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SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION 1
 1/ Comparison Transformation:

… adj/ adv + “er” …. + than … = not as/so +
adj/adv + as
Ex: she is better than me.
= I am not as good as she is.
…more + adj/adv + than = not as/so + adj/adv
+ as
Ex: she dances more beautifully than me.
= I don’t dance as beautifully as she does.


SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION
 1/ Comparison Transformation Practice:

a. He drives faster than me.
b. He is richer than me.
c. He cooks better than me.

d. He speaks English more fluently than me.

e. He is more arrogant than me.

I am not as stupid as he is.
g. This shirt is not as expensive as that shirt.
h. They can’t swim as well as I do.
f.


a. He drives faster than me.
= I don’t drive as fast as he
does
b. He is richer than me.
= I’m not as rich as he is.
c. He cooks better than
me.
= I don’t cook as well as he
does.
d. He speaks English more
fluently than me.
= I don’t speak E as
fluently as he does.

e. He is more arrogant than
me.
= I’m not as arrogant as he is.
f. I am not as stupid as he is.
= He is more stupid than me.
g. This shirt is not as
expensive as that shirt.
= That shirt is more
expensive than this shirt.
h. They can’t swim as well as
I can.
= I can swim better than
them.


SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION 2
 2/ So, Such, Enough & Too Transformation:

…so + adj/adv + that + clause
Ex: she is so beautiful that I can’t reach.
…such + a/an + N-phrase (adj+N) + that + clause
= she is such a beautiful girl that I can’t reach.
…too + adj/adv + (for sb) to …
Ex: this room is too small for me to work.
… not + adj/adv + enough + (for sb) to …
= this room is not big enough for me to work.


Challenge!!!
 He drives very fast and I can’t catch him.

= He drives so fast that I can’t…
= He is such a fast driver that I can’t …
= He drives too fast for me to catch.
= He doesn’t drive slowly enough for me to catch.
. He is very old and he can’t attend this competition.
= He is so old that he can’t …
= He is such an old man that he can’t …
= He is too old to attend this …
= He is not young enough to attend …


SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION 3
 3/ Comment Transformation:

It + be + adj + (for sb) to …
Ex: it is wonderful to go out today.
It’s nice to meet you.
It’s difficult to solve this problem.
To … + be + adj.
= To go out today is wonderful.
= To meet you is nice.
= To solve this problem is difficult.


Consolidation!!!
1. I can’t cook as well as my mother does.
2. This cake is not big enough for 4 people to eat.
3. This phone is smart enough to do multitasks.
4. This reading is so hard that we can’t finish it.
5. He speaks too fast for us to catch.
6. To find out the reason why she left is not easy at all.
7. It’s great to drink something cold in this hot
weather.


Sentence Transformation 4
… had better + bare inf…
You had better study hard for this exam.
He had better be on time for the meeting tomorrow.
= … advise + sb + to …
I advise you to study hard for ….
I advise him to be on time for the …
… had better not + bare inf…
You had better not study carelessly for this exam.
You had better not be late for the meeting tomorrow.
= … advise + sb + not to …
I advise you not to study carelessly …
I advise you not to be late for …


Sentence Transformation 5
… would rather + bare inf + than + bare inf
I would rather stay home than go out at noon.
= …prefer + verb+ing (Noun) + to + verb-ing (Noun)
I prefer staying home to going out at noon.
= …would prefer to + bare inf + rather than + bare inf
I would prefer to stay at home rather than go…
Note:
Sub1 + would rather + sub2 + V2
I would rather you cooked dinner now.
I would rather you didn’t go to work late.


Challenge!!!
1/ For your safety, you should remember to wear a helmet
when you ride a motorbike in VN.
2/ You ought to leave early if you want to be on time.
= for your safety, you had better remember to wear…
= for your safety, you had better not forget to wear…
= for your safety, I advise you to remember to wear…
= for your safety, I advise you not to forget to wear…
= you had better leave early if you want…
= you had better not leave late if you want…
= I advise you to leave early if you want…
= I advise you not leave late if you want…


Challenge!!!
1/ han thich choi hon thich lam.
2/ chung ta tha hi sinh tat ca chu nhat quyet khong chiu
lam no le.
3/ chung ta tot hon la nen xem xet du an nay can than.
4/ toi thich anh noi it lai va lam nhieu hon.


Sentence Transformation 6
Ag0 = Since & for
He began to carry out this project 1 month ago.
= he has carried out this project for 1 month.
= he has carried out this project since last month.
The last time I went to Dalat was 2 years ago. (2010)
= I haven’t gone to Dalat for 2 years.
= I haven’t gone to Dalat since 2010.
I haven’t met him since July 4th.
= the last time I met him was on July 4th.


Sentence Transformation 7
If clauses:
. Type O: real in the present
If clause - present + clause - present
= Contact me if you want any information.
= if you need my help, you can call me
= let me know if you decide to quit this job.


Sentence Transformation 7
If clauses:
. Type 1: real in the present (cause & effect)
If clause - present + clause - will/shall
= if you are late again, I will sack you.
= I will do it if you think it’s necessary.
= if he keeps making that mistake, we will have to
reconsider his contract.
= I will lend you some money if you promise to pay me back
on time.
= what will you do if you know the truth?


Sentence Transformation 7
If clauses:
. Type 2: unreal in the present
If clause - V2 “were” + clause – would / should / could
= if you were a billionaire, what would you do?
= I would travel to Africa, if I had enough money.
= what would you do if you were me?


Sentence Transformation 7
If clauses:
. Type 3: unreal in the past
If clause – had + V3 + clause – would / should / could +
have + V3
= yesterday, if had gone to the airport on time, I could have
said goodbye to her.
= I would have avoided the accident if I had been more
careful.
= I would not have been punished, if I had come early.


Sentence Transformation 7
If clauses:
. Type 4: cause in the past & effect at the present
If clause – had + V3 + clause – would / should / could +
bare inf + now/present/at the moment…
= yesterday, if I had not watched TV so late, I would not
feel sleepy now.
= if I had followed my parents’ advice, my life would be
better now.
= I would be a doctor now if I had studied hard in the
past.


Challenge!!!
1/ I study well and I pass the exam.
2/ I didn’t do my homework, so I was punished.
3/ I am not you, so I can’t accept this project.
4/ I studied English badly when I was young and I am
studying it again now
5/ I drove too fast and the police stopped me.
6/ I was not at her party last night, and she is angry with me
now.


Challenge!!!
1/ neu truoc day toi nghe loi ba me, thi doi toi dau co khon
kho khon nan nhu bay gio.
2/ neu dieu toi te nay tai dien them mot lan nua, toi se
khong tha thu cho a dau.
3/ anh se lam gi trong tinh the cap bach nay neu anh o vao
hoan canh cua toi bay gio?
4/ neu cong ty chung ta chap nhan du an do thi bay gio
chung ta dau co bi no ngap dau ngap co.


Sentence Transformation 8
Reported speech with Y/N & Wh-Questions
. “what did you do yesterday?” she asked
= she asked me what I had done the day before.
. “who are you?” she asked?
= she asked me who I was.
. “are you a doctor?” she asked.
She asked me if/whether I was a doctor.
. “were you at this party last night?” she asked.
She asked me if/whether I had been at that party the night
before.
. “can you play piano?” she asked
= she asked me if/whether I could play piano.
. “do you like music?” … if/whether I liked music.


Sentence Transformation 8
Direct speech & Indirect speech
. She said: “I love you”
= she said to me (told) that she loved me.
. He said: “I will be here tomorrow”
= he told (said to) me that he would be there the next day.
. “go to work early” my boss said.
= my boss told me to go to work early.
. My mother said: “don’t go home after 11 ”
= my mother asked me not to go home after 11.
. “why don’t we go out and have fun?” she said.
= she advised us to go out..; or she suggested going out..


Sentence Transformation 8
Reported speech – special note: prepositions


Sentence Transformation 9
• If … not – unless
• If you don’t go to work on time, I’ll fire you.

= Unless you go to work on time, I’ll fire you.
= I’ll fire you unless you go to work on time.
• If you aren’t a teacher, you have to stop here.
= Unless you are a teacher, you have to stop here.
• If you don’t want, I won’t send it to you.
= I won’t send it to you unless you want.
• If nothing goes wrong, we will sign this contract.
= Unless something goes wrong, we will sign…
• He will only do it if you agree to help him.
= He won’t do it unless you agree to…


Sentence Transformation 10
• Wish + sub + V2 or V3…
• I don’t speak English well.

= I wish I spoke English well.
• I regret not telling you the truth.
= I wish I had told you the truth.
= if only I had told you the truth.


Transformation 11: Passive voice
 Active voice

 Passive voice

She writes this email
He did this project
They have promoted me
I will punish you
She has to do this task
We are writing a letter
She was buying a house
My mom gave me a book

= this email is written by her
= this project was done…
= I have been promoted…
= you will be punished…
= this task has to be done…
= a letter is being written…
= a house was being bought…
= I was given a book by…
= a book was given to me by…


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