Tải bản đầy đủ

Safety at work


Safety at Work


This page intentionally left blank


Safety at Work
Seventh edition

Edited by

John Ridley and John Channing

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD
PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO
Butter-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier


Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK

30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA
First edition 1983
Second edition 1985
Reprinted 1987
Third edition 1990
Reprinted 1991, 1992, 1993
Fourth edition 1994
Reprinted 1996, 1998
Fifth edition 1999
Reprinted 2000
Sixth edition 2003
Reprinted 2004, 2006
Seventh edition 2008
Copyright © 2008, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher
Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights
Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (ϩ44) (0) 1865 843830; fax: (ϩ44) (0) 1865 853333;
e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online
by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and
selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material
Notice
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage
to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,
or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas
contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical
sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages
should be made
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
ISBN: 978 0 7506 8035 6
For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications
visit our website at books.elsevier.com
Printed and bound in Hungary
08 09 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3


Contents

Foreword

xvii

Preface to seventh edition

xix

Preface to first edition

xxi

List of contributors

Part 1 Law
1.1 Explaining the law Brenda Watts
1.1.1 Introduction
1.1.2 The incident
1.1.3 Some possible actions arising from the incident
1.1.4 Legal issues of the incident
1.1.5 Criminal and civil law
1.1.6 Branches of law
1.1.7 Law and fact
1.1.8 The courts
1.1.9 Judicial precedent
1.1.10 Court procedure
1.1.11 Identity of court personnel
1.1.12 Employment Tribunals
1.1.13 European community courts (ECJ)
1.1.14 Human Rights Courts
1.1.15 Sources of English Law
1.1.16 Legislation
1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at
Work etc. Act
1.1.18 Safety legislation today
1.1.19 Principles developed by the courts

xxiii
1
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
7
7
17
18
23
25
26
28
29
30
36
37
40
v


vi

Contents

1.2 Principal health and safety Acts S. Simpson
1.2.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
1.2.2 The Factories Act 1961
1.2.3 Fire precautions
1.2.4 The Mines and Quarries Acts 1954–71
1.2.5 The Environmental Protection Act 1990
1.2.6 The road traffic Acts 1972–91
1.2.7 The Public Health Act 1936
1.2.8 Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928
1.2.9 Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995
1.2.10 Crown premises
1.2.11 Subordinate legislation

48
48
58
58
58
58
59
59
60
60
60
61

1.3 Influences on health and safety J. R. Ridley
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 The Robens Report
1.3.3 Delegation of law-making powers
1.3.4 Legislative framework for health and safety
1.3.5 Self-regulation
1.3.6 Goal-setting legislation
1.3.7 European Union
1.3.8 European standards
1.3.9 Our social partners
1.3.10 Social expectations
1.3.11 Public expectations
1.3.12 Political influences
1.3.13 Roles in health and safety
1.3.14 Safety culture
1.3.15 Quality culture
1.3.16 No fault liability
1.3.17 Risk assessments
1.3.18 Risk aversion
1.3.19 Conclusion

64
64
64
65
66
67
68
69
72
74
74
75
75
76
77
77
78
78
79
80

1.4 Law of contract R. W. Hodgin
1.4.1 Contracts
1.4.2 Contracts of employment
1.4.3 Employment legislation
1.4.4 Law of sale
1.4.5 Specialised legislation affecting occupational
safety advisers

82
82
85
86
88

1.5 Employment law R. D. Miskin, updated by Sabahhit Ali
1.5.1 Introduction
1.5.2 Employment law
1.5.3 Discrimination
1.5.4 Disciplinary procedures
1.5.5 Dismissal
1.5.6 Summary

90
94
94
94
96
104
107
116


Contents

vii

1.6 Consumer protection R. G. Lawson
1.6.1 Fair conditions of contract
1.6.2 A fair quality of goods and services
1.6.3 Product safety
1.6.4 Product liability
1.6.5 Misleading advertising
1.6.6 Exclusion clauses
1.6.7 Distance selling
1.6.8 Stop now orders
1.6.9 Consumer redress

118
118
126
128
134
136
138
141
141
142

1.7 Insurance cover and compensation A. West
1.7.1 Workmen’s compensation and the State
insurance scheme
1.7.2 Employer’s liability insurance
1.7.3 Public Liability insurance
1.7.4 Investigation, negotiation and the quantum of
damage
1.7.5 General

145
145
148
154
155
159

1.8 Civil liability E. J. Skellett, updated by David Greenhalgh
1.8.1 Introduction
1.8.2 The common law and its development
1.8.3 The law of tort
1.8.4 Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984
1.8.5 Supply of goods
1.8.6 Employer’s liability
1.8.7 Employer’s Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969
1.8.8 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
1.8.9 Defences to a civil liability claim
1.8.10 Volenti non fit injuria
1.8.11 Limitation
1.8.12 Assessment of damages
1.8.13 Fatal accidents
1.8.14 ‘No fault’ liability system

160
160
160
161
165
166
167
170
170
170
171
172
172
174
175

Part 2 The management of risk
2.1 An introduction to risk management J. E. Channing
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 The components of risk
2.1.3 Strategies to control risk
2.1.4 Risk management in the 21st century

177
179
179
181
184
188

2.2 Principles of the management of risk L. Bamber
2.2.1 Principles of action necessary to prevent accidents
2.2.2 Definitions of hazard, risk and danger
2.2.3 Risk management
2.2.4 Loss control
2.2.5 Degrees of hazard

191
191
192
194
197
202


viii

Contents

2.2.6 Accident causation models
2.2.7 Accident prevention: legal, humanitarian and
economic reasons for action
2.3 Risk management: organisation and administration
for safety J. E. Channing
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Organisation structure models
2.3.3 Roles and responsibilities
2.3.4 Work groups
2.3.5 Organisational theory
2.3.6 Organisational techniques
2.3.7 Culture
2.3.8 Potential problems
2.3.9 The role of specialists in the organisation
2.3.10 Conclusion
2.4 Risk management: techniques and practices L. Bamber
2.4.1 Risk identification, assessment and control
2.4.2 Job safety analysis
2.4.3 System safety
2.4.4 Systems theory and design
2.4.5 System safety engineering
2.4.6 Fault tree analysis
2.4.7 Probabilistic risk assessments
2.4.8 Health and safety in design and planning
2.4.9 Quality, Environment, Safety and Health
Management Systems (QUENSH)
2.4.10 Use of data on accidents
2.4.11 Maintenance systems and planned maintenance
2.4.12 Damage control
2.4.13 Cost-effectiveness of risk management
2.4.14 Performance evaluation and appraisal
2.4.15 Loss control profiling
2.5 The collection and use of accident and incident data
Dr A. J. Boyle
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Types of accident and incident data
2.5.3 Collection of accident and incident data
2.5.4 Legal requirements to notify accidents and
incidents
2.5.5 The use of accident and incident data
2.5.6 Epidemiological analysis
2.5.7 Accident investigation
2.5.8 Accident and incident data and risk assessment data
2.5.9 The use of computers
Appendix. UK requirements for reporting accidents and
incidents

202
204

209
209
210
213
216
218
220
224
225
228
229
230
230
236
241
243
246
247
248
249
251
253
254
255
257
260
263

267
267
267
271
275
275
283
285
296
297
302


Contents

2.6 Practical safety management: systems and techniques
J. E. Channing
2.6.1 Introduction
2.6.2 Legal obligations
2.6.3 Generic safety management
2.6.4 Implementing a regulation within a safety
management system
2.6.5 Safety management and housekeeping
2.6.6 Assessment techniques
2.6.7 Proprietary audit systems
2.6.8 Safety systems and incidents
2.6.9 Learning organisations
2.6.10 Safety management systems in small organisations
2.6.11 Limitations of safety systems
2.6.12 Conclusion
2.7 The individual and safety Andrew Hale
2.7.1 Introduction: What does this chapter try to do?
2.7.2 Individuals as controllers of danger
2.7.3 Behavioural science and the human information
processor
2.7.4 Individual behaviour in the face of danger
2.7.5 Change
2.7.6 Conclusion
2.8 Risk management and behaviour modification
J. E. Channing
2.8.1 Introduction
2.8.2 Behaviour modification for employees
2.8.3 Behaviour modification for managers and
supervisors
2.8.4 Applying behaviour concepts to incident
investigation
2.8.5 Behaviour concepts and the safety management
system
2.8.6 Risk, behaviour, leadership and commitment
2.8.7 Behaviour modification processes: the hazards
2.8.8 Behaviour and safety culture
2.8.9 Conclusion
Part 3 Occupational health and hygiene
3.1 The structure and functions of the human body
Dr T. Coates
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 History
3.1.3 The functions of an occupational health department
3.1.4 Overseas developments
3.1.5 Risks to health at work
3.1.6 Occupational hygiene

ix

307
307
308
309
313
319
321
326
327
328
330
331
331
333
333
335
340
355
377
389
393
393
395
406
411
412
415
416
417
418
423
425
425
425
427
428
429
429


x

Contents

3.1.7
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.1.10
3.1.11

First aid at work
Basic human anatomy and physiology
Cancer and other problems of cell growth
The body’s defence mechanisms
Factors determining the effect of substances in
the body
3.1.12 The assessment of risk to health

431
432
447
448
449
449

3.2 Occupational diseases Dr A. R. L. Clark
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Toxicology
3.2.3 Diseases of the skin
3.2.4 Diseases of the respiratory system
3.2.5 Diseases from metals
3.2.6 Pesticides
3.2.7 Solvents
3.2.8 Gassing
3.2.9 Oxygen deficiency
3.2.10 Occupational cancer
3.2.11 Physical agents
3.2.12 Ionising radiations
3.2.13 Noise-induced hearing loss
3.2.14 Working in heat
3.2.15 Work related upper limb disorders (WRULD)
3.2.16 Diseases due to micro-organisms
3.2.17 Psycho-social disorders
3.2.18 Target organs

451
451
451
455
458
463
468
468
473
475
476
478
479
482
485
485
486
489
490

3.3 Occupational hygiene Dr C. Hartley
3.3.1 Recognition
3.3.2 Evaluation
3.3.3 Control measures
3.3.4 Summary

494
494
494
514
522

3.4 Radiation Dr A. D. Wrixon and updated by
Peter Shaw and Dr M. Maslanyj
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Structure of matter
3.4.3 Radioactivity
3.4.4 Ionising radiation
3.4.5 Biological effects of ionising radiation
3.4.6 Quantities and units
3.4.7 Basic principles of radiological protection
3.4.8 Legal requirements
3.4.9 Health Protection Agency
3.4.10 Incidents and emergencies
3.4.11 Non-ionising radiation

524
524
524
525
525
526
527
528
532
536
536
537

3.5 Noise and vibration R. W. Smith and updated by Terry Bramer
3.5.1 What is sound?
3.5.2 Other terms commonly found in acoustics

542
542
545


Contents

3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7
3.5.8
3.5.9
3.5.10
3.5.11

Transmission of sound
The sound level meter
The ear
The equivalent noise level
Community noise levels
Work area noise levels
Noise control techniques
Vibration
Summary

xi

548
549
550
552
553
554
555
564
565

3.6 Workplace pollution, heat and ventilation F. S. Gill
3.6.1 Methods of assessment of workplace air
pollution
3.6.2 Measurement of the thermal environment
3.6.3 Standards for workplace environments
3.6.4 Ventilation control of a workplace environment
3.6.5 Assessment of performance of ventilation systems

568
571
572
574
576

3.7 Lighting E. G. Hooper and updated by Jonathan David
3.7.1 Introduction
3.7.2 The eye
3.7.3 Eye conditions
3.7.4 Definitions
3.7.5 Types of lighting
3.7.6 Illuminances
3.7.7 Factors affecting the quality of lighting
3.7.8 Emergency lighting
3.7.9 Recycling and dangerous substances
3.7.10 Use of light measuring instruments

581
581
581
582
583
585
586
588
591
592
592

3.8 Applied ergonomics J. R. Ridley
3.8.1 Introduction
3.8.2 Physiology
3.8.3 Working environment
3.8.4 Manual handling
3.8.5 Repetitive actions
3.8.6 Plant design
3.8.7 Controls and indicators
3.8.8 Noise and vibrations
3.8.9 Stress
3.8.10 Display screen equipment (DSE)
3.8.11 Signs and signals
3.8.12 The written word
3.8.13 Coda

594
594
596
609
615
616
617
617
620
621
622
623
624
624

Part 4 Workplace safety
4.1 Science in engineering safety
4.1.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Structure of matter

627
629
629
629

J. R. Ridley

567


xii

Contents

4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9
4.1.10
4.1.11

Properties of chemicals
Physical properties
Energy and work
Mechanics
Strength of materials
Modes of failure
Testing
Hydraulics
Summary

631
635
641
642
643
645
645
646
647

4.2 Fire precautions Ray Chalklen
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Basic fire technology
4.2.3 Fire hazards and their control
4.2.4 Fire alarms and detectors
4.2.5 Classification of fires
4.2.6 Portable fire-fighting equipment
4.2.7 Fixed fire-fighting equipment
4.2.8 Fire safety signs
4.2.9 Means of escape in case of fire
4.2.10 Fire engineering
4.2.11 Fire protection measures
4.2.12 Legal requirements
4.2.13 Fire risk assessment
4.2.14 Access and facilities for the fire brigade
4.2.15 Fire terminology

649
649
649
652
656
663
665
672
680
680
684
685
689
694
697
698

4.3 Safe use of machinery J. R. Ridley
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Strategy for selecting safeguards
4.3.3 Safeguarding techniques
4.3.4 Powered trucks
4.3.5 Lifting equipment
4.3.6 Pressure systems
4.3.7 Coda

704
704
711
714
725
728
736
740

4.4 Electricity E. G. Hooper and revised by Chris Buck
4.4.1 Alternating and direct currents
4.4.2 Electricity supply
4.4.3 Statutory requirements
4.4.4 Voltage levels
4.4.5 Electrical accidents
4.4.6 The basic electrical circuit
4.4.7 Dangers from electricity
4.4.8 Protective means
4.4.9 Competence
4.4.10 Permits-to-work
4.4.11 Static electricity
4.4.12 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous
environments

743
743
744
746
747
748
748
749
752
755
756
758
759


Contents

4.4.13
4.4.14
4.4.15
4.4.16
4.4.17

Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres
Portable tools
Residual current devices
Maintenance
Conclusion

xiii

760
762
763
764
764

4.5 Statutory examination of plant and equipment
J. McMullen and updated by Cameron Sinclair
4.5.1 Introduction
4.5.2 Legislation
4.5.3 Pressure systems
4.5.4 Lifting equipment
4.5.5 Power presses and press brakes
4.5.6 Local exhaust ventilation
4.5.7 Electrical equipment and installations
4.5.8 Other considerations
4.5.9 Conclusion

767
767
768
768
774
779
781
783
785
787

4.6 Safety on construction sites R. Hudson
4.6.1 Construction accidents
4.6.2 Safe working in the industry
4.6.3 Construction site hazards
4.6.4 Access
4.6.5 Lifting and Equipment Operations
4.6.6 Welfare facilities
4.6.7 Other relevant legislation

792
792
793
797
808
810
815
816

4.7 Managing chemicals safely John Adamson
4.7.1 Introduction
4.7.2 Chemical data
4.7.3 Source of information
4.7.4 Risk assessments
4.7.5 Minimising the risk
4.7.6 Legislative requirements
4.7.7 Storage of substances
4.7.8 Transport
4.7.9 Plant and process design
4.7.10 Further safety studies
4.7.11 Plant modifications
4.7.12 Safe systems of work
4.7.13 Laboratories
4.7.14 Emergency procedures
4.7.15 REACH
4.7.16 Conclusions

821
821
821
822
823
827
831
837
841
843
851
852
852
854
857
857
858

Part 5 The environment
5.1 The environment: issues, concepts and strategies
J. E. Channing
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Environmental predictions

861
863
863
864


xiv

Contents

5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7

Sustainable development
Environmental hazards
Evaluating environmental risks
Environmental control strategies
Conclusion

865
867
870
874
876

5.2 Environmental management systems J. E. Channing
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Establishing an environmental management system
5.2.3 Additional EMAS requirements
5.2.4 Conclusions

878
878
880
889
889

5.3 Waste management Samantha Moss
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Waste authorities
5.3.3 National waste strategies
5.3.4 Defining waste
5.3.5 The waste hierarchy
5.3.6 Waste management in practice
5.3.7 Waste minimisation
5.3.8 Other waste management legislation
5.3.9 The cost of failure to manage waste effectively
5.3.10 Conclusion

891
891
892
893
895
897
897
913
922
924
925

5.4 Chemicals and the environment J. L. Adamson
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Chemical data
5.4.3 Risk reduction
5.4.4 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA)
5.4.5 Minimising environmental harm
5.4.6 Air pollution: control measures and
abatement techniques
5.4.7 Monitoring atmospheric pollution
5.4.8 Control of water pollution
5.4.9 Groundwater pollution
5.4.10 Waste disposal and duty of care
5.4.11 Reuse or recycling of industrial waste
5.4.12 Environmental management systems
5.4.13 Conclusion

928
928
928
929
929
933

5.5 The environment at large G. N. Batts
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Environmental issues
5.5.3 The environment and the media
5.5.4 The global impact of environmental issues
5.5.5 Ethical investing and green procurement
5.5.6 Increasing environmental legislation, controls and
public reporting
5.5.7 End-of-pipe control

936
938
941
942
944
952
953
955
956
956
957
963
963
964
966
966


Contents

xv

5.5.8 Polluter pays
5.5.9 Producer or shared responsibility
5.5.10 Environmental management system (EMS) and
sustainable development
5.5.11 Corporate social responsibility

967
968
969
971

Appendix 1 The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health

977

Appendix 2 Reading for the NEBOSH level 6 Diploma
examination

978

Appendix 3 List of abbreviations

980

Appendix 4 Organisations providing safety information

986

Appendix 5 List of Statutes, Regulations and Orders

988

Appendix 6 List of Cases

994

Index

999


This page intentionally left blank


Foreword
Bill Callaghan, Chairman – Health & Safety Commission

In my Foreword to the sixth edition of Safety at Work I noted the progress
we have made in Great Britain since the publication of the Robens Report
and the enactment of the Health and Safety at Work Act. Our record for
ensuring healthy and safe workers and workplaces continues to be one of
the best in the world.
It is shocking to recall that at the end of the 1960s around 1000 employees died each year. A cautious estimate is that over 5000 lives have been
saved by the health and safety improvements introduced following the
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
It is important to place on record the wide-ranging concern across society at the 241 worker deaths that occurred in 2006/07 – the number of
fatalities in the construction, waste disposal and agriculture sectors are a
particular cause for concern. The 241 deaths contrast to the record-low for
fatalities in 2005/06. In addition there is still the challenge of improving
health and well being at work. HSC and HSE will continue to play their
part, but it is important to remember that health and safety is ultimately
the responsibility of those who manage and direct companies and those
who work for them.
I am particularly proud of HSC’s ground-breaking Strategy for workplace
health and safety in Great Britain to 2010 and beyond. The vision underpinning
the Strategy, where health and safety is acknowledged to be a cornerstone
xvii


xviii

Foreword

of our society with a record on workplace health and safety that leads the
world, has captured the imagination of health and safety stakeholders.
The four strategic goals set out in the HSC Strategy – developing closer
partnerships; helping people benefit from effective health and safety management and a sensible health and safety culture; focussing on core priorities and the right interventions; and communicating the vision – have
been taken forward with great determination by HSC/E and our Local
Authority partners and through the work and commitment of a wide
range of key health and safety stakeholders.
Partnership working has been key to winning hearts and minds and
support for our vision for workplace health and safety. HSC’s Sensible
Risk campaign, launched in August 2006, is a great example of the benefits that can be realised through a shared vision and partnership working.
The campaign, which has generated great interest and substantial support, is based around a simple set of principles that set out what good risk
management is – and is not – about. In a nutshell: saving lives, not stopping them. Risk assessment should be about what practical steps you
need to take to protect people, not paperwork for its own sake. By itself,
filling in a form never saved a life.
This seventh edition of Safety at Work carries forward the message on
how employers and employees can achieve high levels of health and
safety to reduce the unacceptable toll of pain and suffering caused by accidents and ill-health at work.
My term of office as Chair of the Health and Safety Commission ended
in September 2007. I look back on my eight years as Chair with great pride
and a sense of achievement whilst not losing sight of the fact that there is
still more to do.
In conclusion I would like to reiterate the vital importance of not treating continued improvements in worker and workplace health and safety
as a given. The regulator, together with employers, workers and other
stakeholders, need to continue to work closely to prevent ill-health and
injury and to build a society where employee well-being, good health and
good jobs are the norm.


Preface to seventh edition

Health and safety do not stand still but are developing all the time. This is
true of the period since the publication of the previous edition although
the level of legislative activity has not been as frenzied as in the past.
However, there have been a number of significant developments mainly
occurring as rationalisations of a number of related but separately legislated requirements. This is the case with fire safety through the coming
into effect of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 whose structure and content seems to owe much to the Health and Safety at Work etc.,
Act 1974.
Construction is another area with new regulations concerning safe working at heights and a revision of the Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations. This latter Regulation has subsumed the remaining parts of
the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 and consolidated into one set of regulations much of the earlier piecemeal legislation relating to construction. The effects that discharges of chemicals and
other materials have on the environment have also attracted regulatory
attention in the form of the Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
Regulations 2006. A feature of all these new laws is that they emphasise
the importance of the role of the employer in workplace and environmental health and safety.
While risk assessments continue to be a major component of workplace
safety, in some areas they seem to have engendered an attitude of aversion
to risk and a proliferation of the ‘safety myth’. In this they have been
denying individuals and groups the pleasure of enjoying activities that
contain a measure of risk – risks that add a measure of excitement to the
activity. A reaction to this has been the recognition in the Compensation
Act 2006 and in the HSC’s Principles of Sensible Risk Management that some
activities necessarily carry a degree of risk.
A change incorporated into this new edition has been the merging of
the two chapters on ergonomics. However, the aim has remained to provide the reader, whether manager, practitioner or student, with a broad
up-to-date picture of legislative requirements and to highlight techniques
for achieving high standards of health and safety. Techniques and practices which, incidentally, also generate improved productivity and greater
job satisfaction. The book has never been intended as a panacea for health
and safety ills. Rather it aims to act as a source of information and
guidance. To this end, this edition builds on what has gone before with
xix


xx

Preface to seventh edition

chapters covering the fundamental legal framework of health and safety
issues. It also deals with behavioural and risk management concepts,
strategies and techniques and extends to environmental matters that are
increasingly becoming part of health and safety at work.
John Ridley
John Channing
August 2007


Preface to first edition

Since the first welfare Act was put on the Statute Book in 1802 there has
been a steady development in safety and health legislation aimed at
improving the lot of those who work in mills, factories, and even in
offices. In the past two decades official concern has increased, culminating
in 1974 in the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act. ‘Safety at Work’ has now
taken on a new and more pertinent meaning for both employer and
employee.
Developments in the field of safety extend throughout much of the
world, indicating an increasing concern for the quality of working life. In
Europe the number of directives promulgated by the European Economic
Community are evidence of this growing official awareness of the dangers
that the individual faces in his work.
Health and safety laws in the UK are the most complex and comprehensive of all employment laws. Consequently employers are looking to a new
breed of specialists, the occupational safety advisers, for expert advice and
guidance on the best means for complying with, and achieving the spirit
of, the law. These specialists must have the necessary knowledge of a wide
range of disciplines extending from safety and related laws to occupational
health and hygiene, human behaviour, management and safety techniques,
and of course, the hazards inherent in particular industries or pursuits.
With this demand for expert advice has grown a need for a nationally
recognised qualification in this new industrial discipline. With this in mind
the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) published in
1978 a syllabus of subjects for study by those seeking to become professionally qualified in this field. This syllabus now forms the foundation
upon which the National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and
Health (NEBOSH) sets its examinations.
Prepared in association with IOSH, this book covers the complete syllabus. It is divided into five parts to reflect the spectrum of the five major
areas of recommended study. Each part has a number of chapters, which
deal with specific aspects of health or safety. To enable readers to extend
their study of a particular subject, suitable references are given together
with recommendations for additional reading. Further information and
details of many of the techniques mentioned can also be obtained through
discussions with tutors. A table is given in Appendix II to guide students
in their selection of the particular chapters to study for the appropriate
levels and parts of the examination.
xxi


xxii

Preface to first edition

A major objective of this book has been to provide an authoritative, upto-date guide in all areas of health and safety. The contributing authors are
recognised specialists in their fields and each has drawn on his or her personal knowledge and experience in compiling the text, emphasising those
facets most relevant to the safety advisers’ needs. In this they have drawn
material from many sources and the views they have expressed are their
own and must not be construed as representing the opinions or policies of
their employers nor of any of the organisations which have so willingly
provided material.
It has been common practice to refer to the safety specialist as the ‘safety
officer’, but this implies a degree of executive authority which does not truly
indicate the rôle he plays. Essentially that rôle is one of monitoring the conditions and methods of work in an organisation to ensure the maintenance
of a safe working environment and compliance with safety legislation and
standards. Where performance is found wanting his function is to advise the
manager responsible on the corrective action necessary. Reflecting this rôle,
the safety specialist is throughout the book referred to as the ‘safety adviser’,
a title that more closely reflects his true function.
The text has been written primarily for the student. However, a great
deal of the content is directly relevant to the day-to-day work of practising
managers. It will enable them to understand their safety obligations, both
legal and moral, and to appreciate some of the techniques by which a high
standard of safe working can be achieved. It will also provide an extensive
source of reference for established safety advisers.
The text of any book is enhanced by the inclusion of tables, diagrams and
figures and I am grateful to the many companies who have kindly provided
illustrations. I would also like to acknowledge the help I have received from
a number of organisations who have provided information. Particularly
I would like to thank the journal Engineering, the Fire Prevention Association,
the Health and Safety Executive, the British Standards Institution and the
International Labour Office.
I also owe grateful thanks to many people for the help and encouragement they have given me during the preparation of this book, in particular
Mr J. Barrell, Secretary of IOSH, Mr D.G. Baynes of Napier College of
Science and Technology, Mr N. Sanders, at the time a senior safety training
adviser to the Road Transport Industry Training Board, Dr Ian Glendon of
the Department of Occupational Health and Safety at the University of
Aston in Birmingham, Mr R.F. Roberts, Chief Fire and Security Officer at
Reed International’s Aylesford site and David Miskin, a solicitor, for the
time each gave to check through manuscripts and for the helpful comments
they offered.
I am also indebted to Reed International P.L.C. for the help they have
given me during the editing of this book, a task which would have been
that much more onerous without their support.
John Ridley


Contributors

John Adamson, MRSC FBIOH, Dip.Occ.Hyg., ROH, MIOSH, RSP
Manager Health, Safety, Hygiene and Fire, Kodak Chemical
Manufacturing
Sabahhit Ali, Solicitor Clarkson Wright & Jakes
L. Bamber, BSc, DIS, CFIOSH, FIRM, MASSE
Managing Director, Risk Solutions International
G. N. Batts BSc, M.Phil., PhD, DIC
Environmental Adviser, Kodak European Region
Dr A. J. Boyle, BSc, MSc, PhD, CPsychol, AFBPhS, FIOSH, RSP
Terry Bramer, BSc(Hons), CEng, MIEE, FIOA
Chris Buck, BSc(Eng), MIEE, FIOSH, RSP
Consultant
Ray Chalklen, MIFireE
Fire consultant
John Channing, MSc(Safety), MSc(Chemistry) FIOSH, RSP
Formerly Manager Health, Safety and Environment,
Kodak Manufacturing
Director, Pharos Consultancy Services Limited
Dr A. R. L. Clark, MSc, MB, BS, MFOM, DIH, DHMSA
Dr T. Coates, MB, BS, FFOM, DIH, DMHSA
Jonathan David, BSc
The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
Frank S. Gill, BSc, MSc, CEng, MIMinE, FIOSH, FFOM(Hon),
Dip.Occ.Hyg.
Consultant ventilation engineer and occupational hygienist
David Greenhalgh, Solicitor
Clarkson Wright & Jakes
xxiii


xxiv

Contributors

Professor Andrew Hale, PhD, CPsychol., MErgS, FIOSH
Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Dr Chris Hartley, PhD, MSc, MIBiol
Visiting Fellow to Aston University and a consultant
R. W. Hodgin, LL.M
Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Birmingham
Edwin Hooper
Roland Hudson, FIOSH, RSP, FRSH, ASSE
Construction safety consultant
Dr R. G. Lawson, LL.M, PhD
Consultant in marketing and advertising law
Dr M. Maslanyj
Health Protection Agency – Radiation Protection Division
John McMullen, BSc, CEng, MIMechE
Zurich Risk Services
R. D. Miskin
A solicitor
Samantha Moss, BSc(Hons), MIOSH, AMIEMA
HSE Manager, Business Operations
John Ridley, BSc, CEng, MIMechE, FIOSH, DMS
Peter Shaw
Health Protection Agency – Radiation Protection Division
Stan Simpson, CEng, MIMechE, FIOSH
Cameron Sinclair
Zurich Risk Services
Eric J. Skellett
Solicitor
Ron W. Smith, BSc(Eng), MSc(Noise and vibration)
Hodgson & Hodgson Group Ltd
Brenda Watts, MA, BA
Barrister, Senior Lecturer, Southampton College of Higher Education
Ashton West, BA(Hons), ACII
Claims Director, Rubicon Corporation
Dr A. D. Wrixon, DPhil, BSc(Hons)
International Atomic Energy Agency


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×