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AZAR GRAMMAR SERIES expansion activities advanced level 3rd edition

Expansion Activities
written by Maria Spelleri

Advanced Level
Azar Grammar Series: Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd edition
Expansion Activities are interactive tasks and games that focus on the grammar covered in the
tables of contents of the Azar textbooks or any comparable syllabus. You may download,
reproduce and adapt the material to suit your classroom needs. Expansion activities are available
as Word documents or PDF files.

Chapter 1—Overview of Verb Tenses
A Tense Discovery

Chapter 2—Past Tense
Who is this baby?
Story in a Bag

Chapter 3—Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Songs

Chapter 4—Future Tense

Fortune Teller

Chapter 5—Adverb Clauses of Time
Creative Time-Clause Conversations

Chapter 6—Subject-Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb matching

Chapter 7—Nouns
Noun recall

Chapter 8—Pronouns
Analyzing Authentic Pronoun Use

Chapter 9—Modals, Part I
Modal Scenarios


Chapter 10—Modals, Part II
Name that Sound!
Get a Clue!
Talking about History's Mysteries

Chapter 11—The Passive
Design a Park Brochure
Avoiding Responsibility

Chapter 12—Reported Speech Forms in Noun Clauses
Message Relay

Chapter 13—Adjective Clauses
Identifying Adjective Clauses in Authentic Text

Chapter 14—Gerund and Infinitives, Part I
Unusual Jobs

Chapter 15—Gerund and Infinitives, Part II
Getting Things Done

Chapter 16—Coordinating Conjunctions


A Hands-On Demonstration for Avoiding Run-On Sentences

Chapter 17—Adverb Clauses
Kinesthetic Clause Building

Chapter 18—Reduction of Adverb Clauses
Rewriting a Text

Chapter 19—Connectives that Express Cause and Effect, Contrast, and
Condition
Silent Review of Connectives and Their Patterns
Mad Libs with Connectives

Chapter 20—Conditional Sentences and Wishes
Chain of Conditions


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 1: Overview of Verb Tenses
Activity: A Tense Discovery
Materials needed: A selection of three or four written articles and/or professional essays
that provide a variety of verb tense usage -- enough photocopies of each for the class. (To
help gather the articles, ask students to bring in a “serious” news or magazine story a few
days before. Longer magazine articles work better than many news stories. If fifteen
students bring in articles, you’ll have a nice collection from which to find the best ones to
use. Additionally, if the students choose the writings, they will have more interest in the
content and the level will be right for them.)
Description: Prepare the articles for the students by underlining the verb structures or
bracketing the paragraphs you want the students to pay attention to. This saves time
because students don’t have to read the entire article, which may be multi-paged. Use a
numbering system so that you and the students can easily refer to a particular sentence or
passage. Do this with 2-4 articles, depending on the variety of verb tenses you find in
each article, and then photocopy enough for the class.
Divide the students into groups of 4-5 and pass out the first article.
Instruct the students to pay attention to the verb forms and to identify
which verb tense is being used in each situation. More advanced
students can discuss why a specific tense is needed. Encourage students
to discuss the time/meaning relationship in the targeted areas and to
draw from their knowledge of verb tense rules, referring to their
textbook charts as needed.
To have a whole-class conclusion to this exercise, each group should appoint a scribe.
Using the numbering system on the article, the groups can record their answers to report
to the class.
Students enjoy seeing the connection between the grammar learned in class and its
authentic application. You can see the great “a-ha!” moment on their faces when they
make that connection on their own.
Note: Students will mistakenly select a few present and past participial modifiers,
gerunds, infinitives, etc., thinking they are verbs. Plan how you will handle that. One way
is to remind students by writing on the board before they begin: “An -ing word is NOT a
verb if there is no helping verb with it. To + an action word is not a verb.”
Also, to save class time, assign the article for homework. Students can read the article
and consider the underlined verb tenses, preparing themselves for group discussion in the
next class.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Tense
Activity: Who is this baby?
Materials needed: A baby picture of each student, writing supplies, tacks or blue tack
Description:
It’s a lot of fun to see baby pictures of adults you work or study with -- especially if
those pictures are goofy or impossibly adorable. In this activity, students like the baby
picture angle so much that they forget they are involved in past-tense writing practice.
Each student should bring in a baby picture of herself or himself, the cuter or sillier the
better. The pictures should be of a very young baby (a year old or less) so it isn’t easy to
match the adult face with the baby one. Instruct the students not to let anyone see their
photos.
Working alone, students write sentences about themselves as a baby and toddler, being careful not to reveal
their identity in their writing. You can set a minimum number of sentences. Encourage the students to write
about things that are unique to themselves.
I was born in my grandfather’s house.
My favorite toy was a yellow duck.
I had no hair until I was two years old.
My mother called me “Mouse.”
I loved spinach.
Etc.
Remind students not to refer to countries or languages so they won’t reveal their identity.
When the students are done writing, tape each student’s baby picture to the top of her or his writing and clearly
number the writing. Display the written work on a bulletin board or use blue tack and put them up all over the
room at eye level.

3
……
……
……

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Tense
Activity: Who is this baby?
Students now number a paper with as many numbers as there are displayed writings. They mill around the room
reading the “infant bios,” looking at the pictures, and trying to guess the identity of each baby. For example,
when a student thinks she knows the identity of the student in display #5, she will write the student’s name on
her own paper next to #5.
When everyone has finished, the class can compare their guesses as a group. As long as the baby pictures are
from a young enough age, and as long as the student hasn’t revealed his current physical characteristics,
ethnicity, language, etc. in the writing, there will be many mistaken guesses -- sometimes even girls for boys
and vice versa, resulting in a lot of laughs.
Encourage relaxed discussion! This wrap-up time is a great opportunity to get students to practice forming pasttense questions and responses to each other as they question each other about the writings, asking for
clarification or more information. (Did you really say “Picasso” for your first word? Why?)
Culture Note: Obviously, students need access to baby photos. This activity will not work with visiting
students or with some students from refugee backgrounds, so consider your class make-up before suggesting
this activity.

Page 2 of 2
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Tense
Activity: Story in a Bag
Materials needed: Plastic or paper bags filled with random, unrelated
items. Some unusual items always make the activity more interesting. Plan
on one filled bag per group, and place 4-6 students in each group. Each
bag should contain 6-8 items. (4 or 5 students should have 6 items; 6
students should have 8 items.)
Description: Each group of students gets a different bag filled with
objects. Each group develops an oral story that incorporates all of the items in the bag.
The story should be told in past tenses, simple and progressive. This task takes lots of
discussion and cooperation, as well as lots of creativity!
Here’s an example of a bag that contains a mix of common, yet unrelated items:
1. A book of matches from a New York restaurant
2. A screwdriver
3. A pair of gloves
4. A toy car
5. Plastic vampire teeth
6. A Band-Aid
7. A key
8. An interesting rock
It always helps juice the students’ creativity if you put in an item that alludes to travel
such as a map for some far-off place, a postcard, a souvenir, even an exotic spice.
You can find menus for restaurants around the world, tour itineraries, and tourist
maps to distant cities and museums online. Students love the exotic international
aspect that they find in their bag.
First, place the students in groups. (Do not give out the bags yet!)
Then, introduce the activity like this:
“You are going to create a story in the oral tradition. This is the kind of story that
humans passed from one generation to the next before most people could read or
write. Your story will have one or more characters who want to do or achieve
something. They may have a problem to solve or a goal to reach. However, like in all
good stories, they will face some obstacle. Eventually, however, they will overcome
this obstacle and reach their goal (or maybe not!). Everyone in the group will
contribute to the story, and everyone in the group will have to relate part of the story
to the class.”
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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 2: Past Tense
Activity: Story in a Bag
“When you create this story, use the past tense and the past progressive as your
primary verb tenses. Try to use adverb clauses of time as well (Before, After, When,
As, etc.) to show how things happen chronologically.”
“Usually, in the oral tradition, stories are told over and over again, so that every detail
is easily memorized. However, since we don’t have time for that today, I’m going to
let you take brief, key-word notes on each part of your story so you can remember
what happens when you tell the class your story.”
(By now, students are clamoring “We can make up a story about anything we want?”
and turning their backs on you to start. This is the time to hand out the bags of
objects.)
“If I could just have your attention for one more minute! Please take a bag and empty
it on your desk. These bags will help you create your story because there is a catch -your story must include each of the objects you see before you. They can be
important parts of the story, or less significant, but each must be mentioned.”
Give the students a good 40 minutes to develop a story and practice telling it around
their group. Then ask each group to come to the front with their objects, place the
objects on a surface, and tell their story. Tell them to hold up each object for the class
to see when they reach its part in the story.

Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 3: Present Perfect Tense
Activity: Present Perfect Songs
Materials needed: A recorded song, written lyrics
Description:
Use music to enliven the present perfect and help students practice its
formation. Songs also provide an opportunity for discussing the usage of
the tense. You can find even the most obscure lyrics on the Internet, and
you can buy and download individual songs inexpensively at various
Internet sites. Below are some songs that use the present perfect
extensively.


Paul McCartney – “My Brave Face” (present perfect and present perfect progressive)



U2 – “I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking for” (present perfect)



Brandy – “Have You Ever?” (present perfect question form)



Foreigner – “I’ve Been Waiting” (present perfect progressive)



EmmyLou Harris – “You Been on My Mind” (both present perfect and present
perfect progressive, and also a good example of the reduced form used in rapid
speech, as evident in the title)



Celine Dion – “Have You Ever Been in Love?” (question form)

Lyrics sites – www.lyrics.com; www.azlyrics.com; www.sing365.com
There are many ways to use songs and lyrics to emphasize a grammar point:





Prepare a cloze exercise featuring the verb tense.
Read and discuss the meaning of the lyrics and why the present perfect tenses are
used.
Sing the song, helping the students notice that in rapid speech, the contraction of
have/has in the present perfect is almost inaudible, and in fact, it is sometimes
(incorrectly) left out altogether.
Write another verse modeled on one that uses the present perfect.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 4: Future Tense
Activity: Fortune Teller
Materials needed: Slips with students’ names, dramatic props are
encouraged. (See note below.)
Description:
The basis of this activity is for the students to make humorous predictions about the
futures of their classmates. Students are allowed to use all appropriate forms of the future.
Put every student’s name on a slip in a hat or bag. Next, pairs of students pull two names
from the hat or bag.
As a pair, the students will write silly life predictions for the two students whose names
they have pulled. Students should use what they know about a student to help them write
predictions.
For example, student X is crazy about basketball, is always hungry, and does well on
grammar tests. The student pair could write: “In the future, X will win a hot-dog-eating
contest. He will eat 89 hot dogs, and then he’ll ask for dessert. In five years, X will be
hired by the Los Angeles Lakers, and he is going to become their star player.
Unfortunately, his career won’t last long because X’s teammates will get very angry with
him for always correcting their grammar mistakes.”
Each student takes a turn at being the “Fortune Teller,” reading a prediction aloud.
The student whose future is being discussed should be encouraged to respond, agreeing
or disagreeing with his foretold future. Example: “I won’t be playing for the Lakers
because I hate them! I’ll be playing for Chicago.” Then open the floor to the rest of the
class who might have alternate, off-the-cuff predictions for each student. The idea is to
spark as much talk about the future as possible. To encourage discussion, use prompts
like “What do you think you’ll be doing in five years?”
Note: A little drama adds a lot. The more trouble the teacher goes to, the more the
students will get into the activity and have fun while they learn. Bring a shawl or head
scarf, a “magic” mirror, a cup of wet tea leaves, or something that can be used for a
crystal ball. Taking a cue from theater workshops, students can pass the props around to
make their predictions more dramatic.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 5: Adverb Clauses of Time
Activity: Creative Time-Clause Conversations
Materials needed: Index cards or slips of paper
Description:
Students write creative conversations that can be performed as
simple dialogues or as more developed skits for the class.
Below are examples of vague sentences using adverb time clauses. Write them or your
own sentences on index cards. Pair your students and let each pair select a sentence card.
Students then develop their own dialogues incorporating their cue sentence, which can
come in the beginning, middle, or end of the dialogue. The sentences are purposely vague
so the students can go wildly creative and have fun.
If you have a large class and don’t have time to come up with more sentences, make
some duplicate index cards and compare the different dialogues that develop from the
same cue sentence. Students can change pronouns and demonstratives as needed: it had
disappeared -- they had disappeared; this special talent -- that special talent, etc.
Cue Sentences
By the time I got my camera ready, it had disappeared.
As long as I live, I’ll never do that again!
The next time you hear that noise, you’ll be sure to go inside.
Now, whenever I see him, I hide.
Last night while I was getting ready for bed, it happened again.
Let’s stay here until they leave.
When I went to investigate, I couldn’t believe my eyes.
I’ve had this special talent ever since I was a child.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 6: Subject-Verb Agreement
Activity: Subject-Verb Matching
Materials needed: Index cards of two different colors
Description:
This is a “mingling” activity that the whole class jumps into at once. The sentences below
allow for 26 participants. For groups larger than that, you’ll probably find it better to
divide into two separate cohorts with two completely different sets of sentences.
If you find yourself having to create more sentences, avoid having people as the subjects
in all but one or two cases. It’s easier to write exclusive matches that way. You’ll
understand when you read the sentences below.
To make this activity easier, use two colors of index cards, one color for the subject and
the other color for the predicate. To make it tougher, use only one color per cohort.
Write half of each sentence on an index card. Mix them well and distribute them to the
class, one per student. Students should read their cards and practice saying their phrases
out loud.
All together, the students stand and begin mingling with each other, trying to find the
second half of their sentence. It’s more fun if students avoid reading their cards and just
“recite” their fragments to each other, and under no condition should they just hold out
their cards for others to read.
When a student thinks he or she has found a match, the two should come to the teacher
for confirmation and then back out of play until all matches have been made.
At the end of the activity, a nice wrap-up would be to put all the correct sentences on the
board, in columns according to number, so students can see why they are singular or
plural.
A lot of my friends from school

are coming to my party.

Every teacher, counselor, and coach

is interested in the students’ progress.

Gymnastics

is an Olympic sport.

My TV, as well as my refrigerator,

is broken again.

My stereo and my cell phone

are the latest technology.
Page 1 of 2

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 6: Subject-Verb Agreement
Activity: Subject-Verb Matching
Baseball and football

have many fans in America.

The Germans

have a unique October holiday.

Germany

has the second largest population in Europe.

The early morning news

has helpful traffic updates.

Einstein’s ideas

were revolutionary.

One of the books

was on the shelf.

A lot of the books

were available in the library.

Writing plays

was Wendy’s passion.

Page 2 of 2
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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 7: Nouns
Activity: Noun Recall
Materials needed: Numerous household, personal, and classroom
items, some one of a kind, others in pairs and larger quantities, and a
table cloth. (It’s fun to throw in a couple of unusual and unexpected
items. For example, you could add a group of postcards from Africa,
a Halloween mask, and a set of plastic chattering teeth to a rather
banal group of kitchen and personal items.)
Description:
Before the students enter the room, spread all the items on a table, grouping like items
together. Make sure there are enough items and enough variety so students can’t quickly
and easily recall everything. Cover the items with a lightweight table cloth or sheet.
On the board, list quantity words, expressions, and articles that the students are likely to
need when they write about the objects on the table.
Uncover the items on the table. Ask the students to approach the table, circle around it
slowly but without dallying, and return to their seats. Cover the table again.
In pairs, students now write as much detail about the items on the table as they can recall.
One student in each pair can act as the scribe while both come up with complete
sentences like “There are two pairs of scissors on the table. Both pairs have purple
handles. In the middle, there’s a dictionary. The dictionary has a red cover. There are a
few forks next to the dictionary. There are a lot of toothpicks. Most of the toothpicks are
broken. There is a photograph of a house. The house is by the beach.” When the students
have finished writing, pairs of students can compare sentences. Then uncover the table
again. Students have a lot of fun at this point as they compare what they wrote to the
reality. (That’s why it’s important to make it a challenge. Sometimes they’ve added
things that aren’t even on the table!)

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8: Pronouns
Activity: Analyzing Authentic Pronoun Use
Materials needed: An authentic article with a good selection of pronouns, such as the one
provided below. Except for personal pronouns and many indefinite pronouns, you will have to
pre-highlight or underline the pronouns for the students. To avoid confusion, it would be best for
you to highlight all the pronouns.
Description: Students read the article in small groups and analyze the use of pronouns. Using
their knowledge of pronouns and their grammar text, they can identify antecedents and different
types of pronouns. It’s important to use authentic text not written for ESL/EFL students so
students can see how antecedents are often not directly stated, and other grammar realities. To
keep students focused, you may want to set a list of tasks like -1. Find a sentence that uses a singular, possessive pronoun. Is it masculine or feminine?
2. What is the antecedent for the plural reflexive pronoun?
Setting the tasks will send them flipping through their grammar books to confirm what they need
to know in order to address the tasks.
The article below features:
- subject personal pronouns
- object personal pronouns
- possessive personal pronouns
- relative pronouns
- an indefinite pronoun
- the word “most” functioning as a pronoun when not in front of a noun
- a reflexive pronoun
- a reciprocal pronoun (each other)
- the word one to indicate a single part of a vaguely defined group

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8: Pronouns
Activity: Analyzing Authentic Pronoun Use

Exchange Students: Promoting Cross-Cultural Understanding
Washington, D.C.
29 August 2006

Representing nations from Morocco to Bangladesh, some 300 students spent their first day in the United States
at an orientation session outside Washington.
For some, the trip proved a challenge. Israel's bombing of Hezbollah positions in southern Lebanon
complicated the departure of Lebanese students, including 15-year-old Mohamed.
"We left in a helicopter, because there is no airport [open in Beirut]. We left to Cyprus, then to London, then
here. We had a really tiring flight," he said.
For most, this is their first time away from home. Much of what they encounter is new and unfamiliar. Perhaps
not surprisingly, many students initially clustered together with compatriots to speak their native tongues,
which range from Arabic to Bangla to Urdu. After the initial orientation, they were taken on a tour of
Washington, including stops at the White House and the Jefferson Memorial.
The students' excitement and sense of anticipation was palpable to anyone who saw them. Among a large
contingent from Bangladesh is 16-year-old Faizun.
"It is a lifetime opportunity to come here, to know the [American] culture, to have a close look at the people
here, to live with a host family, attend high school. I think it is really nice. It is awesome, " Faizun said.
The Youth Exchange and Study program, called "YES," is operated by a consortium of non-profit
organizations with the backing and support of the State Department. Launched in the aftermath of the
September11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the program has brought more than 1,000 students, most of them Muslim,
to the United States over the last four years.
From Washington, the youths are sent to host families in dozens of American communities, large and small,
urban and rural, across the nation.

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 8: Pronouns
Activity: Analyzing Authentic Pronoun Use

What do they hope to accomplish during their year in the United States?
"We want to know more about America and its culture, and we want American people to know more about our
culture," said 16-year-old Khalil of Yemen.
But Khalil acknowledges he has some apprehensions about challenges he will face. "I think [I may get]
homesick, and the language [English]. I think it will be difficult at first. But then we will be staying here for 10
months. I think we will improve our English," he said.
Several students said they want to combat stereotypes some Americans may have about Muslims. Seventeenyear-old Tareq of Jordan said, "Muslims and Middle Easterners are not [all] terrorists. Really. You have to
know that we are people. We can think. We are not animals or something."
What good can person-to-person cross-cultural contact accomplish in a world often torn apart by violence and
prejudice? No one is pretending that student exchange programs can, by themselves, change the world. But
they can and do have an impact, according to an administrator of the YES program, Mary Karam.
"Change happens on a very personal and local level. And this program is one of those opportunities for change,
one of those opportunities to take what is going on globally and bring it to a more personal level -- so that
people can interact one-on-one and really learn about one another, learn about one another's cultures, and make
a difference and move things forward to help build peace in a region that is struggling," said Karam.
Many Americans agree on the need for better understanding among peoples of the world. Margery Silverson of
Maryland was at the Jefferson Memorial when the exchange students arrived. "I do not think they [Muslims]
are all terrorists and I do not think they should think of Americans as greedy and only out for the dollar [to
make money]," she said.
YES administrators say the program can have a lifelong impact on students and their host families. Already,
some students from previous years have returned to visit their American families and applied to go to college
in the United States. Several host families have also journeyed to visit students in their home countries.

Story found at:
http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-08/2006-08-29-voa73.cfm

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 9: Modals, Part I
Activity: Modal Scenarios
Materials needed: Index cards
Description:
In pairs, students are going to develop dialogues using a variety of modal words and
expressions. Write each scenario below on an index card and let each pair of students
choose a random card.
Depending on your students’ abilities, they can create written dialogues or spontaneous
oral role plays based on the confrontational scenarios below. Give students free rein to
take the scenarios in any direction they want, with the only caveat being that they need to
incorporate as many modals from the chapter as they can.
This is a terrific opportunity to point out some language subtleties: how professionals try
to conceal their frustration or anger beneath a veneer of civility by using polite forms, and
how modals can be used to soften criticism, complaints, and bad news. When each group
has finished presenting, find sentences in the productions that you can isolate to show
how using a modal expression makes a difference. For example, in the role play with a
customer and a store clerk, a line might read, “Would you mind asking the manager -just to be sure?” Ask the students how the mood of the conversation would change if the
speaker said, “Since you’re not sure, go ask the manager.”
You can have two pairs working on the same scenario because each pair will develop it in
different ways.
Scenario 1: A dissatisfied customer is returning an item to the store where it was bought.
The customer feels that the store should take the return. The sales clerk, while being as
polite as possible, doesn’t want to accept the return. (2 roles -- add a store manager if 3
roles are needed.)
Scenario 2: A teacher is talking with a child’s parent. The child never completes the
homework and always falls asleep in class. The teacher thinks the parent should change
some of the child’s habits at home. The parent thinks that the teacher gives too much
homework, and that children should have more fun and less stress from school. (2 roles)
Scenario 3: A neighbor has a large, noisy dog that frequently escapes from its backyard
and roams the neighborhood, barking and chasing people. The dog escaped yet again, and
a neighbor down the street had to sit in his car for five minutes, scared to get out, as the
dog jumped against the car and barked. Finally the dog’s owner came to take it away.
The dog’s owner doesn’t understand how people can be bothered or scared by his dog.
(2 roles)
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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 9: Modals, Part I
Activity: Modal Scenarios
Scenario 5: A teenager’s parents have gone away for the weekend.
The teenager disobeys his or her parents by driving their car while
they are gone. While the teenager is driving with a friend, they have
a minor accident that dents the car. The parents are coming home in
the morning. The teens are now very upset and trying to decide what
they should do. (2 roles)
Scenario 6: A teenager who disobeyed his or her parents and drove their car while they
were out of town had an accident with the car. No one was hurt, but the car has body
damage. The teenager’s parents have just arrived home, and it is time for the teen to
speak with them or dad about what happened. (2 roles)
Scenario 7: A business traveler has just arrived at a hotel where he or she is attending an
important conference. The business person is exhausted after flying for eight hours and
needs to freshen up and eat before checking in at the conference. Unfortunately, the hotel
can’t find any reservation and has no room ready for the traveler. (2 roles)

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Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: Modals, Part II
Activity: Name That Sound!
Materials needed: Recordings of a variety of hard-to-guess
sounds. Many websites offer free sound clips. This includes
some commercial sites that have a small free selection.
This is one of the biggest of the “all free” sites:
http://www.freeaudioclips.com/list.php?subcatid=42&subcat=So
und+FX&cat=10
Some of the best at this site: panting dog, bowling, galloping horse, cereal pouring into a
bowl, cork, hyenas, whale, dental drill, dice, “old-fashioned” movie projector, judge’s
mallet, at a gym, avalanche, biting into an apple, writing on a chalkboard, fishing reel,
coins dropping, air draining from a balloon ….You get the idea! You want to be sure you
use sounds of real activities and not computer cartoon-ish noises that don’t have a real
world reference.
Another good page: http://www.a1freesoundeffects.com/noflash.htm. The free ones are
those that are underlined so they show as links. Some nice ones here are: screen door
slam, small waterfall, thunder, meat sizzle, basketball backboard, spray paint, slap, inside
a jet, a donkey, and a dolphin.
You can download a variety of these small sound files to a CD or your hard drive. Or,
you can just bookmark the specific files you want to play live for the class. If you have a
sound-recording program like the free program, Audacity, you can record your own
simple sounds right at your computer -- things like tearing paper, slamming a book shut,
opening a can of soda, pulling masking tape from the roll, etc.
Description:
Students listen to the sounds and try to guess what they are, using modals of certainty in
varying degrees. Format this like a game show with teams. Divide your class into a
maximum of four teams. (You don’t want students to get bored waiting for their turn.)
Game rules: Just like Jeopardy, this game requires contestants to use a special format to
give their answers -- this game requires that contestants use modals of certainty.
When it is each team’s turn, the team listens to the sound and then states, “For 100
points,” or “For 50 points.”
If the team is quite sure of the sound, they may respond with “It must be .…” If the team
is correct, they earn 100 points. However, if they are not correct, they are down -100
points.
Page 1 of 2
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: Modals, Part II
Activity: Name That Sound!
If the team is not very sure of the sound, they may respond using may, might, or could.
If they are correct, they earn 50 points. If they are not correct, they are down -50 points.
In either case, the next team gets a shot at either the same sound or the next sound.
Encourage the students to consult with their team members before calling out an answer,
but to consult in lowered voices so the other teams don’t get help.
Keep score on the board under the headings Team 1, Team 2, etc. Don’t worry about
doing the math as you go along. Just write + 100, +50, -50, etc., and add it up at the end.

Page 2 of 2
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: Modals, Part II
Activity: Get a Clue!
Materials needed: Internet access for small groups of students. (If
you have no access in the class, students can do this in a lab or on
their own time.)
Description: Students solve short, fun mysteries while practicing
modals of certainty in the past and present.
There is a terrific website called Mystery Net that has several
different formats of short mysteries to read, discuss, and solve.
Mystery Net is accessible at this address: http://www.mysterynet.com/
You can take advantage of its wonderful front-page feature called “Get-a-Clue.”
This little activity presents a mystery in small chunks of 2-4 sentences at a time.
Students read the first clue and use modals of certainty to guess what might have
happened. Then they can click for the next clue which will help them make more guesses.
There are three or four separate clues to read before the solution is given. The story
changes every week.
In addition to the weekly “Get-a-Clue,” there is a monthly feature called “See-n-Solve,”
which has a short-story mystery (this month’s has 470 words). After reading the mystery,
students click on a picture that shows a room or crime scene, and then click on active
parts of the picture to get more clues. This will prompt more conversation and more use
of modals as students try to solve the mystery. If you plan on using this site on an ongoing basis for conversational fun, be sure to start out by having the students read the
short background for the two detectives Amy and Harry Silver.

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: Modals, Part II
Activity: Talking About History’s Mysteries
Materials needed: You need to present students with background
information on a topic, either through a mini-lecture during which they take
notes, or by handing out a fact sheet. Be sure to include visuals. One nice
website to help you prepare is www.unmuseum.org. Use the index to search
for whatever topic you are interested in. All but two of the topics below can
be found on this website.
Description: Present the students with background information on one of history’s mysteries.
Some topic ideas are listed below. And on page 2, there is a sample fact sheet about Oetzi the
Iceman, one of history’s mysteries.
After you present your mini-lecture or distribute your fact sheet, divide students in pairs. Write
modals of possibility on the board, and if you have taught the 2nd and 3rd conditionals by this time,
write samples of those as well. This activity is perfect for the use of both modals and conditionals.
Based on what they know of the topic, students can discuss and note possibilities, impossibilities,
and conclusions they come up with about the mystery.
The wrap up of this activity can be conducted like an informal debate. For example, one person
might say that Oetzi must have been looking for a new home when he got lost. Ask if any student
wants to refute that claim. A student might say that he would not have been looking for new home
all by himself. He would have stayed with his family or clan.
Sample topics











Stonehenge
The Nazca Lines
The Monoliths of Easter Island
Atlantis
The Bermuda Triangle
The Tunguska Event of 1908
Loch Ness Monster
The Death of Oetzi the Iceman
Bigfoot
The Oracle of Delphi

Oetzi the Iceman (also spelled Otzi)
Page 1 of 2
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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 10: Modals, Part II
Activity: Talking About History’s Mysteries
 Oetzi is the name scientists have given to a 5,000-year-old body found frozen in the melting glaciers
of the Italian Alps. He was found in 1991 by a mountain hiker.
 At the time of Oetzi’s life, Europe was in the Neolithic Period, a time of pre-history, before written
language existed in Europe. The Neolithic Age was a time when people domesticated animals, used
metal, and grew crops. People lived in permanent, but primitive “houses” in a group -- like a village.
 Oetzi was in his 40s when he died. (Older than the average person at that time.)
 Oetzi was so well preserved that pieces of his leather and fur clothing, waterproof shoes, and
weapons have been preserved.
 Physically, tattoos are visible on his skin, whiskers on his chin, nails on his fingers and toes, and
undigested food was identified in his stomach.
 His body had more than 50 tattoos. (Why?)
 The food found in his stomach indicates that he ate well -- deer meat and grain.
 He carried with him an ax, a knife, and a bow with a quiver full of arrows. His ax was copper -- an
unusual and valuable possession for the time. (Why does he have that?)
 He carried with him a fire-starting kit. (But what would he burn in the snow?)
 DNA tests show that his clothes have traces of blood from four different people. (Whose? And
Why?)
 An x-ray showed that Oetzi had an arrowhead in his back, but the arrowhead was not attached to any
shaft. (Was he shot? Or did he fall backwards?)
 He also had two broken arrows in his quiver. (How did they break?)
 The vest he was wearing came from a goat that lived in China. (How did he get that?)
 His remains had not been destroyed by animals at all. (Why not?)
 Some scientists think he was a shepherd because his leg muscles indicate a person who walked a lot.
 Other scientists think he was a shaman because of all his tattoos, fine clothes, and unique copper axe.
Information gathered from: http://www.mummytombs.com/otzi/news.htm

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 11: The Passive
Activity: Design a Park Brochure
Materials needed: Internet for research or printouts from the websites mentioned below,
whatever kind of material you would like students to use for their brochure (foam or poster
boards for blow-ups or regular computer paper for electronic jobs, etc.)
Description:
Frequently using the passive voice, the students design a brochure describing an imaginary place,
Natura National Park. You need to set up this park in the students’ minds by describing it.
For example: this park has all kinds of natural wonders, waterfalls,
mountains, a deep canyon and a rushing river, as well as
archaeological sites and prehistoric fossils. Rangers are available
for tours and information, and there is a lovely gift shop and
museum. Natura Park also has camping facilities and a fun
program for children.
After viewing the example pages from Mesa Verde National Park
in Colorado, students can design their own brochures for Natura
Park. They can incorporate photos copied from online or draw their own. They can take the bare
bones of the description of Natura National Park and add whatever creative details they want -dinosaur footprints, hang-gliding, a diamond mine, white- water rafting, burial mounds, cave art,
etc.
Display the finished products so students can view each other’s brochures.
Websites with examples for students:
Mesa Verde Park -- About Your Visit
http://www.nps.gov/archive/meve/park_brochure/p02.htm
(The park is located, the visitor center is found, programs are given, religious services are held.)
Mesa Verde Park – Regulation Page http://www.nps.gov/archive/meve/park_brochure/p11.htm
(Bicycling is permitted, pets must be restrained, lanes are not designated.)
Mesa Verde Park- Attractions
http://www.nps.gov/archive/meve/park_brochure/p03.htm
(The station is staffed, tickets may be purchased, dwellings can be seen.)

Page 1 of 2
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Expansion Activities
Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd Edition

Chapter 11: The Passive
Activity: Design a Park Brochure
Mesa Verde Park- Historical Architecture
http://www.nps.gov/archive/meve/research/historical_arch_main.htm
(The District was built, it was designed, sandstone was used, the ceiling and roof are supported.)
Here are some useful passive constructions students can use to write about natural formations,
human impact, and available services.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Can be viewed
Is located
Are found
Was written/was inscribed
Was placed
Was left
Was formed
Was built
Was discovered
Was designed
Could have been used
Are offered
Was recorded
Have been photographed

Page 2 of 2
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