Tải bản đầy đủ

ICS GUIDE TO HELICOPTER SHIP OPERATIONS 2005

Guide to
Helicopter /SHip
Operations
Fourth Edition

International Chamber of Shipping


The cover photograph is reproduced with the kind permission of CHC Helicopter Corporation.


Guide to
Helicopter /SHip
Operations
Fourth Edition



Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations
The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is a voluntary organisation of national shipowners' associations.
Established in 1921, it represents about seventy-five percent of world merchant tonnage. The interests of ICS

cover all aspects of maritime affairs, but it is particularly active in the field of marine safety, ship design and
construction, pollution prevention and maritime law.
ICS has consultative status with several inter-governmental organisations, including the International
Maritime Organization.

While the advice given in this guide has been developed using the best information currently available, it is
intended purely as guidance and to be used at the user's own risk. No responsibility is accepted by the
International Chamber of Shipping or by any person, firm, corporation or organisation who or which has
been in any way concerned with the furnishing of information or data, the compilation, publication or
authorised translation, supply or sale of this guide, for the accuracy of any information or advice given herein
or for any omission or for any consequences whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from compliance with
or adoption of guidance contained herein even if caused by a failure to exercise reasonable care.

Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations
Published by
Marisec Publications
12 Carthusian Street
London EC1M 6EZ
Tel
+44 20 7417 8844
Fax
+44 20 7417 8877
Email ics@marisec.org
Website www.marisec.org
First Published
Revised Edition
Third Edition
Fourth Edition

1979
1982
1989
2008

© Marisec Publications 2008

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

1



CONTENTS
Page

Foreword

6

Chapter 1 GENERAL GUIDANCE
8

1.1

Introduction

8

1.2

Selection of a Helicopter Operator

9

1.3

Provision of Helicopter Landing/Operating Area Information

Chapter 2 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATING SAFETY
10

2.1

General Principles

10

2.2

Marine Responsibilities

10

2.2.1

Ship Operator

10

2.2.2

Master

11

2.2.3

Deck Party Officer (DPO)

11

2.2.4

Deck Party Crew (DPC)

12

2.2.5

Administrator

12

2.2.6

Officer of the Watch (OOW)

12

2.2.7

Passengers

12

2.3

Aviation Responsibilities

12

2.3.1

Helicopter Operator

13

2.3.2

Helicopter Pilot

13

2.3.3

Helicopter Winchman/Crew Member

Chapter 3 HELICOPTER OPERATING GUIDANCE
14

3.1

14

3.2

Designation of Helicopter Performance

14

3.2.1

Performance Class 1

Introduction

14

3.2.2

Performance Class 2

14

3.2.3

Performance Class 3

15

3.2.4

Performance for Winching

15

3.3

The Use of Twin Engined and Single Engined Helicopters

16

3.4

Helicopter Size and Weight Restrictions

16

3.5

Equipment and Crewing

17

3.6

Helicopter Landing Gear

17

3.7

Weather and Sea Conditions

17

3.7.1

General

17

3.7.2

Wind Conditions Limiting Helicopter Operations

18

3.7.3

Sea and Swell

18

3.7.4

Special Conditions

2

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


Chapter 4 GENERAL SHIP REQUIREMENTS
20

4.1

Ship Operating Areas

20

4.1.1

Types of Operating Area

20

4.1.2

Location and Size of Operating Area - Landing

26

4.1.3

Location and Size of Operating Area - Winching

26

4.1.4

Poop Deck Platforms

26

4.1.5

Structural Considerations (Purpose Built and Non Purpose Built Landing Areas)

26

4.2

Environmental Effects

26

4.2.1

General Considerations

27

4.2.2

Aerodynamic Effects

27

4.2.3

Wave Motion Effects

28

4.3

Details of Landing Area

28

4.3.1

General Guidance on Markings

28

4.3.2

Markings for a Landing Area Located at the Ship’s Side

29

4.3.3

Markings for Amidships Centreline Landing Area with or
without Restricted Access from the Ship’s Side

29

4.4

Details of Winching Area

29

4.4.1

Positioning a Winching Area

30

4.4.2

Winching Area on the Bridge Wing

30

4.4.3

Marking a Winching Area

31

4.5

Additional Considerations for Helicopter Operating Areas

32

4.6

Night Operations: Landing and Winching Area Lighting

33

4.7

Fire Fighting Appliances and Rescue Equipment

Chapter 5 COMMUNICATIONS AND SHIP OPERATING PROCEDURES
34

5.1

Communications

34

5.1.1

General Guidance

34

5.1.2

Communications Equipment

34

5.2

Normal Operating Procedures - Pre-Arrival

34

5.2.1

Weather Conditions

35

5.2.2

Departure of Helicopter from the Heliport

35

5.2.3

Pre-Arrival Checks on the Ship

36

5.2.4

Pre-Arrival Checks from the Helicopter

37

5.3

Navigation

37

5.3.1

Identification of the Vessel

37

5.3.2

Manoeuvrability

37

5.4

Signalling Procedures

37

5.4.1

Ships’ International Signals

37

5.4.2

Visual Signals to Helicopter

38

5.4.3

Loss of Radio Communications

38

5.4.4

Warning Signal

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

3


38

5.5

Basic Operating Procedures

38

5.5.1

Officer of the Watch

38

5.5.2

Deck Party

39

5.5.3

Fire Fighting

39

5.5.4

The Operating Area

39

5.5.5

The Helicopter

39

5.5.6

Emergency Shutdown

39

5.6

Helicopter Landing and Unloading

39

5.6.1

Landing

40

5.6.2

Disembarking Passengers and Freight from the Helicopter

41

5.6.3

Operational Safety

41

5.7

Helicopter Hovering

41

5.7.1

Winching Operations

42

5.7.2

Underslung Loads

42

5.8

Helicopter Loading and Departure

42

5.8.1

Loading Passengers and Freight

42

5.8.2

Take Off

43

5.8.3

Departing

43

5.9

Instructions to Helicopter Passengers

43

5.9.1

General

44

5.9.2

Landing

44

5.9.3

Winching

46

5.10

Passenger/Freight Handling Procedures

46

5.10.1

Passenger Pre-Flight Briefing

46

5.10.2

General Freight Handling

46

5.10.3

Carriage of “Dangerous Goods”

46

5.10.4

Carriage of Freight and/or Baggage in the Passenger Cabin with Passengers

47

5.10.5

List of Items Prohibited for Carriage in Passengers’ Baggage or on Person

Chapter 6 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFIC TO DIFFERENT SHIP TYPES
48

6.1

Tankers

48

6.1.1

Oil Tankers

48

6.1.2

Chemical/Parcel Tankers

48

6.1.3

Vapour Dispersal

49

6.1.4

Vapour Emission Control

49

6.1.5

Safety

49

6.1.6

Freeboard

50

6.2

Bulk Carriers and Combination Carriers

50

6.2.1

General

50

6.2.2

Geared Bulk Carriers

51

6.2.3

Gearless Bulk Carriers

51

6.2.4

Combination Carriers

51

6.3

Containerships

52

6.4

Gas Carriers

52

6.4.1

Design Limitations

52

6.4.2

Vapour Emission Control

53

6.5

General Cargo Ships

4

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


Chapter 7 EMERGENCY EVACUATION BY AIR
54

7.1

54

7.2

Illness or Injury Evacuation

54

7.2.1

Requesting Assistance

General

54

7.2.2

Preparation of Patient

55

7.3

Emergency Operating Areas

Chapter 8 HELICOPTER INCIDENT/ACCIDENT
56

8.1

General

56

8.2

Helicopter Accident Procedure

56

8.3

Fire Procedures

57

8.4

Helideck Emergency Procedures

57

8.4.1

Crash on Deck

57

8.4.2

Emergency/Precautionary Landing

57

8.4.3

Crash on Deck Major Fuel Spillage - No Fire

57

8.4.4

Helicopter Incident on Landing

58

8.4.5

Man Overboard (MOB)

58

8.4.6

Helicopter Ditching

58

8.5

Personnel in Water - Emergency Procedures

58

8.6

Plan of Action

APPENDICES
60

Appendix A

Commercial Helicopters in Marine Use

61

Appendix B

Communications

66

Appendix C

Shipboard Safety Check List for Helicopter Operators

68

Appendix D

Instructions to Helicopter Passengers Transferring to and from Ships

70

Appendix E

Marine Pilot Transfer

71

Appendix F

Helicopter Landing/Operating Area Plan (to be used with accompanying CD)

79

Appendix G

Duties and Suggested Action Plan for Helicopter Accident

80

Appendix H

Bridge Wing Operations for Marine Pilot Transfer - A Risk Assessment

FIGURES
22

Figure 4.1

Landing Area at the Ship’s Side

23

Figure 4.2

Amidships Centreline Landing Area (Purpose Built and Non Purpose Built)

24

Figure 4.3

Markings for a Purpose Built Landing Area in an Amidships Centreline Location

25

Figure 4.4

Winching Operations Area

32

Figure 4.5

Representative Landing Area Lighting Scheme

40

Figure 5.1

Representative Diagram of Helicopter Safe Approach Sectors

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

5


FOREWORD
This guide has been published after wide consultation with both marine and aviation experts, whose
contribution to this new edition is acknowledged with thanks. Its purpose is to encourage safe and efficient
helicopter/ship operations, and while the guide is intended principally for the use of ships' masters, officers
and crew, it also offers advice to helicopter pilots and operators. The objective is to promote standardised
procedures and facilities for helicopter/ship operations worldwide.
This revision of the guide supersedes all previous versions. It has been updated with extensive guidance
regarding the role and responsibilities of both the ship and helicopter. Definitions of helicopter performance
have been both expanded and clarified, while information regarding the location and marking of landing and
winching areas has been completely revised to reflect the latest International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) requirements.
It is recognised that in the years since the Third Edition was published, on some ships and on certain trades,
the practice has developed of transferring by winch marine pilots directly to the Bridge Wing. Such operations
should not normally be conducted unless a thorough risk assessment has been conducted, particularly when
more conventional transfer arrangements can be provided. Guidance and advice regarding a risk assessment
to be conducted when planning for the winching of marine pilots to the Bridge Wing of ships forms
Appendix H. Guidance regarding emergencies has been supplemented with advice addressing the actions to
be taken in case of a helicopter incident/accident. A new Appendix F provides guidance regarding the
provision by the ship of specific Landing/Operating Area data to the helicopter operator.
To provide additional value and utility, this new edition of the Guide is accompanied by a CD
containing the full text in electronic form with a “search” function and the facility to print the
check lists included in the Appendices.
Importantly, the CD also includes an electronic template for preparing Helicopter Landing/
Operating Area Plans for transmission from the ship to the helicopter operator. For full
instructions, see Appendix F.
All possible care has been taken in the preparation of this guide, but it must be stressed that it is only a
guide. It is not intended to be binding, and shipping companies, ships' masters and officers, helicopter
operators and air crew are all responsible for acting in accordance with relevant national regulations and
company instructions. Ships may operate under codes or national requirements which may necessitate the
application of alternative or higher standards than those advised in this guide. Regulations for helicopter
operations are established by the authorities in the country of registration of the aircraft and/or where the
operation takes place, and may vary in detail from one country to another.
For those vessels to which the International Safety Management (ISM) Code applies, this guide may provide
assistance in developing shipboard operating procedures and requirements for the various helicopter
operations that may be undertaken on board.
It should be recognised that certain sections of this guide may be found to be of value by ship design teams,
and for many users technical information within the guide may need to be accessed only occasionally.
Retaining advice for both the helicopter and ship regarding joint operations in one publication is considered
by the authors to be appropriate, and it is anticipated that this consistency will be found to be useful to ship
and helicopter operators alike.
Comment on the guide and suggestions for further improvement will be welcome, and should be addressed
to the International Chamber of Shipping, 12 Carthusian Street, London, EC1M 6EZ, United Kingdom.
Email ics@marisec.org

6

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


Special appreciation is expressed to the following organisations and companies who provided particular
assistance to the development of this the Fourth Edition of the Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations:
BW Shipping Managers PTE
Civil Aviation Authority (UK)
Helideck Certification Agency
Maersk Ship Management
Maritime and Coastguard Agency (UK)
Shell (Aviation and STASCO)
Stolt-Nielsen UK Ltd

REFERENCE MATERIALS
The documents, regulations and instruments listed below are referenced in this guide:
IMO International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
IMO International Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code
CAP 437 - Civil Aviation Authority publication:
Offshore Helicopter Landing Areas - Guidance on Standards
IMO International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Radio Regulations
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 14 Volume II (Heliports) and Annex 6 Part III (International Operations - Helicopters)
ICAO Heliport Manual
IMO Resolution A.855(20) Standards for On-Board Helicopter Facilities
International Air Transport Association (IATA) Regulations
IMO/ICAO International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual
UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) Paper 2008/03:
Helideck Design Considerations - Environmental Effects

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

7


1

GENERAL GUIDANCE

1.1

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this guide is to advise shipping companies and ships’ staff on the safe performance
of helicopter/ship operations. Because of their different backgrounds, qualifications and
experience, mariners and aviators are often unfamiliar with even the most basic technical aspects
of each other’s profession. This lack of mutual understanding can be dangerous, and this guide
attempts to remedy it.
The guide provides advice on best practice obtained from many aviation and maritime sources.
Best practice is a constantly evolving process, and it should be borne in mind that the guide
reflects best practice at the time of publication. There may be alternative means of ensuring safe
operations and these need to be considered on their merits.
There are three main categories of helicopter/ship operations:


Operations involving a contract between a shipping company and a helicopter operator. It is
this category which is the principal focus of the guide.



Operations involving a contract between some local organisation, such as a pilotage authority,
and a helicopter operator. The guide is also suitable for these applications, and Appendix E in
particular deals with the transfer of marine pilots.



Emergency/rescue operations. Although the guide has been written with planned operations
chiefly in mind, many sections provide helpful information which is relevant to the use of
helicopters in emergencies. In particular, time taken to establish an appropriate landing or
winching site for use in the event of an emergency could save time and reduce unnecessary
risks if such operations are ever required.

The operations department of a shipping company has to balance time, money, safety and
expediency. Before deciding on helicopter/ship operations, it has to weigh the risks to the vessel
inherent in approaching harbour limits and heaving-to for a launch transfer against those arising
from a helicopter transfer with the ship safely offshore and probably steaming on passage. In
balancing such factors, safety must be the prime consideration.

1.2

SELECTION OF A HELICOPTER OPERATOR
Even though aviation, like shipping, has varying standards of operating practice, the “minimum
recommended standards” are contained in Annex 6 Part III of the ICAO Convention on
International Civil Aviation (for operations) and Annex 14 Volume II (for design issues relating to
heliports/helidecks). When planning an operation, advice should be sought from an independent
expert (e.g. a qualified consultant with first-hand experience of marine helicopter operations) who,
having ascertained the exact requirements, will be able to identify an operator with the ability and
experience to carry out the task to the highest level of safety and proficiency. National aviation
authorities will normally assist by recommending an appropriate consultative body.
The consultant may recommend to the shipping company that operating conditions more rigorous
than those required by the national regulations or by the helicopter operator are applied
contractually. Advice on the form of the contract should be sought from an expert. A technical
consultant will not necessarily be expert on contracts but should be able to recommend a
specialist. In particular, the shipping company should always consult its P&I Club on the liability,
indemnity and insurance clauses of the contract.

8

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


The choice of a helicopter for a particular task is one that requires a high degree of technical
aviation knowledge. Aircraft operators seeking business may claim to be able to perform a task for
which their particular aircraft is not suitable and thus possibly reduce safety standards and the cost
effectiveness of the operation. The safety of the ship, the helicopter and personnel is paramount; a
report specifying the operational requirements should therefore always be available before the
helicopter and operator are chosen and any contract is signed.
Helicopter operations should be conducted in accordance with the Operator’s Manual and in
compliance with the helicopter Flight Manual.
When an operator has been selected, a contract signed, and all is ready for service, the shipping
company’s operations department should issue advice and instructions on the use of the service and
ensure that the ICS Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations is available and adhered to by all staff.

1.3

PROVISION OF HELICOPTER LANDING/OPERATING
AREA INFORMATION
Helicopter operations to ships are, by their very nature, infrequent. Most ships have not been
specifically designed for helicopter operations. The deck environment can be complex and ships
can have a large number of obstructions which present hazards for helicopters that are difficult to
see from the air. It is likely that the helicopter pilot will see a particular ship only when operations
have to be conducted.
Under these circumstances, and in order to prevent unpleasant surprises, it is important that
information is provided such that:
a.

The ship can be identified.

b.

The location of the operating site (for landing/winching) on the ship is known.

c.

Obstructions that are near to the operating site are identified.

d.

The presence and nature of markings are understood.

e.

Any limitations on operations are known.

A number of commercial aviation regulations require that a pilot be authorised to fly to a specific
operating site. This authorisation requires either previous knowledge of the site or the provision of
information to permit the pilot to become self-briefed. In order that compliance with the aviation
requirement can be achieved, Appendix F provides guidance and examples of “templates” to be
used to provide detailed information to support the helicopter pilot.
Masters are encouraged to prepare and complete helicopter operating area templates in
accordance with the guidance in Appendix F. Templates should be reviewed and promptly revised
when changes are made to the helicopter landing/operating area. Filed templates should be
available for transmission to the aviation operator when any task is being arranged.

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

9


2

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATING SAFETY

2.1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Marine helicopter operations demand a clear understanding of safety requirements for both the
ship and the aircraft. This guide seeks to specify the minimum requirements necessary to maintain
standards of safety. These requirements should be adhered to at all times for routine operations.
Transfer of personnel or stores to or from ships by helicopter should also be conducted in
accordance with any relevant national safety standards.
Twin engined helicopters are always to be preferred for helicopter/ship operations. In some cases,
national regulations may stipulate the use of twin engined helicopters or limit single engine
helicopters to winching operations and/or use in favourable weather conditions.
The most important factor in the successful conduct of safe helicopter operations is good
communications. It is essential that all parties understand their respective responsibilities and that
there is full understanding of and agreement between the ship’s master and the helicopter
operator/pilot on a clear and simple plan of arrangements both prior to and during operations.

2.2

MARINE RESPONSIBILITIES

2.2.1

Ship Operator
It is the responsibility of the ship operator to select a reputable helicopter operator, thus ensuring
that the necessary standards of operational safety are achieved. There are advisory agencies
throughout the world whose guidance should be sought in this regard.
The ship operator is responsible for ensuring that all marine personnel associated with helicopter
operations are adequately trained and that marine equipment used in helicopter operations is
maintained to a satisfactory standard.

2.2.2

Master
The ship’s master is ultimately responsible for the safety of his ship. If he is in any doubt whether
the proposed helicopter service meets the requirements of his shipping company concerning safety,
liability, indemnity and insurance, he should seek company advice before operations commence.
In the planning of helicopter operations, he should give consideration to Bridge Team Manning
requirements, including an immediately available and appropriate response in the event of a
helicopter related incident.
The ship’s master should be aware that:
a.

He must reach agreement with the helicopter pilot on any proposed operation before
it commences.

b.

Clearance for the proposed helicopter operation is entirely at his discretion.

c.

In the absence of a dedicated operating area, he will be responsible for designating an area
that meets the minimum criteria for helicopter operations as specified in this guide, and for
providing the helicopter operator/pilot with all necessary information.
Note: If the criteria cannot be met, the master should consult with the helicopter
operator and establish if (and how) the operation can be conducted.

10

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


2.2.3

d.

He may stop or curtail the operation at any time for reasons of ship safety. In this event, the
helicopter must move clear of the ship immediately. The master and helicopter pilot should if
possible discuss appropriate further action.

e.

He is responsible for appointing the Deck Party Officer, Deck Party Crew and Administrator
from among his officers and crew members, whose functions specifically related to helicopter
operations are additional to their other shipboard functions (see paragraphs 2.2.3 to 2.2.5).

f.

He is responsible for ensuring that ship’s crew members involved in helicopter/ship operations
are trained in standards and procedures necessary to maintain the safety of the ship, its crew
and the helicopter aircrew. He must ensure that the Deck Party Officer and the Deck Party
Crew are fully familiar with equipment for winching and landing operations and are trained
and regularly drilled in the tasks required of them in both routine operations and emergencies.

g.

He is responsible for monitoring the agreed radio frequency to give landing clearance, when
appropriate, and for warning the helicopter pilot if an unsafe situation develops.

Deck Party Officer (DPO)
The Deck Party Officer is responsible to the master for:

2.2.4

a.

Management of the helicopter operating area.

b.

Ensuring that, on receipt of information regarding helicopter arrival, the operating area is
prepared, and that all non-related shipboard activities that might adversely affect the safety of
the planned helicopter operation cease.

c.

The safe movement of passengers, supervision of baggage and freight handling, and assisting
the helicopter crew with helicopter loading operations.

d.

Ensuring correct manifest procedures are used.

e.

Ensuring that the helicopter captain is advised of, and is willing to accept, documented
dangerous goods that are to be stowed in the helicopter.

f.

Initiating fire fighting and rescue procedures in the helicopter landing area in accordance with
the ship’s emergency plan and using all appropriate resources. The procedures should
incorporate experience gained during crew training and familiarisation.

g.

Ensuring that fire fighting and rescue equipment is serviceable and reporting any defects or
deficiencies to the master.

Deck Party Crew (DPC)
The Deck Party Crew are responsible for:
a.

Assisting the DPO in the management of the helicopter landing area.

b.

Assisting passengers to and from the helicopter under direction of the helicopter crew.

c.

Loading and unloading freight and baggage from the helicopter under the direction and
supervision of the helicopter crew.

d.

Preparation of fire fighting and rescue equipment.

e.

Operation of fire fighting and rescue equipment under the direction of the DPO.

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

11


2.2.5

Administrator
The Administrator is responsible for:

2.2.6

a.

Preparation of the manifests for both passengers and freight, and ensuring that baggage and
freight are accurately weighed, labelled and noted on the manifests. Baggage and freight that
has not been weighed and labelled must not be loaded onto a helicopter.

b.

Provision of a pre-flight safety briefing to all departing passengers.

Officer of the Watch (OOW)
When support for helicopter operations can be combined with primary navigational duties, the
additional roles of the OOW may include:
a.

Liaising with the master regarding prevailing and forecast local weather conditions, so that a
timely decision can be made on whether to commence helicopter operations.

b.

Advising the helicopter operator of current weather conditions at least an hour before the
scheduled departure time of any flight.

c.

Maintaining radio contact with the helicopter pilot and the DPO during helicopter operations.

d.

Maintaining a helicopter operations log, recording regular (usually 10 minute) helicopter
position reports when the helicopter is inbound or outbound, and raising the alarm if any
anticipated reports are not received.

When support for helicopter operations cannot be combined with primary navigational duties of
the OOW, the above duties should be assigned to other personnel.

2.2.7

Passengers
All personnel who are to be transported by helicopter have a duty to follow the instructions of the
DPO and helicopter crew and act in accordance with information provided in the pre-flight
briefing. If they observe anything during the flight that may affect flight safety, they should inform
the helicopter pilot. Passengers are responsible for ensuring that their baggage complies with
relevant baggage regulations.

2.3

AVIATION RESPONSIBILITIES

2.3.1

Helicopter Operator
The helicopter operator should ensure that operations are conducted in compliance with the ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), the regulations of the state of registration of the
helicopter, and the regulations of the state in whose waters the operation takes place.

12

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


2.3.2

Helicopter Pilot
The safety of the helicopter remains at all times the responsibility of its pilot, who should comply
with the operator’s standard operating procedures. The helicopter pilot and the master must agree
on the proposed operation before it commences. The helicopter pilot should be aware of the
manoeuvring limitations of the ship.

2.3.3

Helicopter Winchman/Crew Member
A helicopter winchman/crew member may be carried in some operations and is responsible to the
helicopter pilot for:
a.

Passenger handling and safety during the flight and when entering and leaving the helicopter.

b.

Passenger supervision during emergencies.

c.

Supervising the loading and unloading of the helicopter and assisting the DPO to ensure the
safe conduct of the deck party in the vicinity of the helicopter.

d.

Monitoring the pilot’s blind-spots (the tail and under-belly of the helicopter), directing the pilot
over the required deck area and ensuring that it is all clear around and under the helicopter
during winching and before landing and take off.

e.

Ensuring that all relevant documentation is completed by the ship’s crew and on board the
helicopter before its return to shore.

In the absence of such a helicopter crew member, the helicopter pilot will assume these
responsibilities.

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

13


3

HELICOPTER OPERATING GUIDANCE

3.1

INTRODUCTION
Contrary to general belief, a helicopter cannot climb vertically or carry out high hovering
manoeuvres under all conditions. The performance of a particular helicopter while taking off,
hovering and landing is adversely affected by:
a.

Increasing weight or payload

b.

Increasing atmospheric temperature

c.

Decreasing air pressure

d.

Decreasing wind speed.

The ability of a helicopter to climb vertically, to hover at various heights and to manoeuvre while
doing so is dependent upon the amount of power that is available under the prevailing conditions
of air density, air temperature, gross weight conditions and wind. The greater the power available,
the greater the flexibility the pilot will have when manoeuvring the helicopter.
Under conditions including high loads, low winds or high temperatures, the pilot may be limited in
manoeuvrability, and could be restricted in landing and take off directions.
To maximise the payload but still conduct flights safely, the pilot must choose the appropriate Class
of Operations consistent with the local regulations, limitations imposed by the Aircraft Flight
Manual, prevailing conditions and the application of sound decision making. At all times, whether
by day or by night, and in all operating conditions, the helicopter should comply with the
minimum requirements of the ICAO Convention on International Civil Aviation.

3.2

DESIGNATION OF HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE

3.2.1

Performance Class 1
Some twin engined helicopters can be flown in such a way that, if an engine fails immediately
after take off or immediately before landing, they can make a controlled landing on the landing
site, or continue to fly and climb safely away on the other engine, establishing a safe altitude for a
return to base. These helicopters are said to be operating in Class 1.

3.2.2

Performance Class 2
Some twin engined helicopters spend a few seconds during the early stages of a take off, and the
late stages of an approach to landing, when they will be unable to continue flight in the event of
failure of one engine. These helicopters are said to be operating in Class 2.

3.2.3

Performance Class 3
Some twin engined helicopters (and all single engined helicopters) cannot sustain flight in the case
of an engine failure and will be forced to land. These helicopters are said to be operating in Class 3.

14

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


3.2.4

Performance for Winching
The routine winching of passengers (sometimes described as Human External Cargo (HEC) or Class
D) requires the helicopter to have sufficient reserves of power to ensure that, if one engine fails, it
can continue to hover on the other engine.

3.3

THE USE OF TWIN ENGINED AND
SINGLE ENGINED HELICOPTERS
National regulations may impose additional restrictions on helicopter/ship operations in adverse
weather conditions or during hours of darkness, but otherwise the following conditions should
apply:
a.

For transfer of personnel when winching is intended, twin engined helicopters with sufficient
power to hover on one engine should be used (see paragraph 3.2.4 above).

b.

For transfer of personnel when landing on deck is intended and sea conditions are in excess
of Sea State 4, twin engined helicopters operating at least in Class 2 should be used
(see paragraphs 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 above).

c.

For transfer of personnel when landing on deck is intended and sea conditions are not in
excess of Sea State 4, helicopters operating in Class 3 (twin engined or single engined)
may be used (see paragraph 3.2.3 above).

In some harsh weather areas (e.g. North Sea, North or South Atlantic, where “hostile” conditions
are prevalent) regulations may prohibit operations in Class 3 for transfer of personnel.
Note: Conditions are considered to be “hostile” when wind and sea conditions are in
excess of Sea State 4 (wind speed 17-21 knots and significant wave height 4-8 feet).
The following table indicates the operations which may be conducted by twin engined and single
engined helicopters:

HELICOPTER

PERSONNEL
LANDING

STORES

WINCHING

LANDING

WINCHING

DAY

NIGHT1

DAY

NIGHT1

DAY

NIGHT1

DAY NIGHT1

TWIN ENGINED

Yes

Yes

Yes2

Yes2

Yes

Yes

Yes2

Yes2

SINGLE ENGINED

Yes3,4

Yes3,4

No

No

Yes3,4

Yes3,4

No

No

Note:
1.

Helicopters used in night operations must be fully certificated, equipped and manned
for such operations.

2.

A winching area may only be used if a recommended landing area is not available or
cannot be used; winching should only be conducted at night if the winching area and
dominant obstructions are adequately lit.

(continued overleaf)

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

15


3.4

3.

Single engined helicopters should not be used over accommodation spaces where
these spaces form part of the superstructure of the vessel.

4.

Some states prohibit single engined helicopter operations in a hostile environment,
(adverse/harsh weather conditions/areas - see Note above) and/or at night.

HELICOPTER SIZE AND WEIGHT RESTRICTIONS
The size and type of helicopter that can operate to the helicopter landing area of a particular ship
will be determined by reference to the ship’s landing area “D” and “t” limitations, “D” being the
maximum permitted overall length of a helicopter when its rotors are turning, and “t” the
maximum weight of the helicopter rounded to the nearest 100 kg. (See Appendix A for a table of
the size and weight details of helicopters in commercial use.)

3.5

EQUIPMENT AND CREWING
The helicopter and its crew should comply with the operating standards required under Annex 6
Part III of the ICAO Convention on International Civil Aviation. In addition:

16

a.

Helicopters to be used for operations on ships should be fitted with equipment including a
marine VHF radio-communications transceiver and a radio altimeter.

b.

Helicopters certified for instrument flight rules (IFR) and night operations should, in addition,
be provided with the operational equipment specified for IFR or night time operations. They
should also be equipped with radar capable of short range display indication.

c.

All helicopters should be fitted with and carry the emergency equipment specified for offshore
operations. They should also be equipped with an emergency locator beacon operating on
406 Mhz.

d.

Helicopter pilots engaged in marine operations should be trained and qualified for operations
to moving ships.

e.

Helicopters used at night or in reduced visibility should carry two pilots who have current IFR
ratings on helicopters, are certified to internationally accepted standards, and are qualified for
helicopter operations to moving ships at night.

f.

A qualified winchman should be carried whenever winching operations are envisaged. A
winchman/cabin attendant may be carried in helicopters where the passenger/freight
compartment is separated from the flight deck.

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


3.6

HELICOPTER LANDING GEAR
Wheel mounted helicopters are preferable to skid mounted helicopters for landing on a ship,
especially if landing takes place when the vessel is moving slightly in a seaway, because the wheels
will provide improved traction. The safety of skid mounted helicopters may be compromised by the
presence of even small obstacles located within the landing area, such as “Butterworth lids” on
tankers. Where immoveable objects are located on the landing area, the helicopter operator will
need to ensure that a safe touchdown can be carried out away from the presence of obstacles (see
Section 4.1.2 and Appendix F).

3.7

WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS

3.7.1

General
Weather conditions may restrict helicopter operations, depending upon whether the helicopter is
twin or single engined, its certification status and the equipment it carries. As a general rule, only
twin engined helicopters that are certified and equipped to the highest standard and routinely
involved in marine operations should operate in conditions exceeding Sea State 4.
Only helicopters certified and crewed for IFR operations should continue to operate when the
cloud base is below 500 ft and when visibility is below 1 nautical mile. Even these operations
should normally cease when the cloud base drops below 200 ft and visibility below 0.75 nautical
miles. Helicopters or crews which are not certified for IFR operations should not undertake
helicopter/ship operations at night, and in daytime should comply with visual flight rule limits,
i.e. 500 ft vertical (clear of cloud) and 1 nautical mile horizontal.

3.7.2

Wind Conditions Limiting Helicopter Operations
The accurate reporting of wind conditions, particularly when they are light and variable, can
significantly enhance the safety of helicopter/ship operations. Vessels should be fitted with
equipment that can measure and record all wind conditions, and should fly a pennant or
windsock, illuminated at night, to give the helicopter pilot a visual indication of the speed and
direction of the wind relative to the ship’s deck.
Routine operations can generally be conducted at a wind speed of up to 60 knots (a limit which is
related to passenger and ground crew safety). However, under certain circumstances, it may be
necessary for the ship to change direction at the request of the helicopter pilot. In emergencies,
operations can be carried out with certain helicopters in wind speeds of up to 70 knots.
Note: It is the responsibility of the master to ensure the safety of personnel on the deck
during helicopter operations in high wind conditions.

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

17


3.7.3

Sea and Swell
Helicopter operations should not be carried out if there is a likelihood of sea or heavy spray on or
above the deck. If possible, the master should ensure that spray, roll and pitch are kept to a
minimum by selecting a suitable course and speed. This is particularly important for preventing
circumstances where sea and spray may enter the helicopter’s engine (experience has shown that
sea spray ingestion can result in reduction of engine power or even engine failure). Ships
anticipating helicopter operations should be provided with equipment to measure vessel
movements, and details of the pitch, heave and roll of the ship should be notified as required to
the helicopter pilot. Helicopter operations may need to be aborted in particular combinations of
ship’s motions, which may jeopardise the safety and stability of the helicopter once it has landed
on the ship’s deck. The maximum permitted average rate of heave will depend on the type of
helicopter and the applicable operating rules (see Section 4.2.3).
When transfer of passengers by winch is necessary, control of excessive motion is particularly
critical, especially in respect of roll and heave. An updated report of these motions should
therefore be passed to the helicopter pilot immediately before commencing such operations. The
ship’s master should provide as stable a platform as possible, and a change of ship’s course may be
required for this purpose.

3.7.4

Special Conditions
In special circumstances, e.g. when at anchor, the ship may be unable to manoeuvre and may not
be able to satisfy the conditions outlined above. Helicopter operations may however take place in
such circumstances if the helicopter operator is informed of the situation before the helicopter
takes off from base.
If this results in the normal landing/winching facilities being unavailable, alternative arrangements
will have to be agreed between the master and the helicopter operator before the helicopter
leaves its base.

18

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


Guide to helicopter/ship operations

19


4

GENERAL SHIP REQUIREMENTS

4.1

SHIP OPERATING AREAS
Note: When “D” is used in the following text, it represents the extent of the available
operating area on or above the deck of the ship. Only helicopters whose maximum overall
length with rotors turning is D or less (see Appendix A) may be used for operations to the
ship in question.

4.1.1

Types of Operating Area
Ship operating areas fall into two distinct types:
a. Landing Area: defined as an operating area suitable for landing helicopters. The landing area
may consist of a purpose built structure located above the ship’s deck (referred to as a “purpose
built landing area”) or a non purpose built area located on the ship’s deck (referred to as a “non
purpose built landing area”). The landing area may be located on or over the bow or stern of the
ship, have an over-side or ship’s side location, or occupy an area amidships - usually on or near to
the ship’s centreline. The landing area may also be used for winching operations provided that the
winching criteria described in paragraph 4.1.3 below can be satisfied. However, where a landing
area with adequate size and obstacle clearance for the helicopter in question is provided, landing
is always the preferred option.
b.

Winching Area: defined as an operating area which may only be used for winching operations.

The guidance in Sections 4.1 and 4.2 will assist ship operators when deciding upon the most
suitable location for a landing or winching area on their ship. The optimum position for a landing
or winching area will normally be determined by the availability of a suitable space on the ship.
However, where there is more than one area identified and capable of accommodating the type of
helicopter(s) expected to be used, the ship’s master, in consultation with the helicopter operator,
should assess the merits of each location, taking particular account of the size and position of
obstacles and expected aerodynamic and ship motion effects (see Section 4.2).

4.1.2

Location and Size of Operating Area - Landing

4.1.2.1

Landing Area at the Ship’s Side
A non purpose built landing area located on a ship’s side should consist of a “clear zone” and a
“manoeuvring zone” as shown in Figure 4.1.
The clear zone should be capable of containing a circle with a minimum diameter of 1 x D. No
objects should be located within the clear zone except aids whose presence is essential for the safe
operation of the helicopter, and then only up to a maximum height of 2.5 cm. Such objects should
only be present if they do not represent a hazard to helicopters. Where there are immoveable fixed
objects located in the clear zone such as a “Butterworth lid”, these should be marked
conspicuously and annotated on the ship’s operating area diagram (a document that provides
visual references to the helicopter pilot and supplements other information provided by the ship
prior to commencing operations - see Appendix F).
In addition, a “manoeuvring zone” should be established, where possible, on the main deck of the
ship. The manoeuvring zone, intended to provide the helicopter with an additional degree of
protection to account for rotor overhang beyond the clear zone, should extend beyond the clear zone
by a minimum of 0.25 D, at any point. The manoeuvring zone may only contain obstacles whose
presence is essential for the safe operation of the helicopter, up to a maximum height of 25 cm.

20

Guide to helicopter/ship operations


In order to improve operational safety, where the operating area is coincident with the ship’s side,
the clear zone should extend to a distance of 1.5 D at the ship’s side while the manoeuvring zone
should extend to a distance of 2 D measured at the ship’s side. Within this manoeuvring zone, the
only obstacles present should be those essential for the safe operation of the helicopter, with a
maximum height of 25 cm (where there are immoveable fixed objects such as tank cleaning lines
they should be marked conspicuously and annotated on the ship’s operating area diagram). Any
railing located on the ship’s side should be removed or collapsed along the entire length of the
manoeuvring zone at the ship’s side (i.e. over a distance of at least 2 D). The general arrangements
and markings for a non purpose built landing area on a ship’s side are shown in Figure 4.1, while
the markings themselves are described more fully in Section 4.3.2.
4.1.2.2

Amidships Centreline Landing Area (Purpose Built and Non Purpose Built)
For some vessels, where it is not possible to accommodate the ship’s side arrangement, it may only
be possible to provide a landing area located in an amidships position, usually on or near to the
centreline of the ship. Where this is the case, the landing area should consist of a clear zone
capable of containing a circle with a minimum diameter of 1 x D. No objects should be located
within the clear zone except aids essential for the safe operation of the helicopter, and then only
up to a maximum height of 2.5 cm. Such objects should only be present if they do not represent a
hazard to the helicopter (where, for a non purpose built landing area, there are immoveable fixed
objects located in the clear zone such as a “Butterworth lid”, these should be marked
conspicuously and annotated on the ship’s operating area diagram). Forward and aft on the
centreline of the landing area should be two symmetrically located 150 degree limited obstacle
sectors with apexes on the circumference of the D reference circle (shown as Reference Points on
Figure 4.2). Within the area bounded by these two sectors, containing the airspace used by
helicopters during the final stages of approach and/or departure and overshoot, and around the
perimeter of the landing area D, there should be no obstructions above the level of the landing
area except obstacles whose presence is essential for the safe operation of the helicopter, and then
only up to a maximum height of 25 cm. To provide protection forward and aft from obstructions
adjacent to the landing area, an obstacle protection surface should extend both fore and aft of the
landing area to a distance of 1 x D on a 1:5 gradient. The general arrangement and markings for
an amidships centreline landing area are shown below in Figures 4.2 and 4.3 respectively. The
markings are described more fully in Section 4.3.3.
Note: Where the requirements for the limited obstacle sector and obstacle free sector
cannot be fully met - i.e. the 1:5 gradient is infringed or the “funnel of approach” is
compromised due to the presence of obstacles greater than 25 cm above the level of the
landing area, any infringements should be conspicuously marked and annotated on the
ship’s operating area diagram and assessed by the helicopter operator. The helicopter
operator may need to impose appropriate restrictions and/or limitations to ensure that
flight safety is not compromised. Where the nature of the infringement is significant, the
use of the landing area may be severely limited or prohibited altogether and winching
may be the only possibility (see Section 4.1.3).

Guide to helicopter/ship operations

21


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×