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CG aspirants shigleys mechanical engineering design 10th c2015 txtbk

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Shigley’s
Mechanical
Engineering


Design

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Shigley’s
Mechanical
Engineering
Design
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Tenth Edition

Richard G. Budynas

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Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology

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J. Keith Nisbett
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology

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SHIGLEY’S MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN, TENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011 and 2008. No part of this publication may
be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written
consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or
broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

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This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 RJC/RJC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4
ISBN 978-0-07-339820-4
MHID 0-07-339820-9

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Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand
Vice President, General Manager, Products & Markets: Marty Lange
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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

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Budynas, Richard G. (Richard Gordon)
Shigley’s mechanical engineering design.—Tenth edition / Richard G. Budynas, professor emeritus, Kate Gleason
College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, J. Keith Nisbett, associate professor of mechanical
engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology.
pages cm—(Mcgraw-Hill series in mechanical engineering)
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-339820-4 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-07-339820-9 (alk. paper)
1. Machine design. I. Nisbett, J. Keith. II. Shigley, Joseph Edward. Mechanical engineering design. III. Title.
TJ230.S5 2014
621.8915—dc23
2013035900
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does
not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
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Dedication
To my wife, Joanne, my family, and my late brother,
Bill, who advised me to enter the field of mechanical
engineering. In many respects, Bill had considerable
insight, skill, and inventiveness.

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Richard G. Budynas

J. Keith Nisbett

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To my wife, Kim, for her unwavering support.

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Dedication to Joseph Edward Shigley

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Joseph Edward Shigley (1909–1994) is undoubtedly one of the most well-known
and respected contributors in machine design education. He authored or coauthored
eight books, including Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (with John J. Uicker, Jr.),
and Applied Mechanics of Materials. He was coeditor-in-chief of the well-known
Standard Handbook of Machine Design. He began Machine Design as sole author in
1956, and it evolved into Mechanical Engineering Design, setting the model for such
textbooks. He contributed to the first five editions of this text, along with coauthors
Larry Mitchell and Charles Mischke. Uncounted numbers of students across the world
got their first taste of machine design with Shigley’s textbook, which has literally
become a classic. Nearly every mechanical engineer for the past half century has
referenced terminology, equations, or procedures as being from “Shigley.” McGraw-Hill
is honored to have worked with Professor Shigley for more than 40 years, and as a
tribute to his lasting contribution to this textbook, its title officially reflects what many
have already come to call it—Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design.
Having received a bachelor’s degree in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
from Purdue University and a master of science in Engineering Mechanics from the
University of Michigan, Professor Shigley pursued an academic career at Clemson
College from 1936 through 1954. This led to his position as professor and head of
Mechanical Design and Drawing at Clemson College. He joined the faculty of the
Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Michigan in 1956, where
he remained for 22 years until his retirement in 1978.
Professor Shigley was granted the rank of Fellow of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers in 1968. He received the ASME Mechanisms Committee
Award in 1974, the Worcester Reed Warner Medal for outstanding contribution to
the permanent literature of engineering in 1977, and the ASME Machine Design
Award in 1985.
Joseph Edward Shigley indeed made a difference. His legacy shall continue.

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About the Authors

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Richard G. Budynas is Professor Emeritus of the Kate Gleason College of Engineering
at Rochester Institute of Technology. He has more than 50 years experience in teaching and practicing mechanical engineering design. He is the author of a McGraw-Hill
textbook, Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis, Second Edition; and coauthor of a McGraw-Hill reference book, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, Eighth
Edition. He was awarded the BME of Union College, MSME of the University of
Rochester, and the PhD of the University of Massachusetts. He is a licensed Professional
Engineer in the state of New York.

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J. Keith Nisbett is an Associate Professor and Associate Chair of Mechanical
Engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. He has more than
30 years of experience with using and teaching from this classic textbook. As demonstrated by a steady stream of teaching awards, including the Governor’s Award for
Teaching Excellence, he is devoted to finding ways of communicating concepts to the
students. He was awarded the BS, MS, and PhD of the University of Texas at Arlington.

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Brief Contents
Preface xv

Part 1

Basics

2

1

Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design

2

Materials

3

Load and Stress Analysis

4

Deflection and Stiffness

Part 2

41

Failure Prevention

85
161

226

Failures Resulting from Static Loading

6

Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading

8
9
10
11

13
14
15

273

350

Shafts and Shaft Components

351

Screws, Fasteners, and the Design
of Nonpermanent Joints 401

Welding, Bonding, and the Design
of Permanent Joints 467
Mechanical Springs

509

Rolling-Contact Bearings

561

Lubrication and Journal Bearings

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Design of Mechanical Elements

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227

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Part 3

3

609

Gears—General 665

Spur and Helical Gears

725

Bevel and Worm Gears

777

16

Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels

17

Flexible Mechanical Elements

18

Power Transmission Case Study

817

871
925

viii

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Brief Contents

Part 4

Special Topics

ix

944

19

Finite-Element Analysis

945

20

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

969

Appendixes
A

Useful Tables

B

Answers to Selected Problems

1067

1073

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Index

1011

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Contents

1–1
1–2
1–3

Design

1–4
1–5

Design Tools and Resources

Mechanical Engineering Design

2–1
2–2
2–3
2–4

Standards and Codes
Economics

12

13

Safety and Product Liability
Uncertainty

15

16

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Stress and Strength
16

Design Factor and Factor of Safety

20

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Relating the Design Factor to Reliability
Units

31

Calculations and Significant Figures

32

36

41

Material Strength and Stiffness

42

The Statistical Significance of Material
Properties 46
Strength and Cold Work
Hardness

52

49

24

3
3–1
3–2

33

Power Transmission Case Study
Specifications 34

Materials

56

Sand Casting

57

Shell Molding

57

Investment Casting

58

Powder-Metallurgy Process
Hot-Working Processes

58

58

Cold-Working Processes

59

The Heat Treatment of Steel

Alloy Steels

Casting Materials

64

65

Nonferrous Metals
Plastics

60

62

Corrosion-Resistant Steels
67

70

Composite Materials
Materials Selection
Problems

27

Design Topic Interdependencies

Numbering Systems

71
72

79

18

Reliability and Probability of Failure
Dimensions and Tolerances

54

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The Design Engineer’s Professional
Responsibilities 10

Problems

2

5

Phases and Interactions of the Design
Process 5

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1–6
1–7
1–8
1–9
1–10
1–11
1–12
1–13
1–14
1–15
1–16
1–17
1–18

4

53

Temperature Effects

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Introduction to Mechanical
Engineering Design 3

Impact Properties

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Basics 2

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Part 1

2–5
2–6
2–7
2–8
2–9
2–10
2–11
2–12
2–13
2–14
2–15
2–16
2–17
2–18
2–19
2–20
2–21

s.

Preface xv

3–3
3–4
3–5
3–6
3–7
3–8
3–9
3–10
3–11
3–12
3–13

Load and Stress
Analysis 85
Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams

86

Shear Force and Bending Moments in
Beams 89
Singularity Functions
Stress

91

93

Cartesian Stress Components
Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress

93
94

General Three-Dimensional Stress
Elastic Strain

100

101

Uniformly Distributed Stresses

102

Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending
Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending
Torsion

103
108

115

Stress Concentration

124

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Contents

4–14
4–15
4–16
4–17

Curved Beams in Bending
Summary

140

Problems

141

5–1
5–2
5–3
5–4

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136

Deflection Due to Bending

178

Deflection of Curved Members

5–9

Modifications of the Mohr Theory for
Brittle Materials 249

6

167

183

Statically Indeterminate Problems

189

Compression Members—General

195

Long Columns with Central Loading

198

Intermediate-Length Columns with Central
Loading 198
Columns with Eccentric Loading

198

Struts or Short Compression Members

202

204
205

206

Failure of Brittle Materials Summary
Selection of Failure Criteria
Important Design Equations

233

253

262

264

Fatigue Failure Resulting
from Variable Loading 273
Introduction to Fatigue in Metals

6–3
6–4
6–5
6–6

Fatigue-Life Methods

6–7
6–8
6–9

The Endurance Limit

274

Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis
and Design 280
281

The Stress-Life Method

281

The Strain-Life Method

284

The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Method 286
Fatigue Strength

290

291

Endurance Limit Modifying
Factors 294

6–10

Stress Concentration and Notch
Sensitivity 303

6–11
6–12

Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses

6–13

Torsional Fatigue Strength under Fluctuating
Stresses 325

6–14
6–15

Combinations of Loading Modes

6–16
6–17

Surface Fatigue Strength

230

Stress Concentration 231

252

252

Introduction to Fracture Mechanics

6–1
6–2

226

Failures Resulting from
Static Loading 227

Failure Theories

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for
Brittle Materials 249

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Static Strength

5–8

Problems

166

Beam Deflections by Singularity
Functions 170

Failure Prevention

Failure of Ductile Materials
Summary 245

163

Beam Deflections by Superposition

Shock and Impact

5–7

164

Beam Deflection Methods

Elastic Stability

Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile
Materials 242

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Tension, Compression, and Torsion

Castigliano’s Theorem

5–6

5–10
5–11
5–12
5–13

162

Strain Energy

Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile
Materials 235

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Spring Rates

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132

Deflection and
Stiffness 161

Problems

Part 2

130

Temperature Effects 131
Contact Stresses

5–5

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4–7
4–8
4–9
4–10
4–11
4–12
4–13

Press and Shrink Fits

127

129

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4–2
4–3
4–4
4–5
4–6

Stresses in Rotating Rings

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Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders

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3–15
3–16
3–17
3–18
3–19
3–20

xi

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory for Ductile
Materials 233

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308

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating
Stress 311

325

Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative
Fatigue Damage 329
335

Road Maps and Important Design Equations
for the Stress-Life Method 338
Problems

341

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Mechanical Engineering Design

Shaft Design for Stress

371

Critical Speeds for Shafts

375

Miscellaneous Shaft Components
Limits and Fits

9–1
9–2
9–3
9–4

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380

387

392

Screws, Fasteners, and the
Design of Nonpermanent
Joints 401
Thread Standards and Definitions

402

The Mechanics of Power Screws

406

Threaded Fasteners

414

Joints—Fastener Stiffness

416

Joints—Member Stiffness

419

Bolt Strength

424

Tension Joints—The External Load

427

Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension

Gasketed Joints

436

Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in
Shear 443
451

Welding, Bonding, and
the Design of Permanent
Joints 467

Adhesive Bonding

470

Stresses in Welded Joints in Torsion
Stresses in Welded Joints in Bending

490

499

Mechanical Springs
Stresses in Helical Springs
The Curvature Effect

479

510

511

Deflection of Helical Springs
Compression Springs

512

Stability

512

514

Spring Materials

515

Helical Compression Spring Design for Static
Service 520
Critical Frequency of Helical Springs

526

Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression
Springs 528

10–11
10–12
10–13
10–14
10–15

Extension Springs

11

534

Helical Coil Torsion Springs
Belleville Springs

549

Miscellaneous Springs
Summary

552

Problems

552

542

550

Rolling-Contact
Bearings 561

11–1
11–2
11–3
11–4

Bearing Types

11–5
11–6
11–7
11–8

Relating Load, Life, and Reliability

11–9
11–10

474

509

Helical Compression Spring Design for
Fatigue Loading 531

468

Butt and Fillet Welds

490

10–10

436

Fatigue Loading of Tension Joints

Welding Symbols

10–8
10–9

429

Statically Loaded Tension Joint with
Preload 432

Problems

9

10–1
10–2
10–3
10–4
10–5
10–6
10–7

358

Deflection Considerations

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8–11
8–12

10

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8–1
8–2
8–3
8–4
8–5
8–6
8–7
8–8
8–9

352
353

488

Resistance Welding

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Shaft Layout

Problems

8

352

Shaft Materials

Fatigue Loading

Problems

481

484

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Static Loading

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7–1
7–2
7–3
7–4
7–5
7–6
7–7
7–8

Shafts and Shaft
Components 351

The Strength of Welded Joints

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9–5
9–6
9–7
9–8
9–9

Design of Mechanical
Elements 350

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Bearing Life

562
565

Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability

566

Reliability versus Life—The Weibull
Distribution 568
569

Combined Radial and Thrust Loading
Variable Loading

571

577

Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller
Bearings 580
Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings

583

Design Assessment for Selected RollingContact Bearings 592

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Contents

11–11
11–12

Lubrication

13–17

596

Mounting and Enclosure
Problems

Types of Lubrication
611

Petroff’s Equation

613

Stable Lubrication

615

Thick-Film Lubrication
Hydrodynamic Theory

617

Design Considerations

621

The Relations of the Variables

Pressure-Fed Bearings
Loads and Materials
Bearing Types

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642
648

650

Thrust Bearings

651

Boundary-Lubricated Bearings

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652

Gears—General
Types of Gears

667

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Nomenclature

666

Conjugate Action 669
Involute Properties
Fundamentals

670

Contact Ratio
Interference

670

676
677

The Forming of Gear Teeth
Straight Bevel Gears
Parallel Helical Gears
Worm Gears

15

682

15–1
15–2
15–3
15–4
15–5
15–6
15–7
15–8
15–9

AGMA Strength Equations

683

16

688

690

Force Analysis—Spur Gearing

697

Force Analysis—Bevel Gearing

701

Force Analysis—Helical Gearing

739

Geometry Factors I and J (ZI and YJ)
The Elastic Coefficient Cp (ZE)
Dynamic Factor Kv

16–1
16–2

704

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743

748

748

Overload Factor Ko 750
Surface Condition Factor Cf (ZR)

Size Factor Ks

750

751

Load-Distribution Factor Km (KH)

751

Hardness-Ratio Factor CH (ZW)

753

Stress-Cycle Factors YN and ZN

754

Reliability Factor KR (YZ)

755

Temperature Factor KT (Yu)

756

Rim-Thickness Factor KB 756
Safety Factors SF and SH
Analysis

757

757

Design of a Gear Mesh

767

772

Bevel and Worm Gears
Bevel Gearing—General
AGMA Equation Factors

780

783

Straight-Bevel Gear Analysis

795

Design of a Straight-Bevel Gear Mesh
Worm Gearing—AGMA Equation
Worm-Gear Analysis

777

778

Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strengths

798

801

805

Designing a Worm-Gear Mesh
Buckingham Wear Load
Problems

687

Tooth Systems
Gear Trains

679

726

AGMA Stress Equations 737

Problems

665

725

735

s.

640

The Lewis Bending Equation
Surface Durability

nt

Clearance

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13–2
13–3
13–4
13–5
13–6
13–7
13–8
13–9
13–10
13–11
13–12
13–13
13–14
13–15
13–16

623

Steady-State Conditions in Self-Contained
Bearings 637

Problems

13

616

Spur and Helical Gears

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Viscosity

610

14–1
14–2
14–3
14–4
14–5
14–6
14–7
14–8
14–9
14–10
14–11
14–12
14–13
14–14
14–15
14–16
14–17
14–18
14–19

ira

12–10
12–11
12–12
12–13
12–14
12–15

Lubrication and Journal
Bearings 609

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12–1
12–2
12–3
12–4
12–5
12–6
12–7
12–8
12–9

706

712

601

14
12

Force Analysis—Worm Gearing
Problems

597

xiii

809

812

813

Clutches, Brakes, Couplings,
and Flywheels 817
Static Analysis of Clutches and Brakes

819

Internal Expanding Rim Clutches and
Brakes 824

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Mechanical Engineering Design

Disk Brakes

Energy Considerations
Temperature Rise

849

Friction Materials

853

Miscellaneous Clutches and Couplings
Flywheels

858

Problems

863

856

Flexible Mechanical
Elements 871
Belts

872

Flat- and Round-Belt Drives
V Belts

20

875

890

Timing Belts

898

Roller Chain

899

Wire Rope

908

Flexible Shafts

916

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Power Transmission
Case Study 925

Design Sequence for Power Transmission 927

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Power and Torque Requirements
Gear Specification
Shaft Layout

928

928

Shaft Design for Stress

Element Geometries

947

949

The Finite-Element Solution Process 951
Mesh Generation

954

Load Application

956

Boundary Conditions

957

Modeling Techniques

958

Thermal Stresses

961

Critical Buckling Load
Vibration Analysis
Summary

964

Problems

966

961

963

Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing 969
Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Systems 970

20–2

Definition of Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing 971

20–3
20–4
20–5
20–6
20–7
20–8
20–9

Datums

976

Controlling Geometric Tolerances

981

Geometric Characteristic Definitions
Material Condition Modifiers
Practical Implementation

996

GD&T in CAD Models

1001

Glossary of GD&T Terms
Problems

985

994

1002

1005

Bearing Selection

Appendixes

937
938

Shaft Design for Deflection

A
B

938

939

Key and Retaining Ring Selection
943

The Finite-Element Method

945

937

Shaft Material Selection

Final Analysis

Finite-Element Analysis

20–1

935

Force Analysis

Problems

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18–1
18–2
18–3
18–4
18–5
18–6
18–7
18–8
18–9
18–10
18–11

19–1
19–2
19–3
19–4
19–5
19–6
19–7
19–8
19–9
19–10
19–11

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Cone Clutches and Brakes

Problems

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17–2
17–3
17–4
17–5
17–6
17–7

Frictional-Contact Axial Clutches

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Band-Type Clutches and Brakes

Special Topics 944

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16–4
16–5
16–6
16–7
16–8
16–9
16–10
16–11
16–12

Part 4

External Contracting Rim Clutches and
Brakes 832

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Useful Tables 1011
Answers to Selected
Problems 1067

943
Index

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Preface

Objectives

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This text is intended for students beginning the study of mechanical engineering design.
The focus is on blending fundamental development of concepts with practical specification of components. Students of this text should find that it inherently directs them
into familiarity with both the basis for decisions and the standards of industrial components. For this reason, as students transition to practicing engineers, they will find
that this text is indispensable as a reference text. The objectives of the text are to:

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• Cover the basics of machine design, including the design process, engineering
mechanics and materials, failure prevention under static and variable loading, and
characteristics of the principal types of mechanical elements.
• Offer a practical approach to the subject through a wide range of real-world applications and examples.
• Encourage readers to link design and analysis.
• Encourage readers to link fundamental concepts with practical component
specification.

New to This Edition

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Enhancements and modifications to the tenth edition are described in the following
summaries:

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• A new Chap. 20, Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, has been added to introduce an important topic in machine design. Most of the major manufacturing companies
utilize geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) as a standardized means of
accurately representing machine parts and assemblies for the purposes of design, manufacture, and quality control. Unfortunately, many mechanical engineers do not have
sufficient exposure to the notation and concepts of GD&T to interpret the drawings.
During the time when GD&T was becoming most prevalent in manufacturing,
many engineering schools were phasing out comprehensive drafting courses in
favor of computerized CAD instruction. This was followed by another transition to
3D solid modeling, where the part was drawn with ideal dimensions. Unfortunately,
this ability to draw a perfect part in three dimensions is all too often accompanied
by a neglect of focus on how to accurately and uniquely represent the part for
manufacture and inspection.
A full understanding of GD&T is usually obtained through an intensive course
or training program. Some mechanical engineers will benefit from such a rigorous
training. All mechanical engineers, however, should be familiar with the basic concepts and notation. The purpose of the coverage of GD&T in this new chapter is
to provide this foundational exposure that is essential for all machine designers.
It is always a challenge to find time to include additional material in a course. To
facilitate this, the chapter is arranged and presented at a level appropriate for students
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to learn in an independent study format. The problems at the end of the chapter are
more like quiz questions, and are focused on checking comprehension of the most
fundamental concepts. Instructors are encouraged to consider using this chapter as
a reading assignment, coupled with even a minimal lecture or online discussion.
Of course, there is ample material for expanded presentation and discussion as well.
Chapter 1, Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design, has been expanded to
provide more insight into design practices. Further discussion of the development
of the design factor is presented, as well as the statistical relationships between
reliability and the probability of failure, and reliability and the design factor. Statistical considerations are provided here rather than in a chapter at the end of the
text as in past editions. The section on Dimensions and Tolerances has been
expanded to emphasize the designer’s role in specifying dimensions and tolerances
as a critical part of machine design.
The chapter of the previous edition, Statistical Considerations, has been eliminated.
However, the material of that chapter pertinent to this edition has been integrated
within the sections that utilize statistics. The stand-alone section on stochastic methods
in Chap. 6, Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading, has also been eliminated.
This is based on user input and the authors’ convictions that the excessive amount of
development and data provided in that section was far too involved for the simple class
of problems that could be solved. For instructors who still want access to this material,
it is available on McGraw-Hill’s Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/shigley.
In Chap. 11, Rolling-Contact Bearings, the Weibull probability distribution is
defined and related to bearing life.
In conjunction with the Connect Engineering resource, the end-of-chapter problems
have been freshly examined to ensure they are clearly stated with less room for
vague interpretations. Approximately 50 percent of the problems are targeted for
Connect implementation. With the problem parameterization available in this Webbased platform, students can be assigned basic problems with minimal duplication
from student to student and semester to semester. For a good balance, this edition
maintains many end-of-chapter problems that are open-ended and suitable for
exploration and design.

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Connect Engineering

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The tenth edition continues to feature McGraw-Hill Connect Engineering, a Webbased assignment and assessment platform that allows instructors to deliver assignments, quizzes, and tests easily online. Students can practice important skills at their
own pace and on their own schedule.

McGraw-Hill LearnSmart®
McGraw-Hill LearnSmart is an adaptive learning system designed to help students
learn faster, study more efficiently, and retain more knowledge for greater success.
Through a series of adaptive questions, Learnsmart pinpoints concepts the student
does not understand and maps out a personalized study plan for success. It also lets
instructors see exactly what students have accomplished, and it features a built-in
assessment tool for graded assignments. Ask your McGraw-Hill Representative for
more information, and visit www.mhlearnsmart.com for a demonstration.

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Preface

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McGraw-Hill SmartBook™

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Powered by the intelligent and adaptive LearnSmart engine, SmartBook is the first
and only continuously adaptive reading experience available today. Distinguishing
what students know from what they don’t, and honing in on concepts they are most
likely to forget, SmartBook personalizes content for each student. Reading is no longer a passive and linear experience but an engaging and dynamic one, where students
are more likely to master and retain important concepts, coming to class better prepared. SmartBook includes powerful reports that identify specific topics and learning
objectives students need to study. These valuable reports also provide instructors
insight into how students are progressing through textbook content and are useful for
identifying class trends, focusing precious class time, providing personalized feedback
to students, and tailoring assessment.
How does SmartBook work? Each SmartBook contains four components:
Preview, Read, Practice, and Recharge. Starting with an initial preview of each chapter and key learning objectives, students read the material and are guided to topics
for which they need the most practice based on their responses to a continuously
adapting diagnostic. Read and practice continue until SmartBook directs students to
recharge important material they are most likely to forget to ensure concept mastery
and retention.

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Electronic Textbooks

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This text is available as an eBook at www.CourseSmart.com. At CourseSmart your
students can take advantage of significant savings off the cost of a print textbook,
reduce their impact on the environment, and gain access to powerful web tools for
learning. CourseSmart eBooks can be viewed online or downloaded to a computer.
The eBooks allow students to do full text searches, add highlighting and notes,
and share notes with classmates. CourseSmart has the largest selection of eBooks
available anywhere. Visit www.CourseSmart.com to learn more and to try a sample
chapter.

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McGraw-Hill Create™
With McGraw-Hill Create, you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from
other content sources, and quickly upload content you have written, like your course
syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create by searching
through thousands of leading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your
teaching style. Create even allows you to personalize your book’s appearance by
selecting the cover and adding your name, school, and course information. Order a
Create book and you’ll receive a complimentary print review copy in 3–5 business
days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via e-mail in minutes. Go
to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register to experience how McGraw-Hill
Create empowers you to teach your students your way.
Additional media offerings available at www.mhhe.com/shigley include:
Student Supplements
• Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam questions for machine design. Interactive
problems and solutions serve as effective, self-testing problems as well as excellent
preparation for the FE exam.

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Mechanical Engineering Design

Instructor Supplements (under password protection)
• Solutions manual. The instructor’s manual contains solutions to most end-ofchapter nondesign problems.
• PowerPoint® slides. Slides outlining the content of the text are provided in PowerPoint format for instructors to use as a starting point for developing lecture
presentation materials. The slides include all figures, tables, and equations from
the text.
• C.O.S.M.O.S. A complete online solutions manual organization system that allows
instructors to create custom homework, quizzes, and tests using end-of-chapter
problems from the text.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge those who have contributed to this text for
over 50 years and nine editions. We are especially grateful to those who provided
input to this tenth edition:

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Drawings for GD&T Chapter
Glenn Traner, Tech Manufacturing, LLC

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Expanded Connect Implementation
Peter J. Schuster, California Polytechnic State University

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CAD Model Used in Cover Design
Jedrzej Galecki, University of the West of England

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Reviewers
Kenneth Huebner, Arizona State
Gloria Starns, Iowa State
Tim Lee, McGill University
Robert Rizza, MSOE
Richard Patton, Mississippi State University
Stephen Boedo, Rochester Institute of Technology
Om Agrawal, Southern Illinois University
Arun Srinivasa, Texas A&M
Jason Carey, University of Alberta
Patrick Smolinski, University of Pittsburgh
Dennis Hong, Virginia Tech

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List of Symbols

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COV
D
d
E
e
F
f
fom
G
g
H
HB
HRC
h
h# CR
I
i
i
J

Area, coefficient
Distance
Coefficient
Brinell hardness
Distance, Weibull shape parameter, range number, width
Basic load rating, bolted-joint constant, center distance, coefficient of
variation, column end condition, correction factor, specific heat capacity,
spring index
Distance, viscous damping, velocity coefficient
Coefficient of variation
Diameter, helix diameter
Diameter, distance
Modulus of elasticity, energy, error
Distance, eccentricity, efficiency, Naperian logarithmic base
Force, fundamental dimension force
Coefficient of friction, frequency, function
Figure of merit
Torsional modulus of elasticity
Acceleration due to gravity, function
Heat, power
Brinell hardness
Rockwell C-scale hardness
Distance, film thickness
Combined overall coefficient of convection and radiation heat transfer
Integral, linear impulse, mass moment of inertia, second moment of area
Index
Unit vector in x-direction
Mechanical equivalent of heat, polar second moment of area, geometry
factor
Unit vector in the y-direction
Service factor, stress-concentration factor, stress-augmentation factor,
torque coefficient
Marin endurance limit modifying factor, spring rate
Unit vector in the z-direction
Length, life, fundamental dimension length

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A
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B
Bhn
b
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This is a list of common symbols used in machine design and in this book. Specialized
use in a subject-matter area often attracts fore and post subscripts and superscripts.
To make the table brief enough to be useful, the symbol kernels are listed. See
Table 14–1, pp. 727–728 for spur and helical gearing symbols, and Table 15–1,
pp. 781–782 for bevel-gear symbols.

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K
k
k
L

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R
r
r
S
s
T
T
t
U
u
V
v
W
w
X
x
Y
y
Z
z
a
b
D
d
P
e
G
g
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Life in hours
Length
Fundamental dimension mass, moment
Moment vector
Mass, slope, strain-strengthening exponent
Normal force, number, rotational speed, number of cycles
Load factor, rotational speed, factor of safety
Design factor
Force, pressure, diametral pitch
Probability density function
Pitch, pressure, probability
First moment of area, imaginary force, volume
Distributed load, notch sensitivity
Radius, reaction force, reliability, Rockwell hardness, stress ratio, reduction in area
Vector reaction force
Radius
Distance vector
Sommerfeld number, strength
Distance, sample standard deviation, stress
Temperature, tolerance, torque, fundamental dimension time
Torque vector
Distance, time, tolerance
Strain energy
Strain energy per unit volume
Linear velocity, shear force
Linear velocity
Cold-work factor, load, weight
Distance, gap, load intensity
Coordinate, truncated number
Coordinate, true value of a number, Weibull parameter
Coordinate
Coordinate, deflection
Coordinate, section modulus, viscosity
Coordinate, dimensionless transform variable for normal distributions
Coefficient, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, end-condition for
springs, thread angle
Bearing angle, coefficient
Change, deflection
Deviation, elongation
Eccentricity ratio, engineering (normal) strain
True or logarithmic normal strain
Gamma function, pitch angle
Pitch angle, shear strain, specific weight
Slenderness ratio for springs
Absolute viscosity, population mean
Poisson ratio
Angular velocity, circular frequency
Angle, wave length

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l
M
M
m
N
n
nd
P
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p
Q
q
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List of Symbols

Slope integral
Radius of curvature, mass density
Normal stress
Von Mises stress
Standard deviation
Shear stress
Angle, Weibull characteristic parameter
Cost per unit weight
Cost

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$

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Shigley’s
Mechanical
Engineering
Design

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1

Basics

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PART

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