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AZAR GRAMMAR SERIES expansion activities intermidate level 3rd edition

Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 1: Present Time
Activity: What’s My Line?
Materials needed: Small slips of paper with a job written on
each one.
Description: An adaptation of the old American TV game show.
The instructor writes names of jobs on slips of paper and lets the
first student choose one. This student sits at the front of the class
and answers questions from the rest of the students.
The rest of the class has to guess the student’s imaginary occupation. The students can
only ask yes/no questions. The questions may include adverbs of frequency. For example:
Do you always work indoors? 
Yes, I do.
Do you work in an office?

I sometimes work in an office.
Do you use a computer?

Yes, I often use a computer.

Are you a computer programmer? 
No, I’m not.
Do you usually work with math and numbers?  No, I rarely work with numbers.
Do you work alone?

No, I don’t.
Do you talk a lot in your job?

Yes, I do.
Do you talk a lot on the phone?

No, not on the phone.
Do you talk a lot with groups of people? 
Yes, I usually talk with groups.
Are you a supervisor ?

No, I’m not.
Are you an English teacher?

Yes, I am!
The jobs, of course, should be selected based on the level and background experience of
your class. Consider students’ knowledge of the job’s existence and their knowledge of
English vocabulary needed for the job. Encourage them to use complete sentences in their
questions and adverbs of frequency in their questions and answers.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Time
Activity: Story Chain
Materials needed: Small slips of paper with a base-form
verb on each. Many of the verbs should be irregular.
Description: Students will create an oral story as a group,
using the verb they selected at random.
If possible, arrange the desks in a circle. If that isn’t possible, try standing around the
room in a large circle. Finally, if there are more than 20 students in the class, you may
want to do this in two groups simultaneously.
Let students choose a verb slip at random from a hat or container. Then begin the story
with a scenario.
For example, the teacher might begin:
“For many years, the old Peterman house on the hill looked down on the town of
Maybridge. The house was in bad condition, its paint peeling, its wood rotting.
Nothing grew around the house. The grass was always brown, and the trees
leafless and dead.
Even though old Mr. Peterman had died twenty years ago, mysterious lights could
sometimes be seen flickering in the house. Parents warned their children not to
play near the house. But children sometimes dared each other to run up to the
door of the house and run away again.
Sixteen-year-old Jason took this game a step further one night. He dared his
friends, Sarah and Bill, to go into the Peterman house, climb to the attic window,
and wave to him from there. Feeling adventuresome, and wanting to show they
were not frightened babies, Sarah and Bill agreed to go.”
Then the first student near the teacher carries on the story. The student has to incorporate
his or her verb in the simple past or past progressive tense. The student can contribute
several sentences, and will often need to, to get to the part of the story where he or she
can use the verb.
For example, let’s say the first student has the verb bring. The student might continue
where the teacher left off:
Student 1: “There was no electricity in the house, of course, so Sara and Bill brought two
flashlights with them.”
Page 1 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Time
Activity: Story Chain
Student 2: “They climbed the front steps of the house and opened the door.”
Student 3: “The house was very dark. They heard a noise. It was like an animal
noise.”
Student 4: “Suddenly something jumped at them. It was some kind of animal.
Bill threw his flashlight at the animal. The animal jumped out the window.”
Student 5: “Now they only had one flashlight. Sarah wanted to go upstairs right
away, but Bill wanted to leave and get another flashlight. His father taught him
not to do a job without the right tools.”
Student 6: “But Sarah insisted, so they went upstairs. The kids were wearing
tennis shoes. Their footsteps were quiet. But they could hear other footsteps in the
house.”
The story continues around the circle. Encourage creativity and moving the story along.
If a student gets stuck and doesn’t know how to fit his or her verb in the story, let the
whole group help.
If the story lags because the students aren’t moving the plot, the teacher can intervene
with a sentence of his or her own that moves the story along. (For instance, a student,
perhaps the second or third in line, might have the verb dream. She might say something
like “…. and she had dreamed it all. None of it was true,” which pretty much puts an end
to the story before it even gets started. Encourage the rest of the class to help her come up
with something different.)
About twenty students is the maximum for this activity or else students will have too
much down time when they are not saying anything. If you want to break the class up
into two groups, create two scenarios. One group works orally as described above; the
other group works silently passing a piece of paper around, each student adding his or her
part.
To make the writing group more productive, start two pieces of paper going in two
different directions. This means that the same student will add the first line of the story
going one way, and the last line of the story going the other way. This creates two stories
out of the same scenario, each with the same target past-tense verbs. Additionally, it
keeps the writers more involved since their activity is not as interactive as the oral group.

Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 3: Future Time
Activity: Scene Predictions
Materials needed: A short movie or TV show that hinges on
action rather than dialogue.
Description: In this activity, students are encouraged to use will,
be going to, and modals of possibility, as well as the phrase be
about to, and the words maybe and probably.
Students watch a movie. Pause the movie at pivotal moments and asks the students to guess what
is going to happen next. Students can predict what follows in that scene, or in the next scene.
Whatever video is shown, it should be strongly visual and have some unpredictable physical
action. Slapstick-style humor, with falling flowerpots and people slipping on banana peels,
works, as do kids’ cartoons. Jimmy Neutron is a children’s animated show that is excellent
because it is all very unpredictable and has brief 15 minute episodes that can be shown in their
entirety. Other movies that work well are Mr. Bean, parts of Pink Panther movies, and pre-teen
movies like RV, Zoom, Spy Kids, and Sky High.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 3: Future Time
Activity: Making a Date
Materials needed: A set of prepared handouts that look like date-book pages (See page 2).
Description: Students have to make an appointment with each other to study for an important
test. The test is on Monday, September 16. The students need about three hours of time, but they
may have to break it into two 1.5 hour sessions.
Students work in pairs, and one student receives the A version of the calendar page while the
other students uses the B version. Have them sit back to back and not look at each other’s
handout.
Each of the versions has many dates filled in, and it will be difficult for students to arrange an
appointment, but that is the point.
Brainstorm with students the question forms needed to schedule a meeting with someone.
Are you busy on ____________?
Are you free on ____________?
What/ how about ______________ at __________?
Can you do ______________ at ___________?
Brainstorm how to talk about definite future plans -- the kind of plans one puts in a date book.
Students should use present progressive and be going to.

Page 1 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 3: Future Time
Activity: Making a Date
STUDENT A:

September:

Sun 1

Mon 2

Tues 3

Wed 4

Thurs 5

Fri 6

Sat 7

Shopping
w.
Grandma
11:302:30

Class- 8-2

Work9-3

Class- 8-2

Work9-3

Class- 8-2

Work
9-4

Sun 8

Mon 9

Study
Ch. 9
chemistry,
finish
report

Class- 8-2

Work 4-9
Coffee w.
Ann
5:30
Tues 10
Day off!!
Help Chris
paint
apartment

STUDENT B
Sun 1

Mon 2

Breakfast
with dad
9:00health
club

Class- 9-3

Work
5-9

Patty’s party
8:00

Wed 11

Thurs 12

Fri 13

Class- 8-2

Work- 9-3

Class- 8-2

Meet w.
Pick up TVstudy group- repair shop
library-3
before 5

Dentist 3:30
Work 1-9
p.m.

September:
Tues 3

Work 3-10
pm

Wed 4

Thurs 5

Fri 6

Class- 9-3

Day off

Class- 12-3

Basketball
tickets- 7:15

Math study
group 3:30
Jim’s party
8:00
Fri 13

Meeting w.
advisor 4:30

Sun 8

Mon 9

Tues 10

Wed 11

Thurs 12

Work
10-5

Class- 9-3

Work
9-4

Class- 9-3

Study for
Class- 12-3
psych test in
the a.m.
Pick up
Aunt Ann –
Tennis with airport 8:15
Carrie 1:30 p.m.

Get oil
changed
4:30

Sat 14

Coffee with
Jeff 6:00

Sat 7

Work 2-10
p.m.
Sat 14
Work 9-3
Family
dinner 7:00

Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: Picture Perfect
Materials needed: Photos that can be used to express the present
perfect and present perfect progressive. See the following pages (page
2 and 3) of clip art.
Description: In this oral activity, the simple photos are prompts to get the students
creating sentences using the present perfect and the present perfect progressive. While it
is fairly easy to come up with the first, most obvious sentence, the students should be
urged to work with a partner to develop several sentences for each picture.
For example:
This lady has just finished shopping. She has been at the mall since early in the morning.
Her feet are tired because she has been walking all day. She has spent all her money, but
she hasn’t finished buying clothes for her vacation yet.

Page 1 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: Picture Perfect

These pictures show something that has just, or
recently, happened.

Page 2 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: Picture Perfect

These activities have been going on for several hours.

Page 3 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: How Things Have Changed!
Materials needed: Photos that illustrate a before/after scene. See sample photos below.
Description: One of the uses of the present perfect is to describe change over time. Students can
stretch their vocabulary talking about before and after pictures. Put the pictures within a simple,
general context to stimulate the students’ imagination. For example, what if they had last visited
a city five years ago? Now, on their return visit, they are surprised by developments and describe
what has changed.
My visit to Boulder, Colorado, five years ago, and recently.
5 years ago

5 years ago

Recently

Recently

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: How Things Have Changed!
My home office was such a mess!

I’ve recently gotten it organized.

The house down the street had been
empty for a long time.

Recently, a new family has moved in.

Page 2 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect
Activity: How Things Have Changed!

Glaciers in Europe 100 years ago.

Where has the ice gone?

Page 3 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 5: Asking Questions
Activity: Mix and Match Question Game
Materials needed: Two baskets or bags, index cards or slips of
paper to write words on.
Description: Label one basket “Question Starters” and the other
basket “Verbs.” Write one question-starter word on a card or slip and
drop it in the correct basket. Write each verb on other cards and put
those in a different basket.
Put the baskets in the middle of the room within equal access to all students and set the
students in pairs. At the “go” signal, one student from each pair selects one slip from each
basket. The student returns to his or her pair, and together they come up with a question
that begins with the starter word and incorporates the verb. The pair writes their sentence,
underlining the slip words. As soon as they write one sentence, one of the pair can return
to the baskets to select two more slips.
The team has to write ten unique sentences. While they may repeat what is on one of the
slips, they may not repeat the same combination of question starters and verbs in a
sentence.
Whichever team first comes up with ten unique and correct sentences, checked by the
teacher, wins the game.
Question starters: How often, what time, do, does, did, have, has, is, are, will, when,
what kind of, what, where, who, how about, how, why, how
Sample Verbs: study, visit, leave, drive, talk, graduate, walk, watch, spend, buy, read,
carry, go, go shopping, get, play, work, eat, arrive, bring, fix (Be sure to use verbs that
can be used in the progressive form!)

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 5: Asking Questions
Activity: Question Ping Pong
Materials needed: None
Description: Groups of three students work together. Two
students fire rapid-fire yes/no questions at each other, and one
student referees.
Give students time to write twenty yes/no questions in any tense, on any topic related to
their “ping-pong” partner. Students should also use some third-person questions about
people in their partner’s life.
Sample questions:
Were you late for school this morning?
Did you eat fish last night?
Are you going to work on Saturday?
Do you have a sister?
Have you ever slept in your car?
Does your father speak English?
Will your boss let you leave if you ask?
Can you ride a horse?
Would you lend me a dollar if I asked?
The two game partners face each other from a few feet away. The referee stands on the
side in-between them.
The first person “serves” a question. The second person responds with a short answer and
immediately fires a question back. The first person responds and returns with his next
question.
The referee has two important jobs. The first job is to keep a rhythm by clapping or
banging a pencil on the desk. The beat should model the clipped pace the players have to
use to fire off and respond to the questions. The ref’s second job is to pay close attention
to errors. When the ref hears an error, he or she stops the game and asks for the question
to be repeated. Finally, it’s the ref who finds a resolution for any disagreements.
Players also have the right to stop the action if they think their opponent has answered
incorrectly, and the ref didn’t catch the error.
This game moves very quickly, and there should be time to reshuffle the triads, giving the
referees a chance to be a player. During the second match, the questions will be more
challenging as students try to stump each other.
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 6: Nouns and Pronouns
Activity: Final –s sounds
Materials needed: None
Description: Pronunciation teachers know that the first step to
good pronunciation is auditory discrimination. In this quick and
easy activity, the teacher reads a list of plural nouns and students
determine which ending sound they hear.
First, ask students to set up their papers with three columns. The
first column should be labeled /s/, the second column /z/, and the
third column /z/.
The teacher stands with his or her back to the students and reads a list of words that have
a variety of ending sounds. The students write the word they hear in the correct column.
Here is a list of words from the Azar text:
1. names
/z/
2. witches /z/
3. judges /z/
4. hills
/z/
5. cars
/z/
6. glasses /z/
7. cakes
/s/
8. skirts
/s/
9. lips
/s/
10. months /s/
11. faxes
/z/
12. supports /s/
13. lashes
/z/
14. prizes /z/
15. cities
/z/
16. pages
/z/
17. seeds
/z/
18. clocks /s/
19. classe /z/
20. bananas /z/

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 6: Nouns and Pronouns
Activity: Noun + Noun Charade (adjectival noun = noun)
Materials needed: Slips of paper or index cards to write words on.
Description: This activity works especially well to broaden
students’ vocabulary in the area of using nouns as adjectives.
In this version of charades, students have to get the class to guess the
adjective + noun combination on their slip. Write the following
words on slips of paper, and as a student becomes “it,” he or she
takes a slip of paper and has to find a way to mime the item on the
slip. Some students try drawing or shaping the item with their hands
while others try to act out the object in use.
Some possible words:
flower pot
shoe box
vegetable garden
fruit salad
tree house
love song
picture frame
laundry soap
car door
beach towel
computer monitor
desk lamp
guitar string
tennis ball
ballet shoes
chicken leg
apple tree
mountain road
race car

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 7: Modal Auxiliaries
Activity: Desert Island Survival
Materials needed: Discussion guidelines page and/or a list of items.
Description: In groups, students discuss which items they would bring with
them to a desert island. Students are encouraged to focus on using modals.
The discussion can include phrases like “We could use the _________
for___________”; “We should have a ___________ to ________”; “I have
to have a __________!” “If we bring the _____________, we will be able to
____________.” Write the possible phrases on the board so the students get
an idea of what is expected.
This is the set-up for the hypothetical situation. It can be explained or prepared on a page for the
students to read:
Jungle
You and your group are on a ship in the middle of the ocean. It is sinking fast. Luckily, you’ve
spotted a small island not too far away, and you think you will be able to swim to it. The island
has some palm trees and thick, jungle-like growth on it. You can’t see any other details. You’ve
found a single waterproof bag and have just a few minutes to throw some supplies into it, which
one of you will then carry on your back as you swim to safety. You have to decide which items
you will take with you. Of the items below, you can fit just five into the bag. (Those items that
come in multiples, for example, the chocolate, should be counted as a single item.) Your group
must agree on which five to take.
scissors
matches
hand-crank short-wave radio (receives only)
water-purification tablets
book -- you can fit any one book
of your choice from the ship’s library
aid manual
pack of pencils
notepad
portable gaming device plus 1 game
2 pair of hiking boots
a canvas tent
toilet paper
a snakebite kit
a fish hook and nylon string

blanket
anti-bacterial cream
hand-crank flashlight
mosquito repellant
a small ax
photos of all your families when they
came to wish you “Bon voyage”
2 pair of jeans
sun block lotion
a mirror
rope
2 chocolate bars for each person
a sewing kit
aspirin

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8: Connecting Ideas
Activity: Finding Relationships
Materials needed: A page of paired pictures, sets of connecting words
on small slips of paper.
Description: Students have to use a random connecting word to create a
relationship between the objects or the scenes in two pictures.
Write the connecting words from Chapter 8 on individual pieces of
paper.
and but or so

neither either

because

although

even though

too

You can create several complete sets of these words so there is a set for every three or four pairs
of students. Place the set of papers near the pairs of students. Give each student the handout of
the pairs of pictures. Each pair of students chooses a word slip and tries to make a relationship
sentence linking the first pair of pictures. A sample page of pictures is provided on the following
page.
This activity requires great creativity and lateral thinking, and even students who randomly pull
the same word for the same pair of pictures won’t come up with the same relationship.
Example: Use the word so-

Students might say “A computer is a useful tool, and so is a hammer.”
Or if the students pulled the word because -“You shouldn’t use a hammer around a computer because a computer is fragile.”
Or if the students pulled the word but -A hammer doesn’t need electricity, but a computer does.
With the word neither -“A computer isn’t used to clean the kitchen, and neither is a hammer.”

Page 1 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8: Connecting Ideas
Activity: Finding Relationships

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 9: Comparisons
Activity: Smart Shopping
Materials needed: Access to web pages or photocopies of web
pages featuring product comparison charts.
Description: Students “shop” for products
comparing multiple features by studying some
websites that offer side-by-side product
comparison charts. (While there are many
websites that provide comparisons, not all are
formatted as a chart.)
This realia-based activity is a great way for students to practice the important skill of
careful consumerism. Not only does the exercise require authentic use of comparative
and superlative forms in addition to other vocabulary of comparison, but this real-life task
also introduces new immigrants to the Internet as a valuable resource for consumers.
Using product comparison charts gives students practice in thinking about points of
comparison, which points are essential to their needs, and which are not.
Here are some links to product and service comparison charts:
1. PDAs and Cell Phones
http://www.pcmag.com/compare_products/0,1943,,00.asp?a=136901,154880,143647,162
382&pt=0&sid=1566
2. Types of TVs
http://www.crutchfieldadvisor.com/ISEO-rgbtcspd/learningcenter/home/TV_chart.html
3. Lodging Choices at Yosemite National Park
http://www.yosemitepark.net/ylchart.htm
4. Hybrid Cars
http://www.consumersearch.com/www/automotive/hybrid-cars/comparison.html
5. Juicers
http://www.harvestessentials.com/juco.html

Page 1 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 9: Comparisons
Activity: Smart Shopping
In addition to charts, a large quantity of information about individual products can be
found online in text format. A related, more complex activity would be for students to
make their own chart comparing two item brands or types. Students can think of common
items people need to consider carefully before buying, like a refrigerator, a computer, or
a child car seat. Students decide what features should be compared and then research the
products and fill in their chart, set up like a matrix, with one axis being the products and
the other axis being the points to compare.

Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: The Passive
Activity: Oetzi the Iceman / Passive Voice
Materials needed: A high-interest article or passage that uses a lot of passive voice. An article is
included below.
Description: Students read and discuss an article about a European mummy, Oetzi, found in the
1990s in the thawing ice of the Alps. The article uses a lot of passive voice, primarily in the
simple past and present perfect, although there are a few modal passives as well. This article has
been abridged from a much longer one, and the web link to the original is included below, as
well as a link to photos to warm the class up to the “Iceman.”
Use of this article depends on which point of the passive lesson a class is working on at the
moment.
1. Initial grammar discovery: Provide comprehension questions that elicit a passive response.
Compare them to questions and answers that require an active-voice response.
2. Identifying the passive: Students read the article searching for uses of the passive. Remind
students to look for forms of the Be verb, but remind them that not every Be verb is part of the
passive!
3. Practice: Students discuss why the passive voice is used in various sentences.
4. More practice: Make a jigsaw by dividing the article into Part A and B. One student has the
complete Part A with missing information in Part B, and the other student has the complete Part
B with missing information in Part A. Students must ask and answer each other’s questions to
complete the information.
5. Still more practice: Students change the passive to active where logical.
6. Just one more practice! After the article has been thoroughly read and discussed, the
instructor puts key words on the board and the students recreate passive sentences about Oetzi
without referring to the article.
Example: find -- Oetzi was found in 1991.
Name -- Oetzi was named after a valley in the Alps.

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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: The Passive
Activity: Oetzi the Iceman / Passive Voice

Oetzi the Iceman
Oetzi the Iceman is the modern nickname of a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from
about 3300 BC. The mummy was found in 1991 in a glacier of the Otztal Alps, near the border
between Austria and Italy. Oetzi was named after the valley of his discovery. He rivals the
Egyptian "Ginger" as the oldest known human mummy, and he has offered a unique view of the
habits of Copper Age Europeans.
Oetzi was found by two German tourists on September 19, 1991. The body was at first thought
to be a modern corpse, like several others which had recently been found in the area. It was
roughly recovered by the Austrian authorities and taken to Innsbruck, where its true age was
finally discovered. It is now being displayed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in
Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.
The body has been extensively examined, measured, x-rayed, and dated. Tissues and stomach
contents were examined microscopically. Scientists believe that at the time of his death, Oetzi
was a 30-to-45-year old man, approximately 160 cm (5'3") tall.
Analysis of pollen and dust grains on his clothing, and analysis of Oetzi’s teeth enamel show that
his childhood was spent near the present village of Feldthurns, north of Bolzano. He later went to
live in valleys about 50 km further north.
The Iceman had 57 tattoos. Some were located on or near acupuncture points that are used today
to treat symptoms of digestive problems and osteoarthritis. Interestingly, scientists have found
that Oetzi suffered from digestive problems and osteoarthritis. Some scientists believe that these
tattoos indicate an early type of acupuncture.
Oetzi’s clothes include a cloak, vest, and shoes. They were quite sophisticated. The cloak was
woven from grass, and the vest was made of leather.
The shoes were waterproof and wide. They seemed to be designed for walking across the snow;
they were constructed of bearskin, deer hide, and tree bark. Soft grass was wrapped around the
foot and also placed in the shoe. The grass functioned like warm socks. Recently, the shoes were
reproduced by experts. They are of such excellent quality, that there are plans for them to be
made commercially.
Other items found with the Iceman include a copper axe, flint knife, and a bow and quiver of
arrows.
Additionally, Oetzi carried two species of mushrooms. One of these mushrooms is known to
have antibacterial properties, and was likely used for medical purposes.
Page 2 of 3
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Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: The Passive
Activity: Oetzi the Iceman / Passive Voice
Researchers believe Oetzi may have been involved in a fight. Injuries from the fight may have
killed him. A DNA analysis revealed traces of blood from four other people on his gear: one
from his knife, two from the same arrowhead, and a fourth from his coat.
A CAT scan revealed that an arrowhead was stuck in Oetzi’s shoulder when he died. The arrow
shaft had been removed, but the arrowhead had been left inside his body. He also had bruises and
cuts on his hands, wrists, and chest.
From such evidence, and an examination of his weapons, molecular biologist Thomas Loy from
the University of Queensland believes that Oetzi and his companions were hunters who fought
with a rival group. At some point, he may have carried (or been carried by) a companion. He
may have been weakened by blood loss. As a result, Oetzi apparently put down his equipment
neatly against a rock, lay down, and died.
His body was covered by thousands of years of ice and snow until his recent discovery. Pieces of
his clothing, his hair, his skin, and his personal possessions were well-preserved because of the
cold temperatures.

This article has been abridged and slightly simplified from an article appearing at
http://www.crystalinks.com/oetzi.html. It has had a few more passives added to it. Link to this
article to show your class pictures of the mummy.
This website has a few pictures including a recreation of how Oetzi might have looked in life.
http://www.hominides.com/html/ancetres/otzi.htm (The site is in French, but the photos are selfexplanatory.)

Page 3 of 3
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Fundamentals of English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 11: Count/Noncount Nouns and Articles
Activity: Stop Me If I’m Wrong!
Materials needed: A brief story with errors in determiner use. (A story has been provided.)
Student copies of the same story with cloze.
Description: In groups, students complete the cloze activity with
the correct determiner (including  determiner) or unit of measure.
When they are finished, the instructor reads his or her copy of the
story, complete with errors. When students think they have heard
an error, they shout “stop!” and give the instructor the correct
answer.
Instructor Copy (no errors):
I had an interesting experience a few days ago. I was on the bus to work when I saw a woman.
The woman looked just like a friend of mine, Patty. She had the same long black hair. I hadn’t
seen Patty for several years, but we talk to each other on the phone sometimes.
I got off the bus and crossed the street to my office building. There is a wonderful glass elevator
on the outside of the building. I got in the elevator and pushed the button for the 12th floor. Music
was softly playing. I enjoyed the scenery of the city skyline and looked down at some cars stuck
in the traffic below. The sky was clear, and there was only a little smog.
There were a lot of people in the elevator. We stopped on the 4th floor; an elderly woman got off.
We stopped on the 5th floor, and a few men got off. By the 10th floor, there were only a few
people on the elevator.
I listened to the music coming over the loudspeakers. Suddenly I heard a song from long ago. It
was a song that was very popular when Patty and I were in high school together. We had so
much fun then. It was nice to hear that song after so many years.
I was so involved in the music, that I accidentally stepped off the elevator on the 11th floor. I was
confused for a moment when, instead of my office, I saw a door with a sign on it that said “Law
Office of Patricia O’Connor.” Patricia! Another reminder of my friend Patty.
On the 12th floor, I grabbed a cup of coffee and a bag of pretzels from the vending machine and
went into my office. I quickly checked my email. I didn’t have much time before my first
meeting. There was an email from Patty.
She said “Hey friend, I hope you are doing well. Can you give me some advice about what to
wear in Seattle in April? You see, I’ll be there next week to visit you! Bye for now, Patty.”

Page 1 of 3
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