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02 CONJUNCTIONS (PAGE 109)

CONJUNCTIONS


A conjunction is used to link
words, phrases, or clauses.
Two types of conjunctions are
coordinate conjunctions (and,
or, nor, but, etc.) and
subordinate conjunctions
(although, since, because,
when, before, etc.).


PATTERNS TO REMEMBER
Coordinate conjunctions may link
similar ideas (and, not only. but also),
opposite or contradictory ideas (but),
or choices (either.. .or, neither... nor).
Pay attention to the meaning of the
conjunction.
INCORRECT [It is efficient or

maintenance-free.]
CORRECT It is efficient and


INCORRECT [We can take
either a morning flight but an
early afternoon flight.]
CORRECT We can take
either a morning flight or an
early afternoon flight.


Subordinate conjunctions show
different kinds of relationships
between two clauses. They may
show cause and effect (because, so,
as, since), time (when, while, after,
before, until, as soon as), condition
(if, unless), or a contradiction (even
though, although). Again, pay
attention to the meaning of the


INCORRECT [The machine shut off
even though the power went off.]
CORRECT The machine shut off
when the power went off.
INCORRECT [I couldn’t call them
until I don’t know their phone
number.]
CORRECT I couldn’t call them
because I don’t know their phone
number.


1. ….. she possesses such
business acumen, she was able
to regain control of the
company.
(A) Despite
(B) Even though
(C) Because
(D) For


2. For a more effective ad
campaign, we need both a new
product … a new director.
(A) or
(B) either
(C) and
(D) so


3. Our department did not
reach its monthly quota …..
we worked a lot of overtime.
(A) because of
(B) even though
(C) despite
(D) but


4. The new employee is not
only ambitious …..
hardworking.
(A) or
(B) neither
(C) and also
(D) but also


5. ….. he arrives, our
representatives will present
the new plan to the public.
(A) When
(B) While
(C) So
(D) Since


6.The mail will be sorted …..
it arrives at our division.
(A) before
(B) until
(C) or
(D) though


7. Mr. Fagan notified security
….. he noticed something
suspicious.
(A) so
(B) when
(C) although
(D) because of


8. The plane cannot leave the
gate ….. all passengers are
seated.
(A) if
(B) when
(C) unless
(D) but


9. ….. she opened the meeting,
the project director amended
the agenda.
(A) But
(B) If
(C) And
(D) Before


10…… the research uncovered
some problems, the committee
members decided to table the
proposal temporarily.
(A) Since
(B) Even though
(C) In spite of
(D) Whatever


THANK YOU



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