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ACTIVE PASSIVE VOICE EXPLANATIONS BY SSC BANKING TEACHER DAS SIR,KOLKATA(09038870684)

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ACTIVE PASSIVE VOICE
EXPLANATIONS BY DAS
SIR,KOLKATA(09038870684)

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Rules:
There are two ways to express an action of a subject in relation to its
object




• Active voice
• Passive voice




In “active voice” subject acts upon object, while in “passive voice”
object is acted upon by subject. It can also be said, in “active voice”
subject does a work on object, while in “passive voice” object is worked
on by subject. The normal structure of an active voice sentence is
subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is
reversed according to certain rules and becomes like
object+verb+subject. The real meaning of a sentence does not change if
the sentence is expressed either by active voice or by passive voice. The
active voice is mostly used in writing because it gives a direct and more
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concise meaning. Passive voice is used sometimes due to the following
reasons.

1. When intentionally hiding the subject of sentence. For example, a
student who failed in exam might say, some chapters were not
studied.
Another example. Women were not treated as equals
2. When passive voice better explain thought of sentence. For
example, to say, cloth is sold in yards, is more meaningful than to
say, Shop keepers sell cloth in yards.
3. When passive voice better emphasizes the main though of the
sentence. For example, a man who is being teased by another
person might say in anger, “you will be beaten by me”
4. When subject is not exactly known. For example, His watch was
stolen. It is not known that who stole his watch, the subject (thief)
is not exactly known so it is better to use passive voice for such
sentence.There are certain rules for expressing a thought in passive
voice or for changing a sentence from active voice to passive
voice.

Fundamental Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice

1. The places of subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object
shifts to the place of subject and subject shifts to the place of
object in passive voice. Example.
Active voice: I write a letter.
Passive voice: I letter is written by me.
Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and
object (letter) shifted to the place of subject (I) in passive voice.

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2. Sometimes subject of sentence is not used in passive voice. Subject
of sentence can be omitted in passive voice, if without subject it
can give enough meaning in passive voice.Examples.
Passive voice: cloth is sold in yards
3. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is always used as main verb in
sentences of passive voice for all tenses. Base form of verb or
present participle will be never used in passive voice.
The word “by” is used before subject in sentences in passive
voice.Example.
Active voice: He sings a song.
Passive voice: A song is sung by him.
4. The word “by” is not always used before subject in passive voice.
Sometimes words “with, to, etc” may also be used before subject
in passive voice.
Examples.
Active voice: The water fills the tub.
Passive voice: The tub is filled with water.
Active voice: He knows me.
Passive voice: I am known to him.
5. Auxiliary verbs are used passive voice according to the tense of

sentence.

PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES






The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in
passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb)
in passive voice.
Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

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Present Simple Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are
Active voice:
Passive voice:
He sings a song.
A song is sung by him.
He does not sing a song.Does A song is not sung by him.
he sing a song?
Is a song sung by him?


Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being
Passive voice:
Active voice:
A letter is being written by me.
I am writing a letter
A letter is not being written by
I am not writing a letter.
me.
Am I writing a letter?
Is a letter being written by me?
Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been
Passive voice:
Active voice:
Her work has been finished by her.
She has finished his work
Her work has not been finished by
She has not finished her
her.
work.
Has her work been finished by
Has she finished her work?
her?
Past Simple Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were
Active voice:
Passive voice:
I killed a snake
A snake was killed by me.
I did not kill a snake.
A snake was not killed by me.
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Did I kill a snake?

Was a snake killed by me?

Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being
Active voice:
Passive voice:
He was driving a car.
A car was being driven by him.
He was not driving a car. A car was not being driven by him.
Was he driving a car?
Was a car being driven by him?
Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been
Active voice:
Passive voice:
They had completed the
The assignment had been
assignment.
completed by them.
They had not completed the The assignment had not been
assignment.
complete by them.
Had they completed the
Had the assignment been
assignment?
completed by them?
Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be
Active voice:
Passive voice:
She will buy a car.
A car will be bought by her.
She will not buy a car.
A car will not be bought by her.
Will she buy a car?
Will a car be bought by her?
Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice)
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been
Active voice:
Passive voice:
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You will have started the
job.
You will have not started
the job.
Will you have started the
job?

The job will have been started by
you.
The job will not have been started
by you.
Will the job have been started by
you?

Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Present perfect continuous tense
Past perfect continuous tense
Future continuous tense
Future perfect continuous tense
5. Sentence having Intransitive verbs

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals
“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST,
OUGHT TO”






The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in
passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb)
in passive voice.
To change sentences having present/future modal into passive
voice, auxiliary verb “be” is added after modal in sentence.

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Passive voice for Present/Future
Modals
“CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST,
OUGHT TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: be
Active voice: CAN
She can play a violin.
She cannot play a violin.
Can she play a violin?

Active voice: MAY
I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?

Active voice: MIGHT
Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.
Active voice: SHOULD
Students should study all
lessons.
Students should not study all
lessons.

Passive voice: CAN BE
A violin can be played by her.
A violin cannot be played by
her.
Can a violin be played by her?
Active voice: MAY BE
The computer may be bought
by me.
The computer may not be
bought by me.
May the computer be bought
by me?
Active voice: MIGHT BE
Chess might be played by
guests.
Chess might not be played
guests.
Active voice: SHOULD BE
All lessons should be studied
by students.
All lessons should not be
studied by students.

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Should students study all
lessons?
Active voice: MUST
You must learn the test-taking
strategies.
You must not learn the testtaking strategies.
Active voice: OUGHT TO
They ought to take the
examination.

Should all lessons be studied
by students?
Active voice: MUST BE
Test-taking strategies must be
learnt by you.
Test-taking strategies must not
be learned by you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO
BE
The examination ought to be
taken by them.

Passive voice for Past Modals
“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD
HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE”






The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in
passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb)
in passive voice.
To change sentences having past modal into passive voice,
auxiliary verb “been” is added after modal in sentence.

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Passive voice for Present/Future
Modals
“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE,
OUGHT HAVE TO”
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been
Active voice: MAY HAVE
You may have availed the
opportunity.
You may not have availed the
opportunity.

Active voice: MAY HAVE
BEEN
The opportunity may have
been availed by you.
The opportunity may not have
been availed by you.

Active voice: MIGHT HAVE
BEEN
Active voice: MIGHT HAVE
Meal might have been eaten by
He might have eaten meal.
him.
He might not have eaten meal.
Meal might not have been
eaten by him.
Active voice: SHOULD
Active voice: SHOULD
HAVE
HAVE BEEN
You should have studied the
The book should have been
book.
studied by you.
You should not have studied The book should have not been
the book.
studied by you.
Active voice: MUST HAVE
Active voice: MUST HAVE BEEN
He must have started job.
Job must have been started by
He must not have started job. you.
Job must not have been started
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by you.
Active voice: OUGHT TO
Active voice: OUGHT TO
HAVE BEEN
HAVE
He ought to have been helped
You ought to have helped him.
by you

Passive voice of imperative sentences
(command and request)

A sentence which expresses command or request or advice is called
imperative sentence.
For example,
Open the door.
Turn off the television.
Learn your lesson.
For changing these sentences in to passive voice, auxiliary verb “be” is
used. The word “Let” is added before sentence in passive voice.
Auxiliary verb “be” is added after object in sentence in passive voice.
Main verb (base form) of imperative sentence is changed to 3rd form of
verb (past participle) in passive voice. For best understand read the
following examples.

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Examples

Passive voice of “Imperative Sentences”
Active Voice
Open the door.
Complete the work.
Turn off the television.
Learn your lesson.
Kill the snake.
Punish him.
Speak the truth.
Help the poor.
Revise your book.
Clean your room.

Passive Voice
Let the door be opened.
Let the worked be completed.
Let the television be tuned off.
Let your lesson be learnt.
Let the snake be killed.
Let him be punished.
Let the truth be spoken.
Let the poor be helped.
Let your book be revised.
Let your room be cleaned.

Sentences which cannot be changed into
passive voice
Transitive and intransitive verb

A verb can be either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb
needs an object (in sentence) to give complete meaning while
intransitive verb does need an object (in sentence) to give
complete meaning.
For example,
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Transitive verb.
He sent a letter.
(Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object i.e. letter to
express full meaning.)
Intransitive Verb.
He laughs.
(Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not need object for
expressing full meaning.)
e.g. Sleep, go, reach, sit, die, are examples of intransitive
verbs.

Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice
The sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense)
cannot be changed into passive voice. The reason is that there is
not any object in such sentences and without object of sentence
passive voice is not possible.
A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject
and object. Sometimes subject may not be written in passive
voice but it does not mean that it has no subject. Such sentences
have subject but the subject is so common or familiar or known
that if even it is not written in passive voice, it gives full
meaning.
For example
Cloth is sold in yards.

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The following tenses can also not be changed into
passive voice.
1. Present perfect continuous tense
2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense

Active and Passive Voice Exercise
Rewrite the following sentences so that the verbs will be in
the active voice.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

We are taught grammar by Ms Sullivan.
He was praised by the teacher.
The injured were taken to the hospital by the firemen.
The town was destroyed by an earthquake.
The teacher was pleased with the boy’s work.
The building was damaged by the fire.
By whom were you taught French?
You will be given a ticket by the manager.
The streets were thronged with spectators.
We will be blamed by everyone.
The trees were blown down by the wind.
The thieves were caught by the police.
The letter was posted by Alice.
We were received by the hostess.
The snake was killed with a stick.

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16.
17.
18.

The minister was welcomed by the people.
He was found guilty of murder.
This house was built by John Mathews in 1991.

Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Ms Sullivan teaches us grammar.
The teacher praised him.
The firemen took the injured to the hospital.
An earthquake destroyed the town.
The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
The fire damaged the building.
Who taught you French?
The manager will give you a ticket.
Spectators thronged the streets.
Everyone will blame us.
The wind blew down the trees.
The police caught the thieves.
Alice posted the letter.
The hostess received us.
They/somebody killed the snake with a stick.
The people welcomed the minister.
They found him guilty of murder.
John Mathews built this house in 1991.

IF YOU LIKE MY POST PLZ SHARE IT.BEST OF LUCK FOR
YOUR SUCCESS AHEAD—DAS SIR,KOLKATA.

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