Tải bản đầy đủ

Giáo dục pháp luật cho học sinh trung học phổ thông từ thực tiễn thành phố hà nội tt tiếng anh

VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

NGUYEN THI THU HUONG

LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
FROM THE PRACTICAL VIEW IN HANOI

Major: Constitutional Law - Administrative Law
Code : 9.38.01.02

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN LAW

HANOI, 2019


The Doctoral thesis was completed at:
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. VU CONG GIAO


Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. HOANG THE LIEN

Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. LE MAI THANH

Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. NGUYEN THI BAO

The dissertation will be defended before the thesis review council of the
Academy at the Graduate Academy of Social Sciences at
month year.

The doctoral thesis can be found at:
- National Library of Vietnam;
- Library of Graduate Academy of Social Sciences

hour

minute, day


LIST OF AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED WORKS

1. Similarities and differences between moral obligations and legal
obligations, Journal of Scientific Information on Political Theory, edition
6(7)/2015
2. Legal education and moral education in high schools today, Journal
Journal of Theoretical Education, edition 232/2015
3. Integrating international legal education for students on history subject
in high schools currently, International Scientific worshop, Faculty of
History, Hanoi National University of Education, 2017
4. Legal education for high school students - terminology and constituent
elements, Scientific workshop - Hanoi National University of Education,
February, 2017
5. Implement law on legal education for high school students in Hanoi
today, Industry and Trade magazine, edition 13, (Dec 2017)
6. Legal education for high school students in some countries and referral
values to Vietnam, Industry and Trade magazine, edition 01 (Jan/2018)


INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Vietnam has increasingly advanced in integration process. In the upcoming
period, our country has to fully implement commitments in the ASEAN community
and the WTO. That creates opportunities to develop the country but also brings great
challenges. The problems of infrastructure, superstructure, which still exist many
obstacles will be barriers in the integration process, especially the legal
consciousness of the people in general, of the young labors in particular. To
overcome those barriers, it is very important to equip the people legal knowledge,
especially for young people right from school time.
It can be said that high school students are the subjects of transition time
between schools and society. Many high school graduates can become an immediate
workforce for society as true citizens. They have full citizenship obligations and
rights after leaving high school. What are the consequences that society must bear if
this force is not taken care of legal education from school? Legal education for high
school students is both important and specific, requiring close contact with different
target groups in different areas. In this thesis, the author chooses high school
students in Hanoi as the specific group because Hanoi has high population and high
numbers of high schools as a “hot area” of the country in the process of socioeconomic development today.
Legal education in general and legal education in schools in particular have
been studied by many authors both in theory and practice that have also achieved
certain achievements. However, there are still many disadvantages that need to
continue to study. On the basis of inheriting the achievements, the thesis desire to
fill the gaps in science as well as to meet the requirement of for education in general
and legal education in particular. The PhD student chose “Legal education for high
school students from practical view in Hanoi” as the research topic.
2. Purposes and missions of the thesis
2.1. Purposes
Purposes of the thesis is contributing to pefecting theoretical and sciencetific
basic in order to improve legal education for high school students in Hanoi in
particular and in Vietnam in general. Therefore, research results meet the
requirements of a legal state and integration process. recently.
2.2. Missions
- Studying theoretical issues on legal education for high school students in our
country recently, including: clarifying concept, elements, roles, characteristics and
1


affecting factors to legal education for high school students. Besides, the thesis
analyses, evaluates good experiences from other countries on legal education for
high school students.
- Analysing current legal frameworks on legal education for high school
students and evaluating those suitability in our country's today.
- Analysing practical issues on legal education for high school students in
Hanoi recently; evaluating achivements as well as limitations and those causes
- Determining neccessary requirements of legal education for high school
students in Hanoi recently. Proposing points of view, solutions in order to improve
legal education for high school students in Hanoi in particular and in Vietnam in
general in future.
3. Objects and scope of the thesis
3. 1. Objects of the thesis
Objects of the thesis is theoretical, legal and practical issues of legal education
for for high school students in Hanoi recently
3.2. Scope of the thesis
Scope of the content: The thesis only focus on theoretical, legal and practical
issues of legal education for high school students. Legal education in general and
legal education for other subjects in other fields in particular are only basics for
analysing legal education for high school students.
Scope of place: The thesis focus on theoretical, legal and practical issues of
legal education for for high school students in Hanoi. Analysing legal education in
countries and other provinces aims to compare generally. Besides, with scope of
time, the thesis focus on legal education methods in high schools whose subjects are
teachers and somehow it connects to Youth Union, Clubs... Those are the most
formal, important methods of legal education for high school students in Hanoi in
particular and in Vietnam in general over the time.
Scope of time: The thesis only researchs and evaluates legal education for high
school students in Hanoi over last 10 years.
4. Research method of the thesis
4.1. Methodology
The thesis uses dialectical materialism and historical materialism of MarxismLeninism; Ho Chi Minh Thought; and some common theories, scientific ideas over
the world that are related to legal education as the methodology to continue to
analyse, evaluate, resolve research questions
4.2. Research methods
2


The PhD student applyed combinedly research methods of social sciences
including jurisprudence, philosophy, education and sociology in research process.
5. New scientific contributions of the thesis
The thesis is the first doctoral thesis in Vietnam to study on legal education for
high school students in Hanoi. Therefore, the new scientific contributions of the
thesis are supplement and reinforcement theoretical basics on legal education for
high school students in our country with experimental research results in basic level.
Specifically, by the research results, that could be affirmed that it is very
important and neccessary to educate legal contents for high school students although
there are still diffirent points of view. Therefore, the thesis provides a clear
orientation for legal education for high school students in our country recently.
Especially, the thesis results show that in addition of applying general principles of
legal education, legal education for high school students requires specific and
suitable approach methods to education subjects that are teenagers, young citizens.
6. Scientific and practical meanings of the thesis
Scientific meanings of the thesis are included two (2) followings:
First, affirming scientific and practical basics of legal education for high
school students in our country.
Second, clearly and exactly evaluating charecteristics of legal education for
high school students in comparison to legal education for other subjects, thence
giving suitable orientations, solutions for improving legal education for high school
students in our country in future.
Practical meanings of the thesis are research results will be a valuable
reference for authorities, organizations in Hanoi and other provinces for perfecting
legal policies and legal mechanism to improve legal education for high school
students in future. On the other hand, the thesis can be used as a valuable reference
for teaching, researching in constitutional law - admintrative law in Graduate
Academy of Social Sciences of Vietnam Academy of cocial sciences and other
Institues in our country.
7. Structure of the thesis
In addition to the introduction, conclusion, references and list of works related to
the thesis has been published; the thesis consists of 4 chapters:
Chapter 1: Overview about research and theories
Chapter 2: Theoretical matters on legal education for high school students in
Vietnam recently
3


Chapter 3: Practical situation on legal education for high school students in
Hanoi recently
Chapter 4: Orientations and solutions to improve legal education for high
school students from practical view in Hanoi
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW ABOUT RESEARCH AND ORIENTATIONS
OF THE THESIS
1.1. Domestic studies
1.1.1. Domestic studies about theoretical matters
1.1.1.1. The concept of legal education
In the early of the past, the concept of legal education did not have clear and
consistent identification. There are many different idemtifications about legal
education, including some points of view such as: legal education was a part of
political education, ideology and moral education; legal education was
homogeneous with propagation, dissemination or explaination the law; an arguing
that there was not legal education concept; or an considering that legal education
was synonymous with legal teaching and learning in schools and there was not legal
education outside of schools…
1.1.1.2. Purposes of legal education
About the the purposes of legal education, there are also different
interpretations. Some ideas showed that legal education had a very broad purposes,
including forming a right attitude to labors and social ownership, fostering feelings
of mastery, comradeship, patriotism and forming habits to follow the legal rules,
consolidating legislation, establishing legal order. Others ideas have determined that
the purposes of legal education were creating the ability to develop political culture
in citizens, forming in the sense of civic orthodox moral views.
1.1.1.3. Roles of legal education
The roles of legal education primarily come from the social roles and value of
the law. While the law is the first means of the State to manage society, the means of
each citizen to protect their legitimate rights and interests, legal education helps the
State agencies and citizens know how to use those means. In our country, when the
majority of people do not know how to use the legal methods, legal education plays
an important role.
The roles of legal education also come from its nature. Legal education is the
process of impacting legal emotions, behaviors and knowledge in accordance with
4


the requirements of current legal system. Therefore, the achieved results by the
directional impacts have contributed to building legal consciousness and legal
culture of citizens.
1.1.1.4. Elements of legal education
Object and the impact of legal education object
Subject of legal education
Content of legal education
Forms, means and methods of legal education
1.1.2. Domestic studies about legal framework and practical matters of legal
education for high school students in Vietnam and in Hanoi
1.1.2.1. Current legal framework
Along with the unifying legal system of the Vietnames government, the issue
has a great important meaning to institutionalize the Party's views and to propagate
and disseminate the legal education of the State. By Party guidelines and leading
measures since the independence day of the country (1975), especially in the years
of Revolution, it has been shown that legal education is valued by the Party and the
State;. greatly contributed to the successful implementation of the country’s mission.
The Party's views on legal education has developed in accordance with the historical
situation of the country, reflected in the awareness, content and direction of the Party
in each period. At the Congress V, legal education objects, legal education subjects
and legal education forms have been identified. But the points of view about legal
education only focus on legal explanation and do not focus on the form of legal
education or focus to clearly define subjects of legal education.
1.1.2.2. Practical matters of legal education for high school students
About organizational mechanism
About legal education content
About legal education methods
About the achieved results and causes
About limitations and causes
About the solutions
1.2. Abroad studies about the thesis topic
Legal education is a research topic in many countries, of many scholars. Some
typical studies can be mentioned such as: discussing the legal spirit of Montesquieu;
Modern teaching theory - the basis of innovating the goals, content and teaching
methods of Bernd Meier and Nguyen Van Cuong; Citizenship Education at School
in Europe of Guyot, Citizenship Education in China and the UK: Key Features anh
5


Contemporary Challenges (Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University) of
Kan Wei; Lu Dat and Chu Man Sinh (2010), Educational reform in developed
countries: Educational reform in Japan – Australia; John A.Sebert (2002), The
American Bar Association and Legal Education in the United States of America;
Edward Rubin (2012), Legal Education in the Digital Age, Cambridge University
Publishing House
1.3. Overview about research and issues that need further study
1.3.1. Overview about research
From the overview of the above research situation, it can be seen that the issue
of legal education in general, legal education in schools and for high school students
in particular have been mentioned by many scientists and authors. The analysis is
quite diverse and rich in both theoretical and practical aspects, reflected in scientific
topics, monographs, references, scientific papers and also is the subject of many
doctoral thesis. Specifically:
• On theoretical aspects:
The authors have generalized the theoretical aspects of legal education and
legal education in schools such as: concepts, roles, purposes, contents, methods and
forms of legal education. In relation to the thesis topic: “Legal education for high
school students in Hanoi”. Those books and research above are useful references
that the PhD student can inherit.
• On practical and solutions aspects:
Referring to the legal education content for high school students, there are
somes studies on the status of legal awareness, contents and methods of legal for
high school students; some other research on the assessment of the organization of
implementing legal education in high schools and found out the causes and proposed
solutions. Those studies are limited valuable reference for the PhD student about
some contents which are related to legal education for students in Hanoi.
1.3.2. Issues that the thesis continues to conduct research
- On theoretical aspects, the thesis needs to continue:
+ To synthesize and further analyze the theory of education in general and
lagal education in particular to find out a scientific perspective on lagel education for
specific target groups.
+ To interpret and deepen issues such as legal objectives, subjects, methods,
forms for specific target groups of high school students.
+ To sesearch and learn the views and experiences on legal education for high
school students in some other countries to find out value reference for legal
6


education activities for high school students in Vietnam
- On practical aspects: the thesis continues to:
+ Investigate legal education activities for high school students that are being
conducted in Hanoi in the last 10 years; combinedly use interdisciplinary research
methods in law, sociology then comprehensively and objectivele analyze and assess
the achievements, limitations and causes of those activities.
+ Find out and analyze necessary issues that are required to resolve in legal
education for high school students recently which are related to requirements of
building a law state anf integration of our country.
+ Find out comprehensive and strategic orientations and solutions to improve
the effectiveness of legal education for high school students in Hanoi particularly
and in our country generally in the future. The thesis also explains about scientific
and feasible reason of thóe orientations and solutions
1.4. Research questions, research hypothesis and approach of the thesis
1.4.1. Research questions
From the overview about research, the Phd student has a main question
throughout the thesis and 4 research questions for 4 chapters of the thesis.
The main question is: Why and how to improve legal education for high
school students in Hanoi recently?
The 4 research questions for 4 chapters are:
(1) Why is legal education neccessary for high school student recently?
(2) What are legal education for hight school students special characteristics
and requirements in comparison to legal education generally?
(3) How is practical situation about legal education for high school students
in Hanoi recently?
(4) What are orientations and solutions to improve legal education for high
school students in Hanoi particularlly and in oir country generally in the future?
1.4.2. Research hypothesis
From overview about research anf research questions, the PhD student
determines research hypothesis of the thesis as follow:
Legal education for high school students in Hanoi has been implemented and
obtained certain results. But those activities are still formal and do not meet the
actual requirements of building a law state. There are many causes that are mainly
related to the content, methods and subjects of legal education. In order to
strengthen legal education for high school students in Hanoi, it is necessary to apply
many solutions simultaneously, in which the focus is on reforming the content, forms
7


and methods of education to suit the characteristics of educational objects who are
teenager and will have full duties of citizenships after graduation.
1.4.3. Approach of the thesis
The thesis ues multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary approaches and the main approach
is jurisprudence, especially constitutional and admintrative law.
Specifically, the interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary social sciences
approach are reflected in the thesis that all theories, perspectives and research
methods of other social sciences besides law, such as philosophy, education,
sociology, culture, history, psychology… will be used directly or indirectly in
different levels to comprehensively clarify not only theoretial but also practical
issues.
However, the thesis uses the law approach, especially the constitutional and
administrative laws, because the code of major is law, specialized in constitutional
law and administrative law. According to this approach, theories, views, research
methods of the constitutional law, administrative law are considered to be
mainstream, used directly and throughout of the thesis to solve all research
questions.
Chapter 1 Conclusion
Our country is in the process of integration so besides socio-economic
resources, special attention should be paid to human resources. In order to have
good human resources, to meet the requirements of building a law state and
international integration, human resources in the future need to be comprehensively
educated in virtue, mind, body and beauty. Comprehensive education for people
includes education about responsibility, civic consciousness, a sense of compliance,
implementing law for the younger generation. Therefore, strengthening legal
education in schools is extremely necessary, especially for the age of high school
students – the age are between schools and society, the age of preparing to
participate in society as human being has full rights and duties of citizenship.
Chapter 1 has analyzed the situation of domestic and abroad research related
to the thesis topic, thus showing:
1. Along with the issues of education, legal education, legal education for
high school students have been researched by domestic and foreign authors quite
early. However, research points in this topic are multidimensional, not agreed on
some issues such as concepts, constituent elements of legal education…
2. Besides some clarified content, there are still new or un-researched contents
that have been studied in the first steps, including the legal education issues for
8


some specific target groups. In particular, the issues of legal education for students
in Hanoi, there are specific characteristics compared to the whole country in terms
of political, economic and social conditions, still have many gaps in theory and
practice.
3. The research results of the scientists and authors have been an important
premise for the study of the thesis: “Legal education for high school students from
practical view in Hanoi”. From overview about related research to the thesis topic,
the PhD student continues to deepen and perfect a number of theoretical issues,
study the situation and propose solutions to enhance activities of legal education for
high school students from the reality of Hanoi nowadays.
Chapter 2
THEORETICAL MATTERS ON LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH
SCHOOL STUDENTS IN VIETNAM RECENTLY
2.1. The concept, characteristics and role of legal education in high
schools
2.1.1. The concept of legal education, the concept of legal education for high
school students
2.1.1.1. The concept of legal education
Until now, there has not had a consistency in points of view and the conceppt
of legal education so that legal education concept has not yet been fully mentioned.
It can be seen that mentioned concepts are simple, one-way approach and do not
mention all the impact characteristics or social values of the law. In practice, these
concepts do not create the ability to implement the activities of law implemention
and reduce the effectiveness of law.
In my opinion, legal education is a organised progress that has specific
purposes, plans, contents, methods and forms from subjects of legal education and
focus on objects of legal education in order to form and develop knowledge system
about law; form emotions, habits and positive behavior to follow the law.
2.1.1.2. The concept of legal education for high school students
Legal education for high school students is an activity that the subject of
education organizes, controls, directs and impacts on students to equip them with
basic legal knowledge, and form students a belief in law, a sense of law, a basis for
forming behaviors and habits to follow the law.
2.1.2. Characteristics of legal education for high school students
9


Firstly, legal education for high school students has specific characteristics,
because the beneficiaries of this educational process are high school students with
different physiological characteristics of the age compared to other educational
objects.
Secondly, legal education for high school students can be conducted in many
different forms, in different spaces, including inside and outside the schools, but the
most important activity is conducted in school education by citizenship education
subject, in addition to being integrated by other subjects. Citizenship education with
the advantage of being a subject to equip students with integrated political, social,
ethical, legal, life skills... to form and develop abilities and quality of Vietnamese
citizens, global citizens. However, according to the evaluation of educational
experts, the structure and content of legal education in citizenship education has not
met the objectives of the subject. To solve this problem, the Ministry of Education
and Training is planning a citizenship education program in the new general
education program towards renaming the subject “Economic and legal education”
aiming to turn this subject at the heart of legal education activities in high schools.
2.1.3. Role of legal education for high school students
Firstly, legal education contributes to educating morality, lifestyle, forming
personality, training behavior for students to “live and work follow constitution and
law”.
Secondly, legal education aims to comprehensively develop students, because
the final product of education is the people who have all the elements: Morality Knowledge - Fitness - Beauty. The highest manifestation of “Knowledge” is a
citizen in countless situations takes place in personal life, in interactions with family
and society, knows how to choose civilized behavior, obey the law, create benefits
for himself, for community and for society. The manifestations of the
comprehensive developed human are people who know how to behave follow
standards prescribed by law, have ways of living according to “legal culture”,
overcoming the limitations of legal awareness and legal ethics.
Thirdly, legal education for high school students is contributing to training
high quality human resources for society and the country. In fact, every year there is
a large force of high school students graduating but is not continuing to study at
university and immediately participating in the labor market. Such human resources
must have legal knowledge to be able to behave follow the law. Therefore, it is
necessary to promote legal education for high school students.
2.2. The elements of legal education for high school students
10


2.2.1. Purposes of legal education for high school students
Purposes of legal education for high school students are:
Firstly, legal education for high school students in aims to form, deepen and
gradually expand the legal knowledge system for high school students.
Secondly, legal education for students in high school aims to form and develop
their believes in the law.
Thirdly, legal education for high school students aims to educate the sense of
personality, practice habits and law-abiding behavior of students.
2.2.2. Subjects of legal education for high school students
In some studies about legal education of former Soviet scholars, two concepts
were often raised: legal education subjects and legal education leadership system in
which subjects are individuals and the leadership system is the Party, State, social
organizations and the relationship between them in coordinating leadership and
directing legal education. Accordingly, legal education subjects are understood as a
person who follows their functions or social responsibilities to contribute to the
implementation of the legal education objectives or legal education subjects are
organizations and individuals that have the functions or responsibilities to transmit
legal knowledge to objects
2.2.3. Contents of legal education for high school students
Contents of legal education is an important element of legal deucation
progress. Correctly and fully determining contents of legal education ensures the
effectivenees of legal education. Contents of legal education are determined by
purposes, psychological characteristics of the age and awareness level of legal
education objects in order to form in them the legal knowledge system, belief and
habit of acting follow the law.
There are some issues referring to the contents of legal education such as: the
scope of legal education contents in comparison to other education contents, the
basic contents of legal education and requirements of the implementation of legal
education contents. Accordingly, the legal education contenst are determined by the
following levels: First, the minimum requirement for legal education content for all
citizens; Second, separated requirements for legal education according to career
needs; Third, the requirement for specialized legal education for legal practitioners
2.2.4. Forms of legal education for high school students
In fact, without a suitable form of legal education, the contents of legal do not
or get difficulties to achieve the desired results. The legal education process is done
through specific types of activities, that are called education forms. For high school
11


students, legal education is mainly implemented in the form of teaching main
courses of citizenship education and legal education activities outside of class time.
2.2.5. Methods of legal education for high school students
Education methods are the way of operation to dominate the education content
and achieve the education purposes. Accordingly, the methods of legal education are
the way of organizing the legal education process. From the approach of law,
methods of law education includes the applied methods in a specific legal education
activity (presentation method, problem-raising method, role-play method, discussion
method...) and legal education methods. From the perspective of educational
science, legal education methods include a group of persuasive methods, a group of
organizing activities methods, a group of methods to stimulate and regulate
behaviors.
2.3. Subjects and factors affecting legal education for high school students
2.3.1. Families
Families have a great influence on the effectiveness of legal education for high
school students. The family is a place to create motivation to live, study and work
under the Constitution and laws for them. The family is also the place where
students reveal all their abilities, strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, legal
education in the families is always very effective for them. At the same time, the
family is also a place that can capture and verify and be responsible for the results of
their legal knowledge and legal compliance.
2.3.2. Schools
As I mentioned before, legal education for high school students is an activity with
the participation of many subjects, taking place in many different environments, but
education at the school plays the most important role. This is because currently in
Vietnam, most high school students have more time in school or more attached to
schools in other environments (in big cities, they study both in morning and afternoon
per day). Therefore, the schools are the main environment for them to improve
themselves and enjoy knowledge and information from legal education.
2.3.3. Society
The socio-economic context and conditions also have a great influence on
legal education activities for high school students. This influence is always twodimensional, showing the duality of a problem. In developed socio-economic areas,
the need to understand and apply legal knowledge into life is very high in order to
ensure order and safety for human development. However, it is also often the areas
that often break the law. Therefore, the need to increase legal education and legal
12


education content for high school students should focus on solving difficult issues in
living places, such as social evils prevention, crime prevention...
2.3.4. The teachers and officials engaged in legal education
Due to the characteristics of legal education for high school students, which
mainly takes place in the schools environment, the teachers and staff working on
legal education play a particularly important role. These are the subjects who
directly implement legal education activities for students.
2.3.5. Material conditions guaranteed for legal education activities
Although high schools already have basic facilities (classrooms, teaching
equipment), but in legal education activities for students, it is necessary to invest
more in resources to highly improve those activities effectiveness
2.4. Legal education for high school students in some countries and reference
values for Vietnam
2.4.1. Content of legal education program for high school students in Korea
In the high school program in Korea, legal education for high school students
through teaching politics and law. This course focuses on the basic and necessary
concepts and principles for the analysis of political - legal phenomena, based on the
understanding of constitution and democracy - which are called basic knowledge of
a citizen in a democratic society.
2.4.2. Legal education for high school students in the United Kingdom
The legal program for high school students in the United Kingdom is primarily
through citizenship education and moral education. This is based on the belief that
high-quality citizenship education will provide students with the knowledge, skills
to prepare them to participate actively and fully in society.
2.4.3. Legal education for high school students in Singapore
Legal education for students in Singapore is also achieved through citizenship
education and moral education programs. The programs of citizenship education and
moral education (high school) are designed to fasten the young generation of the
country with "right moral principles". It is important that students have moral
development and understand the relevance of moral values in modern society. In
addition, students are also equipped with the ability to express emotions in
communication to demonstrate human qualities effectively. This will allow them to
make wise decisions among a variety of choices.

13


2.4.4. Reference values for Vietnam
From the legal education experience for students in the above-mentioned
countries, it is possible to draw some reference values for legal education activities
for high school students generally, high school students in Vietnam in particularly.
Chapter 2 Conclusion
After studying of theoretical issues about legal education for high school
students, some of the following statements can be drawn:
1. Legal education for high school students is the activity that the subject of
education organizes, controls, orients and impacts on students to equip them with
basic and universal legal knowledge, and to form for students to believe in the law,
have a sense of foloowing law that is the basis for the formation of behaviors and
habits in accordance with the law.
2. Legal education for high school students is an open concept, can be
understood as a subject in the school or a system of pedagogical activities taking
place inside and outside the classroom to achieve the goal of legal education.
3. The elements of legal education for high school students include: objects;
subjects; contents; forms and methods of legal education. In order to operate legal
education in high schools to achieve high efficiency, it is necessary to systematicly
and deeply approach the elements of legal education.
4. There are many factors affecting legal education activities for high school
students, including the following factors: families, schools, society... Each factor can
affect the determination of elements of legal education in a a specific way to achieve
the legal education goals.
Chapter 3
PRACTICAL SITUATION ON LEGAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH
SCHOOL STUDENTS IN HANOI RECENTLY
3.1. Overview of the political, economic and social context of Hanoi and the
high schools in Hanoi currently
3.1.1. Overview of the political, economic and social context of Hanoi
Since the reunification of the country in the state (1976), Hanoi has been
chosen as the capital of our country. Through the ups and downs of history,
according to the development of the country, the economic, political and social
situation of the capital is increasingly stable, developing in all aspects, worthy of an
economic, politics, culture center of the country. However, this is also a place where
14


people generally and students particularly are under pressure on excessive
urbanization and of the heat of employment, income, living environment ...
3.1.2. Overview of characteristics of high school students in Hanoi
3.1.2.1. High school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development
earlier than their ages
Like high school students nationwide, high school students in Hanoi have a
strong development in intellectual capacity. However, because of living in the
dynamic socio-economic environment of the capital, they have many advantages
such as standard voice, ability to express themselves, confidence, vigor, especially
in the city center. Many students have high achievements in studying, participating
in many clubs and other social activities... In particular, they are proactive and
creative in their awareness, especially in some schools. disseminate actively
teaching and learning methods, aiming at international integration...
3.1.2.2. High school students in Hanoi have high self-awareness
This is a prominent charateristic of the development of high school students in
Hanoi. Living in the capital whose an environment with many advantages, but also
harsh, challenging, they are soon forged to be independent to overcome many
temptations and difficulties even in families, schools and society. But it is also a
process of self-training of themselves, stemming from the psychological life itself,
not only due to the prompting, sharpening of family, school, society... Children have
a clear sense of “myself”. They often ask questions: Who am I? How am I? What
strengths do I have? What do I like? ... They find the answers on their own and set
goals and plans for implementation
3.1.2.3. High school students in Hanoi have attitudes, feelings and good
communication ability, high independence
Due to access to a comprehensive educational environment, high school
students in Hanoi are generally able to communicate well. This helps the them to see
their position, while showing respect and sharing with others. Thereby, they can
accumulate more knowledge and necessary life experiences.
In high school age, the desire to be affirmed and the need for independence is
a natural development, but this characteristic of school students in Hanoi is superior
than the students in other provinces. This causes from their living environment,
especially due to the pace of economic and social development in the capital, the
business of parents that makes them self-reliance, self-control very early. However,
the children cannot avoid the impulses, transient and over-age of young people, so
they are easy to fall into personal interests such as gaming addiction and social
15


networks, excesses in friendships and love... In addition, the lack of experience and
easy life skills pushes children into embarrassing, uncontrollable behavior ...
3.2. Political and legal basis of legal education activities for high school students
in Hanoi
The system of policies and laws on Legal Education has been built and put
into operation more and more deeply in recent years. Thoroughly grasping the
guiding spirit of the Party and The Party in Hanoi has directed the implementation of
legal education in the city. The Party in Hanoi developed a plan to implement the
Directive No. 32-CT/TW dated December 9, 2003 of the Party Central Committee's
Secretariat on strengthening the Party's leadership in the dissemination of legal
education; The Directive No. 45/2007/CT-BGD&ĐT dated August 17, 2007 of the
Minister of Education and Training on education dissemination, implementing legal
education in schools through political activities, building law bookcases in school
libraries (according to guidelines in Circular No. 02/2006/TTLT-BTP-BCA-BQPBLĐTBXH-TLĐĐVN). Especially from 2008 up to now, the legal documents on
legal education in Hanoi have been strengthened.
3.3. Organizing legal education for high school students in Hanoi in recent
years
3.3.1. Legal education subjects for high schools students
Legal education subjects are managers who usually manage the board of
directors, advisors, heads of social groups in schools. Usually, they are the ones to
thoroughly grasp legal documents on legal education, work out plans and organize
implementation, check and evaluate, review and draw experiences ...
Subjects who directly teach students are direct teachers. The majority of the
team is in charge of legal education for students in high schools as citizenship
education teachers (90%). In addition, there are teachers of other subjects such as
literature, history, and geography (5%), teachers are Youth union officials (5%). In
particular, citizenship education teachers play a key role.
3.3.2. Legal education contents for high school students
In the current high schools, the content of legal education for students is
expressed in two parts: The first part is defined in the content of the citizenship
education program, the second part is included in the outside class activities...
3.3.3. Forms and methods of legal education for high school students
3.3.3.1. Form of legal education for high school students
Like students in other provinces in over the country, currently high school
students in Hanoi receive legal education through the main course of citizenship
16


education and extracurricular activities. The main form of teaching citizenship
education courses is compulsory and implemented according to the program and
plan of the Ministry of Education and Training, the form of extratime legal
education are conducted by the schools according to the specific local situation.
3.3.3.2. Methods of legal education for high school students
According to our survey, most of the methods of legal education for high
school students in the city today mainly are using pedagogical methods to equip
knowledge and abilities for the students. These methods have closely followed the
orientation of taking learners as a center, using flexibly, diversifying teaching
methods such as presentations, conversations, raising issues, group discussions...
3.3.3.3. Educational means
Educational means play an important role in all educational activities. The
schools in Hanoi are now equipped with modern teaching facilities, basically
meeting the needs of teaching and learning.
3.3.4. Some general remarks about the current situation and causes of legal
education situation for high school students in Hanoi today
Legal education for high school students in Hanoi is taking place with
elements and has achieved certain results but there are still limitations and
shortcomings that need to be overcome.
Chapter 3 Conclusion
Through studying practical issues of legal education activities for high school
students in Hanoi, the PhD student found that:
1. Hanoi's socio-economic context creates certain favorable conditions but also
poses difficulties for the development of legal education generally and legal
education for high school students in Hanoi particularly.
2. Through research and analysis, it can be seen that the physiological
characteristics of high school students in Hanoi can identify differences such as:
most high school students in Hanoi have psychophysical development earlier than
ages; high school students in Hanoi have better cognitive development than students
in other localities; high school students in Hanoi have better social development than
students in other localities.
3. Diversified legal documents system has created a legal foundation for legal
education activities for high school students in Hanoi, which is the basis for
organizing and adjusting legal education activities in schools are diversified and
more suitable and effective. However, the legal documents still have certain
17


limitations that one of those is the legal education activity for students are not
included in the program as an independent projects but are in the propaganda and
dissemination legal education for people generally and youths particularly.
Therefore, in the process of implementing the above-mentioned legal documents, the
authorities of Hanoi tend to propagate and disseminate laws to people and youth,
and pay little attention to school students, including high school students.
4. Legal education for high school students in Hanoi has been playing an
important role and becoming an indispensable learning content in high schools.
However, in the process of implementation, in addition to the remarkable results,
this activity still reveals many shortcomings regarding the contents of the program,
forms, methods, subjects and conditions... that make those activities not really
effective in the process of educating students as citizens.
5. Legal education effectiveness for students in terms of awareness, attitude,
behavior, skills is not high, not meeting the requirements of human capital
development for the capital in present and in the next years. This fact requires
educators to make more efforts in finding steps and strengthening action to improve
legal education activities in the capital.
Chapter 4
ORIENTATIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE LEGAL EDUCATION
FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM PRACTICAL VIEW IN HANOI
4.1. The requirement of increasing legal education for high school
students from practical view in Hanoi
From a macro perspective, legal education comes from the requirement of
building a socialist law state. Among the basic characteristics of the socialist law
state in Vietnam, the Constitution and the law uphold the fundamental role. This
requires each citizen to have knowledge and culture, legal acts, consider the law to
be supreme, none of individual or organization will stand up on the law. In order to
gain understanding of the law, in addition to relying on the sense of self-study,
learning of each citizen, the dissemination, propaganda and legal education are
indispensable, especially for the young people, including high school students.
4.2. Practical viewpoints on strengthening legal education for high school
students in Hanoi
4.2.1. Legal education for high school students in Hanoi city must be
comprehensive
18


The current goal of general education is towards the holistic development of
learners, including the formation of students' moral standards that are consistent with
the universal values of the international and Vietnam communities; with knowledge,
understanding of the fields of science, physical, aesthetic and basic competencies,
building sentiments, attitudes and civic responsibilities... To achieve those goals, tt
is necessary to integrate and combine cultural education (scientific knowledge) with
moral education and legal education. In other words, legal education must be
considered as one of the important contents, contributing to the formation of
comprehensive qualities and capabilities of students the current life.
4.1.2. Legal education for high school students in Hanoi must be combined
between theoretical principles and practice, between studying with practice
Law is “the rules of behavior promulgated by the state and every citizen must
follow in order to regulate social relations and protect social orders. Legal education
does not stop at providing the systematic learners with legal knowledge but rather
forming in the students the sense of law and the right feelings, training them skills to
practice behavior according to legal standards. To achieve this comprehensive goal,
legal education for students generally, high school students particularly should
adhere to the principle of “learning in practice”. Resolution no. 29 of the Party in
2013 on “Fundamental and comprehensive innovation of Education and Training”
emphasized: “Learning goes together with practice; reasoning with practice; school
education combined with family education and social education”.
4.1.3. Legal education for high school students in Hanoi city must be
combined between family and social education
The fact in Hanoi shows that education generally and legal education for high
school students particularly need to have a unified action between the three basic
subjects: families, schools and society. In those subjects, the school plays an
important and dominant role, then family and society.
4.2.4. Legal education for high school students in Hanoi needs a capacityoriented approach
Recently, according to the Party's guidance on reforming education and
training, “shifting the educational process from mainly equipping knowledge to
comprehensively developing capacity and learners' qualities”, such as changing from
traditional approach to a competency approach. This approach sees education as the
process of developing learners' capacity, preparing people to learn the necessary
competencies into life. Accordingly, the program will focus on identifying the
outputs that competencies (general competence, specialized competence) need to be
19


achieved in learners. This approach should be applied in all areas of education,
particularly in legal education, because legal education is one of the education
sectors with the most clear and specific requirements for the ability to use
knowledge, direct behaviors in learners’ life.
4.2. The solution is to strengthen legal education for high school students
from practical view in Hanoi
4.2.1. Group of solutions for managers and agencies involved in legal
education activities for students
4.2.1.1. Perfecting the legal framework on legal education for students
Although the issue of legal education for pupils and high school students
particularly and legal education for people generally in the past has been very
concerned by the State, however, from the fact in Hanoi, the State still has not a
specialized legal document that regulates and guides the organization of legal
education activities for high school students. Therefore, the State should soon issue
legal documents on legal education for pupils and students in schools
4.3.1.2. Strengthening the leadership of the Party
Directive No. 32/CT-TW has affirmed that legal education is a part of
political, ideological and tasks of the whole political system under the leadership of
the Party. Therefore, strengthening the leadership of the Party is a decisive factor
with increasing legal education activities for pupils and students in the schools.
4.3.2. Group of solutions for teachers and officials participating in legal
education
The staffs of legal education plas a decisive role in improving the quality of
teaching and learning legal knowledge in schools. This team consists of teachers of
citizenship education, teachers in some of capable subjects of legal education, direct
teachers, staff working in Youth union… Currently, over the country, those staffs
need to meet the quantity and standardization requirements of the training level.
4.3.3. Group of solutions about programs, curricula, textbooks, teaching
forms and methods
4.3.3.1. Standardizing programs and textbooks
Citizenship education textbooks will be more quality when the following
requirements are met:
- Keeping abreast of the goals, the legal education program has provided
enough knowledge, focused on strengthening beliefs, positive attitudes, training
skills, forming habits of using the legal standards of students
- Making sure the content is streamlined, close to reality, fit with students,
20


avoid embracing specific knowledge and legal documents because it will be very
outdated
- Creating conditions for students to improve their self-learning ability and
teachers innovate active teaching methods, present simple but focused.
- Using Clear language, easy style to understand in all regions, attaching
importance to both letter channel and image channels, reasonable prices…
- Textbook structure should be open, focusing on practical close legal
situations for students to use in life.
In terms of organization, the State should allow many institutions and subjects
to write textbooks and create conditions for schools to choose textbooks.
4.3.3.2. Diversify legal education forms
In addition to the form of education in class, in the school, from the reality of
Hanoi, it is necessary to design other forms of legal education for high school
students, such as: Organize playground by studying law or training capacity to solve
legal situations in the form of “playing and learning”
4.3.3.3. Innovating legal education methods
Legal education for high school students is necessary to apply softly and in
accordance with the following teaching methods: Presentation method; Visual
methods; Role play method; Conversation method; Method to raise the problem;
Group discussion method; Method of instruction; Project method; Method of
stageizing the legal situation. It is necessary to innovate not only teaching methods
but also examining and evaluating methods. Besides, it is necessary to pay attention
to legal education on the basis of the soft skills of teachers, the feelings and ideas
that teachers build to contribute to sensitizing and persuading students.
4.4.4. Group of solutions to strengthen facilities and conditions to ensure legal
education activities
- Ensuring documents and equipment for legal education activities in schools.
- Ensuring funding for legal education activities in schools
4.4.5. Other solutions
In addition to the above solutions, it is possible to identify other solutions such
as: reforming legal education forms; renewing the legal education content and
program; renewing the legal education methods

21


Chapter 4 Conclusion
From practical view about legal education for high school students in Hanoi,
the PhD student found out:
1. The increase in legal education for high school students in Hanoi is an
urgent issue today. Legal education activities for students should be carried out on
the basis of perspectives associated with reality, ensuring comprehensiveness,
ensuring the principle of learning together with practice, school education combined
with family and commune education.
2. To enhance legal education for high school students, it is necessary to
follow general solutions such as strengthening the leadership of the Party, raising
awareness of related subjects, improving institutions on legal education activities,
building teachers, ensuring material conditions, funding...
3. Besides, the PhD student also proposed some specific solutions, with
specific characteristics for legal education activities for high school students from
the reality of Hanoi in terms of contents, programs, forms and methods of legal
education. In particular, as a lecturer of teaching and training legal education
teachers for high school students, the author proposes specific contents in the legal
education program at high schools that is suitable with the requirements of current
educational innovation

22


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×