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Word form and context

WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

WORD FAMILIES
A. NOUNS
I. Thành lập danh từ: (Noun formations)
1. Thêm các hậu tố vào sau động từ.
Ex: -tion/-ation: (to) prevent  prevention; invent  invention; conserve  conservation
-ment : develop  development; improve  improvement; employ  employment
-ence/-ance: different  difference; attend  attendance; appear  appearance
-er/-or : drive  driver; teach  teacher; dry  dryer; edit  editor
-ar/-ant/-ee: beg  beggar; lie  liar; assist  assistant; employ  employee
-ing : build  building (việc xây dựng, tòa nhà); understand  understanding (sự hiểu biết)
-age : drain  drainage; use  usage
2. Thêm các hậu tố vào sau danh từ:
Ex: -ship : friend  friendship; owner  ownership
-ism : capital  capitalism; Marx  Marxism
3. Thêm các hậu tố vào sau tính từ:
Ex: -ity : possible  possibility; real  reality; national  nationality
-ism : social  socialism; feudal  feudalism; surreal  surrealism (chủ nghĩa siêu thực)
-ness : rich  richness; happy  happiness; willing  willingness
4. Một số danh từ được thành lập bằng cách thêm các tiền tố vào trước một danh từ khác:

Ex: super- : man  superman; structure  superstructure (kiến trúc thượng tầng)
under- : clothes  underclothes; weight  underweight
sur- : face  surface; name  surname
sub- : way  subway; contract  subcontract; marine  submarine
II. Vị trí của danh từ:
- Chủ ngữ của câu.
Ex: History is an exciting subject.
- Sau tính từ hay tính từ sở hữu. Ex: He is a good teacher; That is my car.
- Sau “enough”.
Ex: We haven’t got enough money.
-Sau các mạo từ “a/an/the”, các từ hạn định “this/that/these/those/each/every/both/no/…”
Ex: The scientist is 40 years of age.
He can find no solution to his financial troubles.
*Lưu ý cấu trúc: a/an/the + adj + noun (a long time; an ugly woman; a small wooden table)
- Sau giới từ (in, on, of, with,…) Ex: The case is under investigation.
He has a good knowledge of science.
-Sau các từ chỉ số lượng (few, a few, a little, little, some, any, much, many, most,…)
Ex: Most boys like playing football.
She gave me a few crayons.
B. ADJECTIVES
I. Thành lập tính từ:
1. Thêm các hậu tố vào sau danh từ:
Ex: -ful : harm  harmful; use  useful; beauty  beautiful
-less : child  childless; hope  hopeless; odor  odorless (không có mùi hương) (ý phủ định)
-ly : man  manly; hour  hourly; friend  friendly
(có vẻ, có tính chất,…)
-like : child  childlike; life  lifelike; god  godlike ( giống như, tương tự)
-y : rain  rainy; health  healthy; sand  sandy ( có nhiều)
-ish : fool  foolish; self  selfish; child  childish (giống như, có tính chất của)
-al : magic  magical; industry  industrial; nature  natural (thuộc về)
-ous : poison  poisonous; danger  dangerous
-able : fashion  fashionable; value  valuable
2. Thêm hậu tố vào sau động từ:
Ex: -ive : act  active; attract  attractive
-able/-ible: accept  acceptable; eat  eatable, edible; comprehend  comprehensible
3. Thêm tiền tố vào trước tính từ:
Ex: super- : natural  supernatural; sonic  supersonic (siêu âm)
under-: done  underdone; developed  underdeveloped
over- : anxious  overanxious; crowded  overcrowded
sub- : conscious  subconscious


4. Một số tính từ mang nghĩa phủ định được thành lập bằng cách thêm tiền tố trước tính từ:
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Ex: un- (unhappy, uncertain); in- (indirect, independent); im- (impatient, impolite); ir- (irregular, irrational,
irresponsible); il- (illegal, illiterate, illogical); dis- (dishonest, discourteous (bất lịch sự), disaffected (bất mãn)).
5. Một số tính từ kép được thành lập bằng cách kết hợp một danh từ với một quá khứ phân từ:
Ex: man + made  man-made (Nhân tạo);
snow + covered  snow-covered (phủ đầy tuyết)
Horse + pulled  horse-pulled (do ngựa kéo) corn + fed  corn-fed (nuôi bằng ngô)
6. Dùng “well/ill” kết hợp với một quá khứ phân từ:
Ex: well + done  well-done (nấu chin);
well + known  well-known (nổi tiếng)
ill + bred  ill-bred (vô giáo dục);
ill + founded  ill-founded (vô căn cứ)
II. Vị trí của tính từ:
1. Trước danh từ: ADJ + Noun (mechanical engineer, lovely girl, warm bed, sleepless night)
2. Sau hệ từ (linking verb): be, get, seem, appear, feel, taste, look, stay, become.
Ex: She is beautiful.
He felt upset.
The soup tastes really delicious.
3. Keep/make + Object + ADJ
Ex: The news made her happy.
Remember to keep your hands warm.
4. Sau “too”.
Be/seem/look/taste/… + too + ADJ …
Ex: He is too short to join the team.
5. Trước “enough”. Be + ADJ + enough
Ex: The water isn’t hot enough.
6. Trong cấu trúc “so…that”.
Be + so + ADJ + that …
Ex: He was so angry that he couldn’t speak.
7. Dùng dưới dạng so sánh. Tính từ dài thường đứng sau “more, the most, less, as…as”
Ex: He is as deaf as a post.
Meat is more expensive than fish.
8. Trong câu cảm thán.
How + ADJ + S + V
or What + (a/an) + ADJ + Noun!
Ex:
How nice the girl is!
What an interesting film!
C. VERBS
I. Thành lập động từ:
1. Thêm “ize” (American English) hoặc “ise” (British English) vào sau danh từ hoặc tính từ:
Ex: social  socialize (xã hội hóa); modern  modernize (hiện đại hóa); symbol  symbolize
2. Thêm tiền tố “out-” (ở mức độ cao hơn, tốt hay nhanh hơn,…) vào nội động từ để tạo ra một ngoại động từ (động từ
cần có tân ngữ trực tiếp theo sau).
Ex: grow  outgrow (lớn hơn); live  outlive (sống lâu hơn); weigh  outweigh (nặng hơn)
3. Thêm tiền tố “en-” (gây ra, làm cho, đưa vào) vào trước tính từ, danh từ hay một động từ khác.
Ex: rich  enrich; danger  endanger; force  enforce (ép buộc, thực thi)
Hậu tố “-en” cũng được thêm vào sau một số tính từ để tạo ra động từ:
Ex: tight  tighten; sharp  sharpen; weak  weaken
4. Thêm tiền tố vào động từ:
Ex: over- : act  overact; pay  overpay; work  overwork; throw  overthrow (lật đổ)
under- : pay  underpay; go  undergo; estimate  underestimate
super- : impose  superimpose (đặt lên trên cùng); intend  superintend (giám sát)
II. Vị trí của động từ:
Vị trí của động từ trong câu rất dễ nhận biết vì nó thường đứng sau chủ ngữ.
Ex: Tom’s behavior improved at his new school.
I believe her because she always tells the truth.
The film which was shown last Sunday attracted me.
D. ADVERBS
I. Thành lập trạng từ:
Trạng từ thường được thành lập bằng cách thêm “-ly” vào sau tính từ.
Ex: Beautiful  beautifully ; careless  carelessly; strong  strongly; bad  badly
Lưu ý một số trạng từ đặc biệt:
Ex: good  well late  late (trễ)/lately (gần đây)
earlyearly
fast  fast
hard  hard (chăm chỉ)/hardly (hiếm khi) free  free (miễn phí)/freely (một cách thoải mái, tự do)
II. Vị trí của trạng từ:
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

1. Sau trợ động từ (auxiliary verbs) và trước động từ thường (ordinary verbs).
Auxiliary Verb + ADV + V
Ex: The picture has definitely stolen.
He drives carefully along the narrow road.
2. Trước tính từ.
Be/feel/look + ADV + adj
Ex: I’m truthfully grateful for your help.
It’s a reasonably cheap restaurant.
3. Sau “too” :
V + too + ADV
Ex: They walked too slowly to catch the bus.
4. Trong cấu trúc “so…that”.
V + so +ADV + that ….
Ex: She sang so beautifully that everybody applauded.
5. Đứng cuối câu. S + V (+O) + ADV
Ex: She speaks English perfectly.
It is raining heavily.
6. Trước “enough”. V + ADV + enough
Ex: He plays well enough to win the competition.
7. Trạng từ đôi khi đứng một mình ở đầu hoặc giữa câu và cách câu bằng dấu phầy.
Ex: Suddenly, she heard a strange voice.
She felt ill. She went to work, however, and try to concentrate.
Practice: Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences:
1. She is _____________ in asking for bigger salary. She has worked hard.
A. reason
B. reasoned
C. reasonable
D. unreasonable
2. Learning English has become a ____________ in our country.
A. necessary
B. necessity
C. necessitate
D. necessarily.
3. English is the language of international ____________
A. communicate
B. communicative
C. communication
D. communicatively
4. English is ________________ outnumbered by Chinese.
A. easy
B. easily
C. ease
D. uneasy
5. There were too many _________________ nationalities in my class and we had to speak English.
A. differs
B. differences
C. difference
D. different
6. He was ________________ right when he said that the man was guilty.
A. reason
B. reasonable
C. reasonably
D. reasons
7. It is _________ to regard any language as the property of a particular nation.
A. reason
B. reasonable
C. unreasonable
D. reasoned
8. Fortunately, the plane landed __________ after the violent storm.
A. safe
B. unsafe
C. safety
D. safely
9. In this course, students receive ____________ in the basic English grammar.
A. instruct
B. instruction
C. instructional
D. instructive
10.Most children are ill-prepared for ____________
A. employer
B. employee
C. employment
D. unemployment
11.He is ___________ with his new job.
A. occupy
B. occupational
C. occupation
D. occupied
12.Nothing could ___________ him.
A. satisfy
B. satisfied
C. satisfaction
D. satisfactory
13.Daisy does the housework ____________
A. disappoint
B. disappointed
C. disappointingly
D. disappointment
14.She did the job ___________
A. success
B. succeed
C. successful
D. successfully
15.My teacher always gives us a clear __________
A. explain
B. explaining
C. explanatory
D. explanation
16.Getting such a well-paid job is beyond my _________
A. expect
B. expected
C. expecting
D. expectation
17.He has very little __________ of history.
A. understand
B. understood
C. understanding
D. understandable
18.Would you accept her __________ ?
A. invite
B. invited
C. inviting
D. invitation
19.This room has to be ___________
A. large
B. enlarge
C. enlarges
D. enlarged
20.In many cities around the world ,_______ is a serious problem .
A. pollute
B. polluted
C. polluting
D. pollution
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

21.The ___________ development leads to our country’s prosperity.
A. industry
B. industries
C. industrial
D. industrialize
22.Forests provide timber, one of Man’s most ______________ resources.
A. value
B. invaluable
C. valueless
D. valuably
23.These chemicals are __________. They can cause death or illness if taken into the body.
A. poison
B. poisonous
C. poisoning
D. poisoned
24.We have to____________ the natural resources of our country.
A. conserve
B. conservation
C. conservative
D. conserving
25.Does the earth have enough __________ resources to support people?
A. nature
B. naturalize
C. natural
D. naturally
26.Exhaust fumes from motor vehicles ___________ the air.
A. pollute
B. polluted
C. polluting
D. pollution
27.She decided to ______________ her studies after obtaining her first degree
A. pursue
B. pursuit
C. pursuer
D. pursuable
28.I'm always _____________ about his kindness.
A. suspiciously
B. suspiciousness
C. suspicion
D. suspicious
29. It was one of the most ______ experiences I’ve ever had.
A. fright
B. frighten
C. frightened
D. frightening
30. All the countries should act to stop the _______ of rainforests.
A. destroy
B. destruction
C. destructive
D. destructively
31. He felt _______ at being the center of attention.
A. embarrass
B. embarrassed
C. embarrassing
D. embarrassment
32. Mrs. Feng felt very _______ towards her son.
A. protected
B. protecting
C. protection
D. protective
SIMILAR WORDS
Similar words are often confusing if they have similar meanings but cannot be interchanged. Sometimes they have
the same root, prefix (tiền tố), or suffix (hậu tố). Sometimes they have similar spelling.
We should focus or pay attention to the grammatical structure and the meaning of the whole sentence to determine
which one is the correct answer to be chosen.
Practice 1: Below are some confusing word pairs. Choose the correct words to fill the blanks:
1. misused (badly, wrongly used)
vs
disused (no longer used)
Ex: Be careful of this word. It is often _____________
The goods were stored in a ____________ cinema.
2. unreadable (too boring or too badly written to read) vs illegible (physically impossible to read)
Ex: His hand-writing is so bad that it is __________.
The book is long, uninteresting and not very well-written. I find it _________
I think her novels are _________. The style is awful and the plots are ridiculous.
3. dependent (depending)
vs dependant (person who depends on another for home, money, food)
Ex: The signing of the contract is _______ on whether you can guarantee delivery of the goods within three months.
The empire consisted of the kingdom and all its _____ colonies.
You are entitled to receive a government allowance for each ________ who is living with you.
4. historic (important in history) vs historical (concerning history)
Ex: She likes _______ novels, especially romances set in the 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1945 there was a __________ meeting of the world leaders which changed the course (quá trình) of world events.
5. immigration (coming into a country to settle) vs emigration (leaving a country to settle elsewhere)
Ex: If we don’t restrict _________ into this country, the pressure on our social services will be intolerable.
When times were hard in Britain, there was very large ______ to Australia and Canada.
6. dissatisfied (discontented, displeased, not satisfied with quality)
unsatisfied (unfulfilled, not satisfied with quantity)
Ex: He ate a meal large enough for three normal people but his appetite was still __________.
I’m very _________ with this computer. It keeps breaking down.
If you are ________ with the service, you should complain.
Demand for the new car is still _________ in spite of an increase in production.
7. suit (be suitable for)
vs
suite /swiːt/ (group of things belonging together, set) (dãy, bộ)
Ex: Will 8 o’clock __________ you or shall I come later?
She took a __________ of rooms at the Riverside Hotel.
8. prophecy (prediction, noun)
vs
prophesy (predict, verb)
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Ex: I _______ that he will pass the exam and get a good job. You shouldn’t worry.
I will make a ___________. There will be a new government in less than a year.
9. device (new invention, means of doing something, noun)
vs
devise (invent, verb)
Ex: A _________ can be attached to a private telephone which keeps a record of all call made and their cost.
He managed to ______ a system of bonus payments to encourage hard-working staff.
10. electric (using electricity for power)
vs
electrical (related to electricity)
Ex: Mark must have been very delighted since his father bought him an _________ guitar.
My cousin is learning _____________ engineering at this university.
11. exhausting (very tiring) vs exhaustive (very thorough, complete)
Ex: ___________ tests were carried out to discover the cause of the plane’s engine failure.
The older members of the group found the journey quite ________
He never stops talking. He is an ____________ person to be with.
12. disinterested (impartial (không thiên vị) vs
uninterested (bored, apathetic (lãnh đạm))
Ex: I don’t know why he didn’t go to the exhibition. Perhaps he was too busy or just __________.
The management and the union asked a completely _________ party to mediate between them.
13. council (district government)
vs
counsel (to advise; kind of lawyer in court)
Ex: I have complained to the local _________ about the poor condition of the pavement.
The job of a Vocational Guidance Officer is to _______ young people on their careers.
14. unknown (not known)
vs
infamous (notorious, shameful, famous for sth considered bad)
Ex: Joseph Jackson was an ________________mass-murder of Victorian times.
The film was almost _______________ ten years ago but now it is famous for its high-quality products.
15. certainly (definitely, really)
vs
surely (used to express surprise, doubt, relief)
Ex: _________you aren’t going out like that, are you?
I am ___________ not inviting Tom to my party. I’ve never liked her.
16. dairy (related to milk products)
vs
diary (daily record of events)
Ex: He kept a ________ from the age of 13 to 21.
No, we don’t grow wheat or vegetables. It’s a _________ farm. We have about 300 cows.
17. compliment (to praise, piece of praise)
vs
complement (add to, go together)
Ex: He lacks confidence and she is a strong person. They ___________________ each other very well.
I’d like to _____________________ you on your stellar (= excellent) performance.
He paid her a nice _____________________ on her new dress.
18. first (1st item in list)
vs
at first (initial attitude before change)
Ex: _________boil the water, then add salt, then put in the potatoes, then…
He found the job difficult ________, but soon got used to it.
_________they didn’t like their new boss.
19. lastly (final item in a list) vs
at last (final result)
Ex: ..then stir the mixture in the saucepan, then leave for 5 minutes and ________ add sugar.
_________ I succeeded in making him understand.
20. eatable (good enough to eat, though not excellent) vs edible (suitable or safe for eating)
Ex: Only the leaves of the plant are _________.
Her cooking skill is not very good. However, I think her dishes are _______.
Practice 2: Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D for each sentence.
1. The class teacher punished disobedient pupils ___________.
A. hardly
B. severely
C. stiffly
D. strongly
2. It was a great ________ to study under such an outstanding teacher.
A. favor
B. fortune
C. privilege
D. value
3. We all like Professor Brecht because of his great _______ of humor.
A. sense
B. willingness
C. principle
D. feeling
4. He has been teaching music for years, even though he hasn’t got any ______________.
A. experience
B. experiment
C. qualifications
D. examinations
5. He went to Australia hoping to find a teaching ________ without too much difficulty.
A. employment
B. occupation
C. job
D. work
6. Teachers have been told to ________ good behavior in their classes.
A. prize
B. award
C. benefit
D. reward
7. Some people are against informality at lectures but, personally, I ____ the idea.
A. applaud
B. cheer
C. clap
D. shout
8. When you are an old age pensioner, you have to learn to _______ a very small income.
A. live up to
B. live on
C. live out
D. live down
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

9. People work mainly to ____ money.
A. pay
B. finance
C. earn
D. win
10. She gives each of her children fifty pence a week ________ money.
A. free
B. pocket
C. ready
D. spare
11. Tax ________ deprives the state of several million pounds a year.
A. retention (sự giữ lại)
B. desertion (đào ngũ)
C. evasion (trốn thuế)
D. escapism (sự thoát ly)
12. We don’t take cheques, so you’ll have to pay in _________.
A. coins
B. money
C. change
D. cash
13. Whenever he writes to his mother, he _____ a cheque with his letter.
A. contains
B. contributes
C. reserves
D. encloses
14. You’d better stop spending money, _______ you’ll end up in debt.
A. if
B. in case
C. unless
D. otherwise
15. The dealer wanted $400, I wanted to pay $300, and we finally agreed to ______ the difference.
A. divide
B. split
C. drop
D. decrease
16. Could you lend me some money? I’m very _____ of cash at the moment.
A. down
B. scare
C. short
D. empty
17. Unless the Prime Minister ____ the warning, inflation will rise rapidly.
A. remarks
B. attends
C. applies
D. heeds
18. I don’t get paid for ages and I’ve _______ money already!
A. wasted
B. saved
C. spent
D. run out of
19. Christine _______ her money from the ATM and went on a big shopping spree.
A. pulled
B. withdrew
C. ejected
D. extracted
20. State pensions are currently at the center of a(n) ______ debate.
A. scorching
B. fiery
C. exploded
D. flamed
21. The architect’s work was not superb, but he charged an enormous _________.
A. ticket
B. fare
C. fee
D. subscription
22. Adults have to pay $5 to get in, but children under 14 are ________.
A. open
B. nothing
C. penniless
D. free
23. I don’t have any cash just now. I’m _______.
A. flat broke
B. flat broken
C. no money
D. less money.
24. Before you can start a business, you’ll have to raise the necessary _________.
A. investment
B. income
C. savings
D. capital
25. I’m afraid we can’t raise your salary this year. The company is operating in a very _____ budget.
A. close
B. tight
C. cheap
D. hard
26. My friends have just moved to a new flat in a residential area on the _____ of Paris.
A. outskirts
B. outside
C. suburbs
D. side
27. The house is part of his ___________ from his aunt.
A. heritage
B. will
C. testament (di chúc)
D. inheritance
28. James could no longer bear the __________ surroundings of the old house.
A. domineering (áp bức)
B. pressing
C. oppressive (ngột ngạt) D. overbearing
29. They couldn’t _______ to buy that exorbitant house.
A. spare
B. afford
C. provide
D. bear
30. The cottage has got a thatched _____________.
A. door
B. garden
C. roof
D. window
31. He lives __________ in his bachelor flat in Mayfair.
A. lone
B. lonely
C. himself
D. alone
32. The move to a different environment had brought about a significant _____ in Mary’s state of mind.
A. impact
B. effect
C. change
D. influence
33. Don’t live on the main road unless you have good ______ against noise.
A. insulation
B. isolation
C. insurance
D. assurance
34. The town stands mainly in the left ____ of the river.
A. cliff
B. bank
C. coast
D. shelf
35. I love to ______ round the old part of the town, enjoying its peace and quiet.
A. sit
B. tour
C. rush
D. wander
36. The current _________ of this town is about 350 000.
A. group
B. membership
C. number
D. population

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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

WORDS IN CONTEXT
You have to base on the context to choose the most suitable words to fill in the blanks:
1. The tiger's roar could be heard in villages far away. What does roar probably mean?
A. food a tiger eats
B. a tiger's dream
C. a tiger's ear
D. a sound a tiger makes
2. The thought of eating a rat is abhorrent to most people. What does abhorrent probably mean?
A. fun
B. horrible
C. delicious
D. sweet
3. My absent-minded teacher loses his keys, his book and his chalk almost every day!
What does it mean to be absent-minded?
A. hateful
B. not paying attention
C. intelligent
D. brainless
4. You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an aboveboard manner.
What does aboveboard probably mean?
A. openly
B. sneaky (lén lút, vụn trộm) C. strange
D. repugnant (ghê tởm)
5. Petra has so many friends because she is a gregarious person. What does gregarious probably mean?
A. introverted
B. shy
C. outgoing
D. hostile
6. The lovely egret is in danger of extinction because clothing manufacturers use their long, beautiful tail feathers to
make ladies' hats. What is an egret?
A. a small child
B. a type of food
C. a type of bird
D. an alligator
7. I can't believe it! Right in the middle of our conversation, Peter turned around abruptly and walked out of the
room! What does abruptly probably mean?
A. formally
B. slowly
C. suddenly
D. quiet
8. After the harvest, we had an abundant amount of apples. We made apple pie, apple sauce, and apple juice because
we had so many apples! What does abundant probably mean?
A. a shortage
B. not enough
C. very red
D. plentiful
9. When Sara was sick, her voice was almost inaudible. We couldn't hear what she was trying to say clearly.
What does inaudible probably mean?
A. uncommon
B. soft
C. easy to hear
D. strange
10. The hill was too arduous for us to climb. We had to walk our bicycles up the hill. What does arduous probably
mean?
A. tall, sharp
B. fun, exciting
C. easy, not challenging D. difficult, steep
11. She often stands in front of the mirror in her bedroom, holding the bottle as if it's a microphone and belting out
songs. She is trying to emulate her favorite singers. What does emulate mean?
A. yawn
B. mimic
C. break
D. stamp
12. Bill has got a sprained foot, he tries to step on it very gingerly, not wanting to put all his weight on it and make
things worse. What does gingerly mean?
A. loudly
B. strongly
C. carefully
D. naughtily
13. Some people don’t know how to eat properly. Their table manners are very_________.
A. charming
B. edifying (tính giáo dục) C. didactic (tính mô phạm)
D. shameful
14. Peter is certainly the best student in the class. He can figure out in minutes problems that may take his peers half
an hour. He is really _________.
A. simple
B. smart
C. slow
D. fatuous (stupid)
15. A girl can only hear “I love you” so many times before it begins to sound hackneyed and meaningless.
What does hackneyed mean?
A. lovely
B. unoriginal
C. hurtful
D. unlucky
16. The crowd was _________when the firefighter carried the woman from the flaming building.
A. happy
B. scorching
C. sorrowful
D. worried

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY, TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER
1. Ta sử dụng trạng từ (adverbs) với động từ, tính từ hoặc trạng từ khác. Chúng cho ta biết điều gì xảy ra cách nào,
khi nào, ở đâu hoặc xảy ra thường xuyên thế nào.
2. Adverbs of frequency (trạng từ chỉ tần số thường xuyên xảy ra)
Adverbs of frequency cho ta biết tần số điều gì đó thường xuyên xảy ra. Trạng từ loại này gồm: always, ever, often,
usually, sometimes, seldom/rarely, hardly ever, never.
Jim is always the first to arrive.
Have you ever played squash?
Adverbs of frequency thường đứng sau be và trợ động từ, nhưng trước động từ chính.
Sometimes và usually cũng có thể đứng ở đầu câu;
Sometimes we play cricket on Friday.
Usually Laura and I walk to school together.
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WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Ta cũng có thể sử dụng every day, once hoặc cụm từ như twice/three times a week khi nói về tần số thường xuyên
xảy ra. Các cụm từ này có thể đứng đầu câu hoặc cuối câu:
Every Thursday we have lunch together.
I play bridge twice a week.
3. Adverbs of time (trạng từ chỉ thời gian)
Trạng từ chỉ thời gian giải thích sự việc xảy ra khi nào. Trạng từ loại này gồm today, yesterday, tomorrow, early,
late. Chúng thường đứng cuối câu:
What are you doing today?
We are leaving tomorrow.
Today, yesterday, tomorrow và afterwards cũng có thể đứng đầu câu:
Yesterday it rained all day.
Today we studied the life of frogs.
Cụm từ thông dụng được sử dụng làm trạng từ chỉ thời gian gồm:
on Friday, v.v.
last Friday, v.v.
next Friday, v.v.
in January, v.v.
in 1999, v.v.
for two years, v.v.
4. Adverbs of place (trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn)
Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn cho ta biết sự việc xảy ra ở đâu. Trạng từ loại này gồm here, there, in, out, away, abroad,
back, around, somewhere, everywhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs. Chúng thường đứng cuối câu:
We’re going to meet here/there.
Her grandparents live abroad.
Ta có thể sử dụng nhiều cụm từ làm trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn:
on the roof
in the park
at the bus stop
along the road
to Paris
into the room
5. Adverbs of manner (trạng từ chỉ cách thức)
Trạng từ chỉ cách thức cho ta biết sự việc diễn ra thế nào. Chúng thường đi sau động từ hoặc sau túc từ:
She sings beautifully.
His sister doesn’t speak French well.
Các trạng từ ngắn tận cùng bằng -ly cũng có thể đứng giữa chủ từ và động từ nếu chúng không phải là thông tin
chính:
I quickly realized that there was a problem.
The examiner quietly helped Marie to gather her papers.
6. Khi có nhiều hơn một trạng từ đứng sau động từ, thứ tự thông thường là cách thức, nơi chốn, thời gian:
Everyone went slowly upstairs. (manner, place) We worked hard in the garden yesterday. (manner, place, time)
PRACTICE:
I. Choose the best answer for each question:
1. I hate vegetables. I _________ eat carrots.
A. always
B. usually
C. every day
D. never
2. Robert goes to the gym only two or three times a year. He ________ goes to the gym.
A. often
B. rarely
C. quite often
D. ever
3. I never lend money to Curtis. He ______ pays me back.
A. yet
B. timely
C. normally
D. never
4. His boss gives him bonuses ______________.
A annually
B. still
C. always
D. never
5. She is ____________ waiting for the feedback from them.
A. already
B. every day
C. still
D. yet
6. Susan goes to the beach whenever she can. She _______ misses a chance to go to the ocean.
A. usually
B. hardly ever
C. sometimes
D. annually
7. It almost always rains in Seattle. The sun ________ shines there.
A. seldom
B. always
C. lately
D. still
8. Teresa is not a pleasant person. She is ___________ in a bad mood.
A. never
B. always
C. seldom
D. rarely
9. The manager ____________ tries to be fair and unbiased.
A. usual
B. every day
C. ever
D. always
10. My brother Peter ___________ optimistic since he was demoted.
A. has been rarely
B. rarely been
C. has rarely been
D. rarely has been
II. Rewrite each sentence with the adverb of frequency (in brackets) in its correct position.
1. Have you been to London? (ever)
………………………………………………………………….
2. Peter doesn't get up before seven. (usually)
………………………………………………………………….
3. They go swimming in the lake. (sometimes)
………………………………………………………………….
4. The weather is bad in November. (always)
………………………………………………………………….
5. Peggy and Frank are late. (usually)
………………………………………………………………….
6. John watches TV. (seldom)
………………………………………………………………….
7. I was in contact with my sister. (often)
………………………………………………………………….
8. She will love him. (always)
………………………………………………………………….
Page 8 of 8


WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

C. reasonable
B. necessity
C. communication
B. easily
D. different
C. reasonably
C. unreasonable
D. safely

WORD FAMILIES
9. B. instruction
17.C. understanding
10.C. employment
18.D. invitation
11.D. occupied
19.D. enlarged
12.A. satisfy
20.D. pollution
13.C. disappointingly
21.C. industrial
14.D. successfully
22.B. invaluable
15.D. explanation
23.B. poisonous
16.D. expectation
24.A. conserve
SIMILAR WORDS

25.C. natural
26.A. pollute
27.A. pursue
28.D. suspicious
29.D. frightening
30.B. destruction
31.B. embarrassed
32.D. protective

Practice 1:
1. misused (badly, wrongly used)
vs
disused (no longer used)
Ex: Be careful of this word. It is often misused
The goods were stored in a disused cinema.
2. unreadable (too boring or too badly written to read) vs illegible (physically impossible to read)
Ex: His hand-writing is so bad that it is illegible
The book is long, uninteresting and not very well-written. I find it unreadable
I think her novels are unreadable The style is awful and the plots are ridiculous.
3. dependent (depending)
vs dependant (person who depends on another for home, money, food)
Ex: The signing of the contract is dependent on whether you can guarantee delivery of the goods within three
months.
The empire consisted of the kingdom and all its dependent colonies.
You are entitled to receive a government allowance for each dependant who is living with you.
4. historic (important in history) vs historical (concerning history)
Ex: She likes historical novels, especially romances set in the 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1945 there was a historic meeting of the world leaders which changed the course (quá trình) of world events.
5. immigration (coming into a country to settle) vs emigration (leaving a country to settle elsewhere)
Ex: If we don’t restrict immigration into this country, the pressure on our social services will be intolerable.
When times were hard in Britain, there was very large emigration to Australia and Canada.
6. dissatisfied (discontented, displeased, not satisfied with quality)
unsatisfied (unfulfilled, not satisfied with quantity)
Ex: He ate a meal large enough for three normal people but his appetite was still unsatisfied
I’m very dissatisfied with this computer. It keeps breaking down.
If you are dissatisfied with the service, you should complain.
Demand for the new car is still _________ in spite of an increase in production.
7. suit (be suitable for)
vs
suite /swiːt/ (group of things belonging together, set) (dãy, bộ)
Ex: Will 8 o’clock suit you or shall I come later?
She took a suite of rooms at the Riverside Hotel.
8. prophecy (prediction, noun)
vs
prophesy (predict, verb)
Ex: I prophesy that he will pass the exam and get a good job. You shouldn’t worry.
I will make a prophecy There will be a new government in less than a year.
9. device (new invention, means of doing something, noun)
vs
devise (invent, verb)
Ex: A device can be attached to a private telephone which keeps a record of all call made and their cost.
He managed to devise a system of bonus payments to encourage hard-working staff.
10. electric (using electricity for power)
vs
electrical (related to electricity)
Ex: Mark must have been very delighted since his father bought him an electric guitar.
My cousin is learning electrical engineering at this university.
11. exhausting (very tiring) vs exhaustive (very thorough, complete)
Ex: exhaustive tests were carried out to discover the cause of the plane’s engine failure.
The older members of the group found the journey quite exhausting
He never stops talking. He is an exhausting person to be with.
12. disinterested (impartial (không thiên vị) vs
uninterested (bored, apathetic (lãnh đạm))
Ex: I don’t know why he didn’t go to the exhibition. Perhaps he was too busy or just uninterested
The management and the union asked a completely disinterested party to mediate between them.
13. council (district government)
vs
counsel (to advise; kind of lawyer in court)
Ex: I have complained to the local council about the poor condition of the pavement.
The job of a Vocational Guidance Officer is to counsel young people on their careers.
14. unknown (not known)
vs
infamous (notorious, shameful, famous for sth considered bad)
Page 1 of 2


WORDS & ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Ex: Joseph Jackson was an infamous mass-murder of Victorian times.
The film was almost unknown ten years ago but now it is famous for its high-quality products.
15. certainly (definitely, really)
vs
surely (used to express surprise, doubt, relief)
Ex: surely you aren’t going out like that, are you?
I am certainly not inviting Tom to my party. I’ve never liked her.
16. dairy (related to milk products)
vs
diary (daily record of events)
Ex: He kept a diary from the age of 13 to 21.
No, we don’t grow wheat or vegetables. It’s a dairy farm. We have about 300 cows.
17. compliment (to praise, piece of praise)
vs
complement (add to, go together)
Ex: He lacks confidence and she is a strong person. They complement each other very well.
I’d like to compliment you on your stellar (= excellent) performance.
He paid her a nice compliment on her new dress.
18. first (1st item in list)
vs
at first (initial attitude before change)
Ex: first boil the water, then add salt, then put in the potatoes, then…
He found the job difficult at first but soon got used to it.
at first they didn’t like their new boss.
19. lastly (final item in a list) vs
at last (final result)
Ex: ..then stir the mixture in the saucepan, then leave for 5 minutes and lastly add sugar.
at last I succeeded in making him understand.
20. eatable (good enough to eat, though not excellent) vs edible (suitable or safe for eating)
Ex: Only the leaves of the plant are edible
Her cooking skill is not very good. However, I think her dishes are eatable
Practice 2: Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D for each sentence.
1. B. severely
10. B. pocket
19. B. withdrew
28. C. oppressive
2. C. privilege
11. C. evasion
20. B. fiery
29. B. afford
3. A. sense
12. D. cash
21. C. fee
30. C. roof
4. C. qualifications
13. D. encloses
22. D. free
31. D. alone
5. C. job
14. D. otherwise
23. A. flat broke
32. C. change
6. D. reward
15. B. split
24. D. capital
33. A. insulation
7. A. applaud
16. C. short
25. B. tight
34. B. bank
8. B. live on
17. D. heeds
26. A. outskirts
35. D. wander
9. C. earn
18. D. run out of
27. D. inheritance
36. D. population
WORDS IN CONTEXT
1. D. a sound a tiger makes
9. B. soft
2. B. horrible
10. D. difficult, steep
3. B. not paying attention
11. B. mimic
4. A. openly
12. C. carefully
5. C. outgoing
13. D. shameful
6. C. a type of bird
14. B. smart
7. C. suddenly
15. B. unoriginal
8. D. plentiful
16. A. happy

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY, TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER
I. Choose the best answer for each question:
1. D. never
6. B. hardly ever
2. B. rarely
7. A. seldom
3. D. never
8. B. always
4. A annually
9. D. always
5. C. still
10. C. has rarely been
II. Rewrite each sentence with the adverb of frequency (in brackets) in its correct position.
1. Have you ever been to London?
2. Peter doesn't usually get up before seven.
3. They sometimes go swimming in the lake.
4. The weather is always bad in November.
5. Peggy and Frank are usually late.
6. John seldom watches TV.
7. I was often in contact with my sister.
8. She will always love him.
Page 2 of 2



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