Tải bản đầy đủ

NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH CỰC KỲ HAY

www.expressenglish.4t.com

١

Omar AL-Hourani


‫‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ Express English‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲨﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺙ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫أ فا‬

‫‪:English Letters‬‬

‫ا‬

‫ ﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺷﻜﻼﻥ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪:Capital Letters‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ‪Letter‬‬
‫‪N‬‬

‫‪M‬‬


‫‪L‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬

‫‪K‬‬
‫‪Y‬‬

‫‪J‬‬
‫‪X‬‬

‫‪I‬‬
‫‪W‬‬

‫‪H‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪G‬‬
‫‪U‬‬

‫‪F‬‬
‫‪T‬‬

‫‪E‬‬
‫‪S‬‬

‫‪D‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫‪C‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬

‫‪B‬‬
‫‪P‬‬

‫‪A‬‬
‫‪O‬‬

‫‪:Small Letters‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ‪Letter‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬
‫‪z‬‬

‫‪k‬‬
‫‪y‬‬

‫‪j‬‬
‫‪x‬‬

‫‪I‬‬
‫‪w‬‬

‫‪h‬‬
‫‪b‬‬

‫‪g‬‬
‫‪u‬‬

‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪e‬‬
‫‪s‬‬

‫‪d‬‬
‫‪r‬‬

‫‪c‬‬
‫‪q‬‬

‫‪b‬‬
‫‪p‬‬

‫ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ‪ A , E , I , O , U‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ( ‪.Vowel Letters‬‬‫‪.Consonant Letters‬‬
‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ‪Letter‬‬‫ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ u‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ﻣﺜـﻞ ‪" umbrella‬ﴰﺴـﻴﺔ" ﻭﺑﻌـﺾ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪" university‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬

‫‪a‬‬
‫‪o‬‬


:Numbers of English

‫ا‬

‫أر م ا‬

:‫ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬/‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‬
0

‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬

Zero

1

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

One

2

‫ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ‬

Two

3

‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬

Three

4

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬

Four

5

‫ﲬﺴﺔ‬

Five

6

‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬

Six

7

‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬

Seven

8

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

Eight

9

‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬

Nine

10

‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬

Ten
:‫ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‬

11

‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Eleven

12

‫ﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Twelve

13

‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Thirteen

14

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Fourteen

15

‫ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Fifteen

16

‫ﺳﺘﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Sixteen

17

‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Seventeen

18

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Eighteen

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٣

Omar AL-Hourani


19

‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Nineteen
:‫ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‬

20

‫ﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬

Twenty

30

‫ﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬

Thirty

40

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬

Forty

50

‫ﲬﺴﻮﻥ‬

Fifty

60

‫ﺳﺘﻮﻥ‬

Sixty

70

‫ﺳﺒﻌﻮﻥ‬

Seventy

80

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

Eighty

90

‫ﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬

Ninety

100

‫ﻣﺌﺔ‬

Hundred

1000

‫ﺃﻟﻒ‬

Thousand

1000000

‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬

Million

1000000000

(‫ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ )ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬

Billion (Milliard)
:‫ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬

‫ﺭﻣﺰﻩ‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

1st

First

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬

2nd

Second

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

3rd

Third

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬

4th

Fourth

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬

5th

Fifth

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬

6th

Sixth

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٤

Omar AL-Hourani


‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬

7th

Seventh

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬

8th

Eighth

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬

9th

Ninth

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬

10th

Tenth

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

11th

Eleventh

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

12th

Twelfth

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

13th

Thirteenth

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

14th

Fourteenth

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

15th

Fifteenth

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬

20th

Twentieth

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬

30th

Thirtieth

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬

40th

Fortieth

‫ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ‬

50th

Fiftieth

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ‬

51st

Fifth First

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻮﻥ‬

62nd

Sixth Second

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

83rd

Eighth Third

‫ﺍﳌﺌﺔ‬

100th

Hundredth

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻒ‬

1000th

Thousandth

‫ﺍﳌﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬

1000000th

Millionth

(‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻮﻥ )ﺍﳌﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬

1000000000th

Billionth

‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬

-

Last

٥

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expressenglish.4t.com


:‫ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬/‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‬
:‫( ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬١
Twenty six

‫ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬: 26

Thirty seven

‫ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬: 37

Forty three

‫ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬: 43

Fifty five

‫ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ‬: 55

Sixty one

‫ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺳﺘﻮﻥ‬: 61

Seventy four

‫ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﻮﻥ‬: 74

Eighty two

‫ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬: 82

Ninety eight

‫ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬: 98
:‫( ﺍﳌﺌﺎﺕ‬٢

www.expressenglish.4t.com

One hundred thirty one

‫ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬: 131

Nine hundred eight

‫ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬: 908

٦

Omar AL-Hourani


Three hundred twelve

‫ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 312

Five hundred eleven

‫ ﲬﺲ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 511

:‫( ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ‬٣
One thousand two hundred thirty five ‫ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﲔ‬: 1235

Three thousand five hundred twelve ‫ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﲬﺲ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 3512

Fourteen thousand three hundred five ‫ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ‬: 14305

٣

٢

١

‫ ﺳﺖ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬: 651345
١

٢

٣

Six hundred fifty one thousand three hundred forty five
٤

٣

٢

١

‫ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 2453212
١

٢

٣

٤

Two million four hundred fifty three thousand two hundred twelve

:English Nouns ‫ء‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

، Ali ‫ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ )ﻋﻠـﻲ‬، book ‫ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬، apple ‫ ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ‬، school ‫ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬، house ‫ ﻣﱰﻝ‬:‫ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬.(America ‫ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‬، London ‫ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‬، Mary ‫ ﻣﺎﺭﻱ‬، James ‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ‬
www.expressenglish.4t.com

٧

Omar AL-Hourani


‫ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ "ﺍﻝ"‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫)ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﲏ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫"‪."the‬‬
‫"‬
‫ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪.(school , the school) :‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ )ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ( ‪the school :‬‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ )ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ( ‪school :‬‬

‫‪."a‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ "‪a , an‬‬‫"ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‬
‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ a‬ﻭ ‪an‬؟‬
‫ﺝ‪ /‬ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "a‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "an‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺻﻮﰐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ، a school‬ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ ‪an apple‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬

‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ‬

‫ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a , an‬ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ ، water‬ﺳﻜﺮ ‪" sugar‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I drink a water.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ًﺀ(‬

‫‪I drink water.‬‬

‫ﺟـﻤـﻊ ﺍﻷﺳـﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﲨﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ "‪ "s‬ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ‪school‬‬‫‪schools‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪school‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺍﲨﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻄﲑ ‪ ، fly‬ﺃﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ ‪bus‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ %٩٠ /‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪flys‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬

‫‪buss , fly‬‬

‫‪bus‬‬

‫‪buses , flies‬‬
‫"ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a , an‬ﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I bought a toys.‬‬
‫‪toys.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺑﹰﺎ(‬
‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳ ‪‬‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫‪I bought toys.‬‬

‫‪:English Verb‬‬
‫ل ‪Verbs‬‬

‫ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺗﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫‪.V3‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ‪ - V1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ" ‪ - V2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ" ‪V‬‬
‫‪Present (V‬‬
‫‪V1) - Past (V2) - Past Participle (V3).‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟـﺚ ﻓﻴﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪:Regular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳـﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫"‪ ."ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﻠﻌﺐ"‪:‬‬
‫"‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫‪play‬‬
‫‪lay - played‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫‪- played‬‬
‫‪ed‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪Irregular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﺄﻛﻞ"‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﺸﺮﺏ" ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﳚﺮﺡ"‪:‬‬
‫‪eat - ate - eaten‬‬
‫‪drink‬‬
‫‪rink - drank‬‬
‫‪rank - drunk‬‬
‫‪runk‬‬
‫‪hurt - hurt - hurt‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﻆ"‬
‫ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪:Past‬‬
‫ﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺟ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶ‬‫‪ ،"ed‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ed‬‬‫ﺃﻓﻌﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻏﲑ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪.Regular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﻜﻲ ‪ ، Cry‬ﳛﺐ ‪Love‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ %٩٠ /‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪Cryed‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬

‫‪Loveed , Cry‬‬

‫ﺑﻜﻰ ‪Cried‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫‪Love‬‬

‫ﺣﺐ‪Loved ‬‬

‫"ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ ‪:Present‬‬
‫‪ ، play‬ﻳﺸـﺮﺏ‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌـﺐ‬‫‪.sit‬‬
‫‪ ، drink‬ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ، eeat‬ﳚﻠﺲ ‪s‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪:Imperative‬‬
‫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺐ ‪ ، play‬ﺍﺷﺮﺏ ‪، drink‬‬‫ﻛﹸﻞ ‪ ، eat‬ﺍﺟﻠﺲ ‪.sit‬‬
‫ا‬

‫إ‬

‫‪:-s‬‬

‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-s‬ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-s‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻓﻘـﻂ "ﺗـﺪﺭﺱ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "z‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "sh‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "ch‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "s‬ﺃﻭ "‪:"ss‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ -es‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ .-s‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ ‪buses‬‬

‫‪bus‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "o‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ -es‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ .-s‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ‪does‬‬

‫‪do‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ‪Kilos‬‬

‫‪ , Video‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪Photos‬‬

‫‪ , Kilo‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪Videos‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻮ ‪Pianos‬‬

‫‪Photo‬‬

‫‪Piano‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ y‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ies‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻜﻲ ‪cries‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪Harrys :‬‬
‫ا‬

‫إ‬

‫‪ , cry‬ﻳﻘﻠﻖ ‪worries‬‬

‫‪worry‬‬

‫‪Harry‬‬

‫‪:-ing‬‬

‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-ing‬ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪،‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺻﻔﺔ( ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ‪missing‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﻢ( ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ‪feeling‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪ ‪miss‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪feel‬‬
‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "e‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ e‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ing‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ‪coming‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪being‬‬

‫‪come‬‬

‫‪be‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪:"ie‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ ie‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ying‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ‪lying‬‬

‫‪lie‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﻣﺸﺪﺩ "ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﻧﻀﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ing‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﳜﻄﻂ ‪planning‬‬
‫ا‬

‫إ‬

‫‪ , plan‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ‪stopping‬‬

‫‪ , stop‬ﳚﺮﻱ ‪running‬‬

‫‪run‬‬

‫‪:-ed‬‬

‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-ed‬ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪:"e‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ e‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ‪liked‬‬

‫‪ , like‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪used‬‬

‫‪use‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ y‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ied‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ‪studied‬‬

‫‪study‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "w‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻻ ﳓﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻀ‪‬ﻌﻒ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺳﻮﺍ ‪ ed‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ‪played‬‬

‫‪play‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻣﺸﺪﺩ "ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻧﻀﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﳜﻄﻂ ‪planned‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪ , plan‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ‪stopped‬‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫‪stop‬‬

‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ا‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫ا‬

‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﲰﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬‫‪Verb.1‬‬
‫‪1 + Object‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ Object‬ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻇﺮﻑ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪" .‬ﺻﻔﺔ"‬

‫‪He is smart.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﲎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪" .‬ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ"‬

‫‪The building is there.‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ‪ ، He‬ﻫﻲ ‪ ، She‬ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ‪ ، It‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ "‪ "s‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪.s‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ‪ ، You‬ﳓﻦ ‪ ، We‬ﻫﻢ‪،‬ﻫﻦ ‪ ، They‬ﺃﻧﺎ ‪ ، I‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬‫ﻻ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫‪."apple‬‬
‫‪ ، "eat‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ "‪apples‬‬
‫‪ ، "John‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺄﻛﻞ "‪at‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﻥ "‪John‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫‪John eats apples.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ eat‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﻥ ‪."John‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻫﻢ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪  .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ "ﻫﻢ"‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻢ "‪ ، "They‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ "‪ ، "play‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ "‪."football‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪They play football.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ play‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﻫﻢ ‪."They‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ‪ football‬ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼـﻴﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ـﺎﺭﻉ‬
‫ـﻪ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸـ‬
‫ـﻮﻝ ﺑـ‬
‫ـﺐ "‪ ، "play‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌـ‬
‫ـﻞ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻌـ‬
‫ـﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄ ـﻂ "‪ ، "The cats‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـ‬
‫"‪."in street‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ "ﺃﻱ ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ"‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats play in a street.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ "ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats play in the street.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ play‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪  .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ "ﻫﻮ"‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ "‪ "He‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﺮﺏ "‪ "drink‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺀ "‪"water‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪He drinks water.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ‪ s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ drink‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﻫﻮ ‪."He‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ water‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪.a‬‬
‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﺼﺎﻍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪Have lunch.‬‬

‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪Drink water.‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪Be sure of that.‬‬
‫‪Be careful.‬‬
‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﱐ ﺣﺬﺭﺓ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﻧﺎ ﺣﺬﺭﻳ‪‬ﻦ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺣﺬﺭﻳﻦ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻦ‪ ‬ﺣﺬﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻄﲏ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪Give it to me.‬‬

‫ﺃﻋﻄﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪Give me the pen‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﺫﻫﱯ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺍﺫﻫﺒﺎ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﱳ ﺍﺫﻫﱭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﺫﻫﺐ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪You go‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪﻳﻦ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻼ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ‪Do whatever you want. .‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Do‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Do have lunch.‬‬
‫‪Do drink water.‬‬
‫‪Do be careful.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ Do not (Don't‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻛــﺎﺭﻟــﻮﺱ ﺑـﻄـﻞ‪.‬‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﲰﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﲰﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻛﻴـﻒ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺘﺮﲨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ "‪"Carlos‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﻄﻞ "‪"a hero‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ؟ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪He , She , It ,‬‬

‫‪is‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪are You , We , They ,‬‬
‫‪am I‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ is , are , am‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ" ﻭﻣﺎﺿﻴﻬﺎ ‪ was , were‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Carlos is a hero..‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ‪ is‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ‪"Carlos‬‬
‫ﻼ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳓـﻦ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄ ﹰ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﳓﺬﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ" ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ‪ " :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﺑﻄﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬‫‪He is He's , She is She's , It is It's‬‬
‫‪John is John's , Ali is Ali's‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬‫‪You are You're , They are They're , We are We're‬‬
‫‪I am I'm‬‬
‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﻬﻤﻞ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(You are/You‬‬
‫‪are You're) careless.‬‬
‫‪careless‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats are beautiful.‬‬
‫‪beautiful‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪The (ccat is/cat‬‬
‫‪at's) beautiful.‬‬
‫‪beautiful‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪(He is//He's) smart.‬‬
‫‪smart‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(She is/She's‬‬
‫‪is‬‬
‫‪) smart.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪(We are/We're‬‬
‫‪are‬‬
‫‪re) smart.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪(They‬‬
‫'‪They are/They‬‬
‫‪They're) smart‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﻛﺴﻮﻝ‪/‬ﻛﺴﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(It is/It‬‬
‫‪It's) lazy.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(I am/I‬‬
‫‪I'm) busy.‬‬
‫‪busy‬‬

‫‪ cats're‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "ﻗﻄﻂ ‪ "cats‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫‪ cats‬ﺇﱃ ‪ats're‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﱂ ﳔﺘﺼﺮ ‪ats are‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ "smart‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫"‪smart , busy , lazy , beautiful , careless‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ‪careless‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫‪www.expresseenglish.4t.com‬‬


:clock

‫ا‬

‫آ‬

:British Language ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‬
X:30
half past X (١
9:30
half past nine o'clock.
12:30
half past twelve o'clock.
o'clock
X
X:15
quarter past X (٢
11:15
quarter past eleven o'clock
o'clock.
22:15
quarter past twenty two "ten" o'clock
o'clock.
X
X:45
quarter to X (٣
15:45
quarter to sixteen "three" o'clock
o'clock.
21:45
quarter to twenty two "nine"
nine" o'clock
o'clock.
.‫( ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‬٤
10:32
ten and thirty two o'clock..
14:05
fourteen and five o'clock.
o'clock
:American Language ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‬

10:15
9:30
20:45

:‫ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ten and fifteen o'clock.
o'clock
nine and thirty o'clock.
o'clock
twenty and forty five o'clock
o'clock.

"‫ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ "ﻭ‬:‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬and ‫ ﻣﻌﲎ‬John and Carlos.
Carlos

.‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ‬

He and she are smart.

.‫ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬
.‫ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻷﻥ "ﻫﻮ ﻭ ﻫﻲ" ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﲨﻊ‬are ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ‬

"‫"ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬
www.expresseenglish.4t.com

١٧

Omar AL-Hourani
AL


‫آ‬

‫ا ر‬

‫‪:Date‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﻡ‪ ، Day :‬ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ ، Week :‬ﺷﻬﺮ‪ ، Month :‬ﻗﺮﻥ‪Century :‬‬
‫ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ )‪ , Monday (Mon‬ﺍﻷﺣﺪ )‪ , Sunday (Sun‬ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ )‪Saturday (Sat‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ )‪ , Thursday (Thu‬ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ )‪ ,Wednesday (Wed‬ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ )‪Tuesday (Thu‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ )‪Friday (Fri‬‬
‫ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‪:‬‬‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ(‬

‫‪January‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺷﺒﺎﻁ )ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ(‬

‫‪February‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺁﺫﺍﺭ )ﻣﺎﺭﺱ(‬

‫‪March‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻥ )ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ(‬

‫‪April‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﺎﺭ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ(‬

‫‪May‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ )ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ(‬

‫‪June‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﲤﻮﺯ )ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ(‬

‫‪July‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ﺁﺏ )ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ(‬

‫‪August‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ )ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪September‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ(‬

‫‪October‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪November‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪December‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

‫ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﺮﻗﻤﲔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻤﲔ ﺃﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻛﺮﻗﻢ ﻋـﺎﺩﻱ "ﺃﻟـﻮﻑ"‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪nineteen-ninety nine‬‬
‫‪twenty-zero zero‬‬
‫‪sixteen-thirty one‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ :AD‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩﻱ "ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ" ‪،‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬
‫‪2000‬‬
‫‪1631‬‬
‫‪ :AH‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ "ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻱ"‬

‫‪ :BC‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩﻱ "ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ"‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
2/5/1320AD
3/12/1401AH

www.expressenglish.4t.com

two/five/thirteen-twenty AD
three/twelve/fourteen-one AH
1000BC ‫ﺃﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩ‬

7th century

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬

1st century

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

١٩

Omar AL-Hourani


‫ا ق‬

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫وا‬

‫آ ‪:‬‬

‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﺟـﺪ ﻓـﺮﻭﻕ‬‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﻓﻼ ﻋﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﲔ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻓﺴﻨﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺙ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ )‪:(-our / -or‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻈﻠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳏﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫‪arbor‬‬

‫‪arbour‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﻉ‬

‫‪armor‬‬

‫‪armour‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ‬

‫‪behavior‬‬

‫‪behaviour‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬

‫‪color‬‬

‫‪colour‬‬

‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ‬

‫‪endeavor‬‬

‫‪endeavour‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫‪favor‬‬

‫‪favour‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻫﺞ ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫‪fervor‬‬

‫‪fervour‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺤﺮ‬

‫‪glamor‬‬

‫‪glamour‬‬

‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﺠﺄ‬

‫‪harbor‬‬

‫‪harbour‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬

‫‪honor‬‬

‫‪honour‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫‪humor‬‬

‫‪humour‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫‪labor‬‬

‫‪labour‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﺭ‬

‫‪neighbor‬‬

‫‪neighbour‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻜﻬﺔ‬

‫‪odor‬‬

‫‪odour‬‬

‫ﺭﺩﻫﺔ‬

‫‪parlor‬‬

‫‪parlour‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﺪ‬

‫‪rancor‬‬

‫‪rancour‬‬

‫ﺇﺷﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫‪rumor‬‬

‫‪rumour‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫‪www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬


saviour

savior

‫ ﳐﻠﺺ‬، ‫ﻣﻨﻘﺬ‬

splendour

splendor

‫ ﺭﻭﻋﺔ‬، ‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻕ‬

vapour

vapor

‫ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‬، ‫ﲞﺎﺭ‬

vigour

vigor

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‬

:(-re / -er) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

centre

center

‫ ﻭﺳﻂ‬، ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬

fibre

fiber

‫ﻟﻴﻒ‬

metre

meter

‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬

piastre

piaster

‫ﻗﺮﺵ‬

sombre

somber

‫ ﻛﺌﻴﺐ‬، ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻢ‬

theatre

theater

‫ﻣﺴﺮﺡ‬

:(-logue / -log) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

catalogue

catalog

‫ ﻛﺘﺎﻟﻮﺝ‬، ‫ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬

dialogue

dialog

‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬

monologue

monolog

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺟﺎﺓ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬

prologue

prolog

‫ﻣﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪ‬

:‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬/‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

counsellor

counselor

‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٢١

Omar AL-Hourani


jeweller

jeweler

‫ﺻﺎﺋﻎ ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ‬

kidnapper

kidnaper

‫ﺧﺎﻃﻒ‬

programmer

programer

‫ﻣﱪﻣﺞ‬

traveller

traveler

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬

worshipper

worshiper

‫ﻞ‬‫ﻣﺒﺠ‬

:(-ce / -se) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

defence

defense

‫ﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬

licence

license

‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬

offence

offense

‫ ﺃﺫﻯ‬، ‫ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ‬

practice

practise

‫ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺪﺭﺏ‬

pretence

pretense

‫ﻋﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬
:‫ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬/‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

apartment

flat

‫ﺷﻘﺔ‬

apologize

apologise

‫ﻳﻌﺘﺬﺭ‬

cheque

check

‫ ﺷﻴﻚ ﻣﺼﺮﰲ‬، ‫ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬، ‫ﳛﻘﻖ‬

film

movie

‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬

grey

gray

‫ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬

holiday

vacation

‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ‬

moustache

mustache

‫ﺷﺎﺭﺏ‬

petrol

gasoline

‫ﺑﱰﻳﻦ‬

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٢٢

Omar AL-Hourani


plough

plow

‫ ﺟﺮﺍﻓﺔ‬، ‫ﳏﺮﺍﺙ‬

programme

program

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬

pyjamas

pajamas

(‫ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ )ﲝﺎﻣﺔ‬

recognize

recognise

‫ﻑ‬‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮ‬

relize

relise

‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬

sulphur

sulfur

‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬

tyre

tire

‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬

waggon

wagon

‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ‬

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٢٣

Omar AL-Hourani


Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) 102nd is written as:
A. one hundred second.
B. one hundred and second.
C. one hundredth second.
D. one hundredth and second.
2) 8014698 is written as:
A. eight million and fourteen thousand six hundred ninety eight.
B. eight million fourteen thousand six hundred and ninety eight.
C. eight millions fourteen thousands six hundreds ninety eight.
D. eight million fourteen thousand six hundred ninety eight.
3) run + -ed:
A. runned.
B. runed.
C. runied.
D. None of all above.
4) wish + -s:
A. wishes.
B. wishs.
C. wishies.
D. None of all above.
5) matrix + "-s":
A. matrises.
B. matrixs.
C. matrixes.
D. None of all above.
6) lie + -ing:
A. lyeing.
B. lieing.
C. lying.
D. None of all above.
7) read + -ed:
A. read.
B. readed.
C. readded.
D. None of all above.

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٢٤

Omar AL-Hourani


8) love + -ing:
A. loving
B. loveing
C. lovving
D. None of all above.
9) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Dogs drink a water.
B. Dogs drink water.
C. Dogs drink the water.
D. Dogs drinks water.
E. Dogs drinks the water.
10) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Play with me.
B. Played with me.
C. Playing with me.
D. None of all above.
11) 10:45 is read in British clock as:
A. ten and forty five o'clock.
B. quarter to eleven o'clock.
C. quarter to ten o'clock.
D. quarter past ten o'clock.
E. quarter past eleven o'clock.
12) 9/10/2005AD is written as:
A. nine/ten/twenty-fife AD.
B. nine/ten/two thousand five AD.
C. nine/ten/two thousand five BC.
D. None of all above.
13) The most difference between British and American Language is:
A. Grammar
B. Vocabulary.
C. How to pronounce words.
D. None of all above.
14) About the clock topic, all answers below are correct except:
A. Americans use PM and AM.
B. 8:15 means "quarter past eight o'clock".
C. There is a big difference between American and British clock.
D. 10:22 can be read in British "ten and twenty two o'clock".

www.expressenglish.4t.com

٢٥

Omar AL-Hourani


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×