “Literature review” – provides the theoretical background of the study,
namely basic knowledge about English vocabulary and vocabulary learning; mindmapping in generally and in teaching and learning vocabulary.
Chapter III: “Methodology” – describes the methods used for this study, data collection
instruments, data collection procedures and data analysis procedure.
Chapter IV: “Finding and discussion” – presents, analyzes and discusses the results
collected. In this chapter, the answers for two research questions are found.
Chapter V: “Conclusion” – summarizes the main issues of this paper, giving the
limitations, pedagogical implications of the study and suggestions for further studies.

5


CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter gives general knowledge about vocabulary and vocabulary
learning; mind-mapping technique and several previous researches about using mindmapping in teaching and learning foreign languages.
1. Vocabulary and vocabulary learning
1.1. Definitions of vocabulary
Vocabulary is one of the most important elements, which supports for developing
four-language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. As Hirai (2010: 45) stated,
“vocabulary is the basic for the development of language”. Furthermore, according to
Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary Online, vocabulary is defined as a) all the new
words that a person knows or uses, b) all the words that in a particular language, c) the
words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject and d) a lists of
words with their meanings, especially in a book for learning a foreign language. The
other definition of vocabulary states from Hatch and Brown (1995: 1), they stated that
vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words
that individual speakers of language might use. Hatch and Brown (1995:1) also state that
vocabulary is the only system involved of alphabetical order.
According to Kim and Kim (2012: 4), “vocabulary is the base of communication
in that language. Therefore, it is critical to try out various and different teaching style
that cheers students to acquire vocabulary easily without negative emotion about it”. It
is a factor in forming sentences in order that interactions among others can be happen
fluently and the communication can easily to understand. It is hard to communication
without vocabulary, because the words are used to express ideas, emotions and desires
to each other. Shortly, vocabulary is a tool for effective communication.
Vocabulary learning plays an important part for people who learn English both
as foreign language and as second language. Ur (1994: 60) pointed out vocabulary as the
words we teach in the foreign language. In addition, Brown (2001: 377) stated
vocabulary items as a boring list of words that must be defined and memorized by the

6


students, lexical forms are seen in their central role in contextualized, meaningful
language. Richard in Schmitt (1997: 241) also stated that knowing a word meaning
knowing how often it occurs, the company it keeps, its appropriatness in different
situations, its syntatic behavior, its underlying form and derivations, its word
associations, and its semantic features. Tozcu and Coady (2004: 473) viewed learning
vocabulary is an important aspect of language two and foreign language acquisition and
academic achievement and is vital to reading comprehension and proficiency, to which
it is closely linked. Moreover, it is asserted that vocabulary learning is based on the
establishment of specific habits. Since this involves the association of symbols and their
meaning, it is clear that an enrichment of the meaning of the word is as important as its
frequent repetition. Dunlap and Weisman (2007: 145) asserted, “vocabulary
development is essential for English learners’ academic success. There is a strong
relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic achievement”. That is the
reason why vocabulary plays the main key in developing four language skills, it is very
important in teaching and learning language.
Based on those above statements, there are many definitions of vocabulary. It can
be assumed that vocabulary is a list of words as a basic component of language
proficiency which has own form or expression and consists of aspects, they are meaning,
use of word, form (pronunciation and spelling).
1.2. Kinds of vocabulary
Hiebert and Kamil (2005: 3) divided word into two forms, the first is oral
vocabulary, which is the set of words for that the learners know the meanings when they
speak or read orally. The second is print vocabulary, which consists of those words for
which the meaning is known when learners write or read silently. They also define
knowledge of words also comes in at least two forms as follows:
a. Productive vocabulary: Productive vocabulary is the set of words that an individual
can use when writing or speaking. They are words that are renowned, familiar, and used
habitually.

7


b. Receptive or recognition vocabulary: Receptive or recognition vocabulary is that set
of words for which an individual can use for listening or reading. These are words that
are not as famous to students and routine in use as productive vocabulary. Individuals
may be able allocate some sort of meaning to them, even though they may not know the
full subtleties of the distinction. Typically, these are also words that individuals do not
use impromptu. However, when individuals experience these words, they recognize
them, even if imperfectly, while Thornbury (2002: 3-10) said that there are six kinds of
vocabulary, they are:
1) Word classes: Word classes or parts of speech. They are divided into eight classes,
such as: noun, pronouns, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition and determiner.
2) Word families: It discusses about affixation of a word, such as: prefixes (in-, de-) and
suffixes (-tion, -ness).
3) Word formation: such as compounding, clipping, blending and so on. Affixation is
also a kind of word formation.
4) Multi-word units: about phrasal verbs and idioms
5) Collocations: Collocation is word partners. The typical collocation of specific items
is another factor that makes a particular mixture. Example: this week, once more, once
again, as well.
6) Homonyms: Kinds of vocabulary will be useful for students and teachers in different
situations in learning and teaching a language. Furthermore, to know a word requires
knowing:
1) a great deal about its general frequency of use, syntactic and situation limitation on its
use
2) its underlying form and forms that can be derived from it
3) the network of its semantic features
4) the various meanings associated with the item
(Richards, 1976 cited in Ghazal, 2007).

8


Following Ur (1996) adapted in ELT Methodology II Course Book and
Recommended Readings (p.81-87), the main aspects of vocabulary are divided into: a)
form, b) grammar, c) aspects of meaning and d) word building. So, knowing a word is
not just ordinarily know its equivalent in one’s mother tongue but there are a lot of
aspects to cover. It makes difficult for teachers and students in teaching and learning
vocabulary.
Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English especially to the firstyear students, when they have good ability in mastering vocabulary, they will be easier
in memorize.
1.3. Difficulty of learning vocabulary
Learning vocabulary plays an important role in learning a language. The more
words learners know, the more learners will be able to proficient in listening, speaking,
reading and writing a language.
As known, the vocabulary can be divided into two groups: passive and active
vocabulary. Passive vocabulary consists of all the words which you know when you read
or listen. As Hiebert and Kamil (2005: 3) divided word into two forms, the first is oral
vocabulary, which is the set of words for what learners know the meanings when they
speak or read orally. Therefore, learners can know that active vocabulary is all the words
they understand, they are words which is familiar and used frequently in writing and
speaking.
There are many problems in learning vocabulary such as polysemy of the word,
the word’s idiomatic usage, cognates and so on, however, they can be solved by using a
dicionary. Special problem which the learners face when studying a languge is
remembering vocabulary. It’s one of the biggest of learners when learning a language,
because tomorow they tend to forget what they learned yesterday. The rate of forgetting
stays surprisingly steady if the information the learners learned is not repeated regularly
and it do not make me anything impression about it.

9


Vocabulary learning has become one of the biggest challenges that foreign
language learners have to deal with when learning a new language. It has been suggested
that vocabulary learning should not consist only of teaching isolated words, but also to
provide learners the necessary strategies to increase their vocabulary list and the
appropriate input. Although, learners may be able to use more than one strategy, from
which they are able to select the one they feel more comfortable with. A list of
vocabulary learning strategies is proposed, in which it is mentioned memory strategies
that requires repetition and mechanical means in order to store and retrieve aspects of
the target language.
Ghazal (2007) said that the process of learning a new language involves learning
language strategies in order to facilitate the comprehension, storage, and retention of the
new language. According to Sanaoui (1995), consolidation strategies, conversely,
include memory strategies such as repetition of words through writing and speaking,
using lists and also cards, and any other action learners use in order to facilitate retention
of new words.
Given that the process of acquiring a wide vocabulary in the classroom is highly
challenging, researchers have been looking for successful techniques in order to achieve
that goal. With the traditional techniques of teaching vocabulary, learners are difficult to
retain vocabulary if they are just given a list of vocabulary and never using them.
1.4. Vocabulary retention
Baddeley (1999) stated that the role of memory in the process of learning a
language, either first or second language, has caught the attention of many researchers
as the years pass. New words are learned in many different ways and memory capacity
plays an important role in this process. However, there are also external factors that can
determine the right acquisition of information. Apart from the general context, it has
been found that elements such as the learner’s level of proficiency, the text, previous
knowledge, the learning context, the L2, and the learner’s features are significant factors
to have in mind when learning a second language (Chamot & Rubin, 1994).

10


If, as suggested, working memory is a temporary storage system that underpins
our capacity for thinking, it is clearly the case that it should have implications for
language processing, and that disorders in working memory may impact on language
processes (Baddeley, 2003). It can be said that success when learning a second language
is strongly attributed to differences in memory capacity because people in general have
different ways and strategies to acquire new information and different ways of using
memory.
In process of learning vocabulary, memory plays an important role because
according to Richards & Schmidt (2002) vocabulary memory was defined as “the ability
to recall and remember things after an interval of time”. In language learning, especially
vocabulary learning, retention of what has been taught may depend on the quality of
teaching, the interest of learner or the effectiveness of teaching techniques.
Vocabulary retention can be understood that as well as the learned vocabulary
knowledge is retaining it in the memory. Vocabulary memory is an essential factor
affecting the success of vocabulary acquisition.
2. Mind-mapping
2.1. Definitions of mind-mapping
A mind-mapping technique is an expression of radiant thinking and uses line,
symbol, words and pictures; based on the set of simple rules and natural toward the
human mind. By using mind map, the list of information that are so long and boring can
changed into colorful diagram and make easy to remember (Buzan, 2009: 7).
A mind-mapping is a creative note-taking method, which makes students easily
to retain information. It is a visual record of new vocabulary. Vocabulary mind-mapping
is also known as word map, and are organized in a way of relating words.
Al-Jarf (2011) defined that “A mind map is a graphic organizer in which the major
categories radiate from a central idea and sub-categories are represented as branches of
larger branches. It is a visual tool that can be used to generate ideas, take notes, organize
thinking, and develop concepts. Teachers can use it to enhance learning. It is helpful for

11


visual learners as an illustrative tool that assists with managing thought, directing
learning, and making connections”. In short, a mind-mapping is a tool for language
teaching and learning that teachers record the vocabulary through symbols, pictures,
colors, emotion meanings to stimulate students’ mastery and help students easily to
retain vocabulary.
Buzan (1993: 1) said that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique, which
provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. Mind mapping technique
imitates the thinking process, namely possible us to move from one topic to another
topics back and forth. Recording the information through symbols, pictures, emotional
meaning and colours, exactly the same like our brains process it. A pattern which at least
consists of picture, symbol and color that will not just help the students to understand
the vocabulary knowledge but also makes the students feel good, enjoyable and attract
their brain which at last lead them to have interest in mastery vocabulary knowledge.
Mind-mapping is a kind of diagram, which are brainstorming diagrams based on a central
idea or image […]. Mind maps use a non-linear graphical form allowing the user to build
an

intuitive

framework

around

the

central

idea

(Retrieved

http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/mind-mapping-software.htm)

from
for

examples, maps, line graphs, bar charts, engineering blueprints, and architects' sketches
are all examples of diagrams. Mind-mapping technique, as stated above, is a type of
diagram, but has its own attractive characteristics, containing many standards. Here are
some examples of mind-mapping:

12


Figure 2.1: Mind-mapping example 1 from website:
https://medium.com/@RobinBCreative/tools-of-creativity-950b7bef3c25

Figure 2.2: Mind-mapping example 2 from website
https://bebcblog.wordpress.com/tag/tom-smith/
13


2.2. The functions of mind-mapping
Michael Michalko in Buzans’ book (2009: 6) gives some functions of mindmapping, they are:
a. To make active all parts of brain.
b. To make people (learners) be focus in the main topic.
c. To help show the relation among parts of information that mutual separated.
d. To give a certain illustration in the whole and detail.
e. To help grouped the concept and compare it.
2.3. Classifications of mind-mapping
The mind map has six essential characteristics, these are:
a. A central image: describes the main idea of a mind mapping and put it on the center
of the paper. It makes the students’ right brain active, reinforce the students’ retention
and make the learning activity enjoyable.
b. Branches: on which the main themes of the subject radiate from the central image.
The branches should be arched and in the same length as the words or pictures above it.
These branches can be seen as sub-headings. It is thinner branches and containing details.
c. A key image/word: which branches hold, printed on the associated line-details radiate
out. A key word is a word that can direct to a sentence or event. Identifying a familiar
word in one’s own language or another language that sounds like the new word and using
only one key word per line. It is as an urge to remember a lot of words for the students.
It is strong noun or verb that creates image to trigger recall the memory.
d. Basic Ordering Ideas: are the branches that collect sort information and it connected
to the central topic that radiate out from the center. Making basic ordering ideas which
can direct our mind to make mind mapping and it need creativity that encourage the
students to understand to the material. It is thick and thinner at the ends. It can be seen
as headings for your topic and spread anywhere but do not become steep.

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e. Color: is a very good memory sign and it involves the right brain in learning for long
term memory. Colors encourage creativity and help in memorization. Adding plenty of
colors via branches, map background and images will add life to your mind map. It
makes easier to comprehend and remember.
f. Pictures: In mind mapping, pictures which can change or strengthen a key word that
has been written before.
From these essential characters of a mind-mapping, there are many types of mindmapping are made from simple to complex. There are many kinds of diagrams. For
example, these are the main diagram types, graph-based diagrams (net-work tree, flow
chart, existential graph, event chain …), chart-like diagrams (bar chart, pie chart,
function chart …) and other types of diagrams (cycle concept map, spider concept map,
train

diagram…)

which

are

introduced

on

http://abitabout.com/Diagramming+technique. In addition, Anderson (1997) divided
that "[…] maps, line graphs, bar charts, engineering blueprints, and architects'
sketches are all examples of diagrams, […]".
These are examples of diagrams, however, as stated above mind-mapping is a
type of diagram, unlike other types, mind-mapping has its own striking features,
including many essential criteria as above. Here are some examples of mind-mapping:

Figure 2.3: Mind-mapping example 3 from website
https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-mind-map-definition-examples.html
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