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ENGLISH GRAMMAR - MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Group members:

Lecturer:


Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR
I. Introduction
- Grammar is the system of sounds, of meaningful units; and sets of rules
and principles that allow speakers to combine them into larger units and
understanding their language.
- Linguistic competence (Mental Grammar): the human's ability to
understand and produce an unlimited number of utterances, including many that
are novel and unfamiliar.
- Grammar is divided into components: phonetics, phonology,
morphology, syntax and semantics.
II. English grammar
Types of grammar
1. Prescriptive Grammar
Prescriptive grammar aimed to lay down the rules on how language

should be used and to set up a standard of correct usage.
Example: what do you want to eat the meat with?
Rule: Don’t end a sentence with a preposition.
with what do you want to eat the meat?

2. Descriptive Grammar
Descriptive grammar aims to present the grammar that underlies the
actual usage (the way people actually speak and write the language) of speakers
of the language, i.e. it describes the system of grammar of the language.
3. The Immediate Constituent Grammar – the IC grammar:
This grammar ue the immediate constituent (IC) analysis. This approach
works through the different levels of structure within a phrase, or a sentences in
a series of steps. At each level, a construction is divided into its major
constituents, and the process continues until no further divisions can be made.
For Example:
The // girl / chas///ed // the /// dog
The / little / girl / invent/ed / the / story / about / the /accident
4. Phrase Structure Grammar – PS grammar:
This types of grammar names, or labels, the constituents that emerge each time
a sentence is segmented; each label abbreviates a formal category, e.g., we have
NP for Noun Phrase, VP for Verb Phrase, PP for Prepositional Phrase, S for
sentence, and so on.
For example: The old man went into the store with a crowbar

Phrasal categories are named according to the most important word of the
phrase
Phrase Structure is the division of a sentence into parts, or constituents,
and the division of those constituents into subparts.


The girl chased the dog

The bear went over the mountain

NP
Art N

NP
Art N


VP
V

NP
Art

The

girl

chased the

VP
V

N

PP
Prep

NP
Art N

dog
The

bear went over the mountain

5. Transformational Generative Grammar – TG grammar:
...aims to find out mechanisms, which account for generation of the
variety of sentences of a language out of a few kernel sentences.
6. Pedagogial Grammars or Teaching Grammar:
...assume the students already knows one language and compares the
grammar of the target language with the grammar of the negative language.
7. Grammar Units:
SENTENCES  CLAUSES  PHRASES  WORDS  MORPHEMES.
8. Syntatic relations:
° Subject Predicate relations.
Our class bought a new computer
° Subordinate relations.
The boy wears a red hat which is very expensive.
° Coordinate relations.
The man picked up a ring and went out quickly.
° Embedded relations.
I think you are completely wrong.


Chaper 2 MORPHOLOGY
I. Introduction
Morphology is the study of words forms, of internal structure of words and of
the rules by which words are formed.
II. Words
A word is a linguistic sign, i.e. am arbitrary union of sound (form) and
meaning. A word is a minimal free form.
A free form is an element that can occur in isolation and whose
positionwith respect to neighboring elements is not entirely fixed.
- The hunters chased the elephant.
- The elephant chased the hunters.
- The elephant, the hunters chased.
Example: 1. Teach and taught are different word forms -1 lexeme [TEACH].
2.
A
Nam walked home.
B
Nam has walked home.
1 lexeme [WALK]
2 different word forms : walked+past tense (1);
walked+past partiple (2)
3. The man lost the rings on the way to the wedding.
8 different words: the, man, lost, rings, on, way, to,
wedding.
4. we went to Saigon last week and we intend to go to Hoi An this
week.
13 different words: we, went, to, Saigon, last, week, and,
intend, to, go, Hoi, An, this.


REVISION CHAPTER 1&2
1. How many different words are there in this sentence:
“She walked to town yesterday she has walked there this morning?”
A. 13
B. 12
C. 11
D. 10
2. The notions of Surface Structure and Deep Structure orginated from the...
.grammar.
A. Traditional
B. P.S
C. I.C
D. T.G
3. Which of the following rules is prescriptive ?
A. In English, only pronouns display distinction in case.
B. Definite and indifinite articles come before their nouns in English.
C. The word like should not be use as a conjunction.
D. Adverbs such as very modify adjectives and other adverbs.
4. Which of the following rules is descriptive?
A. The preposition but should be followed by an object pronoun
B. The most common way of expressing future meaning is with will
C. In formal speech, the subjective pronoun is used after the verb be
D. Split an infinitive is unacceptable in suh example as “ to completely
disagree”
5. Which of the following sentences does not seem to be grammatically corr
ect?
A. All of us has a good time.
B. A good time was had by all of us.
C. It easy to see what she means .
D. What she means is easy to see.
6. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively incorrect?
A. That person looked hard.
B. Never will be the hunger be eliminated.
C. He was wrong to be quiet leave his home
D. There are cookies for everyone.
7. Which of ghe following is a component of grammar?
A. Linguistsic
B. Pragmatics
C. Semiotics
D. Semantics.
8. The word “ grammar” in a complete sense means :….
(a) the grammar that speakers have internalized when they acquire the
language.


(b)
the description of the grammar of thelanguage presented in books and references
.
(c)
the mental grammar and the model or description of that grammar of the spea
kers.
(d) the ability to use the language appropriately of the seapkers of the
language.
9. The human’s ability to understand and produce an limited number of
utterances,including many that are unfamiliar is called...
a. linguistic performance
b. Linguistic experience
c. linguistic competence
d. Language acquisition
10. Describe the syntactic relations that could be found in each
ofthefollowing sentences
- Mary had a little lamb.
- My friends and I went home and held a welcome party.
- The girl visited the place where she was born.
- This is the maiden that milked the cow.
- I don’t know who I should call for help.
- What you see is what you get.
11. how many different words are there in the sentence ‘Not many banks have
branches on the banks of the Avon?
a. 9
b. 10
c. 11
d. 12


Chapter 3 MORPHEME AND TYPES OF MORPHEME
I. Elements smaller than the word
 A morph, is a unit which is a segment of a word-form. It has a constant
form and realizes or is related to a constant meaning.
II. Allomorphs and Morphemes
 Allomorphs are morphs which realize a particular morpheme and
which are conditioned
Phonetically conditioned : a, an and the
Lexically conditioned: foot – feet, tooth – teeth, mouse – mice, man
– men, woman – women, ...
Grammatically conditioned: have – has, is – am – are
* Every allomorph is a morph.
 Morphemes, are abstract units. They are the minimal (smallest)
meaningful units of a language.
Morphemes are classified into free morphemes and bound morphemes:
Free morphemes
- Can stand alone with a specific
meaning
- Can be used as a word
Example:

Bound morphemes
- Must be attached to another element.
- Is never a word, always a part of word.

Tourists: -tour (one minimal unit)
-ist (meaning “person who does something”)
-s (a third unit of grammatical function indicating plurality)

+ Morphemes can vary in size: neither the number of syllables nor the length of a
word can indicate what is a morpheme and what isn’t.
For example: Albatross is a long word but a single morpheme, -y (as in dreamy ) is
also a single morpheme.
+ Just as linguists have had success dissecting phonemes into combination of
distinctive features, so they have viewed morphemes as made up of combination of semantic
features.
For example: we can analyze a word like girls in terms of both its morphological and
its semantic structure:
Morphological: girls = girl + s
Semantic:

girl = {-adult; -male; -human,...} + {s} = {PLU} = {plural}


+ Two different morphemes may be pronounced ( and even sometimes spelled) the
same way. For example: the –er in buyer means someting like ‘the one who’, while the –er in
shorter means something like ‘to a greater degree than’. The first –er always attaches to a
verb, while the second –er always attaches to an adjective. It makes sense to consider these
two different morphemes that just happen to sound the same.
+ We can’t always hold to the definition of a morpheme as having unchanging form.
For example, when we consider words like boys, girls, shirts, books, we conclude that –s is
the plural morpheme. But what about words such as men or women? Here plurality is
indicated not by adding –s but by morphologically, {man} + {PLU}, even though the form of
{PLU} is quite different in this case.
In the same way, it seems sensible to say that went = {go} + {PAST}, just as walked
={walk} + {PAST}, even though in the first case {PAST} involves a morphological change in
form quite different from the usual adding of –ed.

1. Root
Any morph which can realize a word ( lexeme) and which is not further
analyzable is termed A ROOT.
For example: undesirability  [un-desire-able-ity]
Bound morphs which do not realize words and which are attached to roots to
produce word-forms are called AFFIXES.
Most roots are free morphemes, but some are not: euro-crat, octo-pus, quadraphon-ic, wis-dom, and so on.
For example: deal.ing.s, fool.ish.ness, ...
-

A root is the part of a word that cannot be changed, and when added to
creates different forms of the word:

+ "Walk" is a root, and can be changed in many ways: walking, walked, walker,
walkie-talkie, sidewalk, walk-light, walks etc. You will never have a word related to
walking where the "walk" part gets changed, so it is a root.
+ Most of the time the root forms a word on its own, but sometimes they do not.
Complete, replete, expletive: these all have the root "plete", which happens to not be a
word on its own.

2. Base
Anything we attach affixes to, whether it is just a root or something bigger than
a root is called a BASE


If an affix is attached before a base it is called a prefix, if it is attached after a
base it is called a suffix (and if it attached in the middle of a base it is calles an
infix)
Pre.pack.ed
For example:

Nation
Nation-al

(-al attached to Noun-base to form Adjective)

National-ize

(-ize attached to a Adj-base to form Verb)

Nationaliz-ation
Nationalization-al
ROOT

BASE

- A base is any part of a word that you can add inflections to, or that you
can add prefixes/suffixes that change the meaning/part of speech.
So "walk" is also a base, because it can have inflections (walking) and can be turned
into different words (walker is a noun). Walker is also a base, because you can modify
it inflectionally (walkers is plural), and because it can have things added to derive new
words (dog-walker).
- So all roots are bases because they are the smallest chunk that stays the same
despite additions.
- Not all bases are roots though, because sometimes the root + inflection or root +
derivation goes on to take additional changes. (Walker is a base, but the root is
still walk).

3. Stem
STEM is the actual form to which an inflectional affix is attached to
( consisting of more than one morpheme).
For example:

the form sing is the stem of the word sing.s
but singer is the stem of the word singer.s

- A stem is the form of a word that inflections get added onto. Most of the
time this will be the root.
"Walk" is the form that all the inflections (grammar-affecting changes) get added to,
when you add ~ing to it, it turns into a progressive verb or a gerund. ~ed turns it perfect. ~s
makes it a plural noun, or makes it agree with a singular subject.


II. Free And Bound Morphemes
Free morpheme: morpheme that can constitute a word by itself.
Bound morpheme: morpheme which must be attached to another element to
make up a word.
1. Derivation and Inflection
1.1 Derivational morphemes: are (bound) morphemes that *add new
meaning to an existing word.

(*)

+ the derived words may be in a different grammatical class: nation-al
+ the derived words may be in the same grammatical class:
Prefix

re-write
Super-man

Suffix

Vietnam-ese
Mouth-ful

o There are an indefinite number of derivational morphemes.
+ For example, the following are some derivational suffixes:
-

{ize} attaches to a noun and turns it into a verb: rubberize

-

{ize} also attaches to an adjective and turns it into a verb: normalize

-

{ful} attaches to a noun and turns it into an adjective: playful, helpful

-

{ly} attaches to an adjective and turns it into an adverb: grandly, proudly

-

A different {ly} attaches to a noun and changes it into an adjective: manly, friendly
+ English also has derivational prefixes, such as:

-

{un}, {dis}, {a}, {anti}, all of which indicate some kind of negation: unhappy, dislike,
atypical, anti-aircraft

1.2 Inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes that are purely
grammatical markers, representing such concepts as tense, number, gender,
person, case,...
* Inflectional morphemes do not change the syntactic/grammatical
category of the word or morphemes to which they are attached.
For example: SING {sing – sang – sung – singing}


8 English inflectional morphemes:
–‘s (possessive)
–s (plural)
–s (3rd person present singular)
–ing (present participle)
–ed (past tense)
–ed (past participle)
–en (past participle)
–est and –er (superlative and comparative degree)

- Notice that, as noted above, even irregular forms can be represented
morphologically using these morphemes. E.g: the irregular plural sheep is
written as {sleep} + {PLU}, even though the typically form of {PLU} is not
used here.
Similarly, better = {good} + {COMP}; drove = {drive} + {PAST}
 Lexical and grammatical morphemes
Lexical morphemes are those that having meaning by themselves (more
accurately, they have sense).
Grammatical morphemes specify a relationship between other
morphemes. But the distinction is not all that well defined.
For example:

- Nouns, verbs, adjectives ( {boy}, {buy}, {big}) are typical
lexical morphemes
- Prepositions, articles, conjuntions ( {of}, {the}, {but}) are
grammatical morphemes
Lexical morphemes
Free morphemes
Functional morphemes

Morphemes
Derivational morphemes
Bound morphemes
Inflectional morphemes


REVISION
1. Derivational affix ...... the grammatical category and the meaning found in
the word to which it applies.
a. Changes
b.Doesn’t change c. Converses
d.Can be
(a)&(b)
2. The form to which an inflectional morpheme is attached is called......
a. Root
b. Word
c. Stem
d. Morph
3. How many different words are there in the sentense “She walked to town
yesterday and she has walked there this morning”?
a. 13
b. 12
c. 11
d. 10
4. How many morphemes are there in the sentense “The hungry wolves have
attacked their enemies fiercely”?
a. 15
b. 13
c. 11
d. 9
5. Which is the root of the word lukewarm
a. Luke
b. Warm
c. Lukewarm
6. Which of the following is the base of the word uncomfortable?
a. Comfort
b. Uncomfort
c. Comfortable
d.
uncomfortable
7. Which is the following is the base of the word unpredictability?
a. Predict
b. Unpredict c. Predictable
d. unpredictable
8. The word ‘householders’ has ..........
a. One root and one suffix
c. One root and two suffixes
b. two roots and one suffix
d. Two roots and two suffixes
9. How many morphemes are there in the word ‘relationship’?
a. Three
b. Four
c. Five
d. Six
10. How many morphemes are there in the word ‘incompatibilities’?
a. Seven
b. Six
c. Five
d. Four
11. The form to which an inflectional morpheme is attached is called a/an ...
a. affix
b. Root
c. Base
d. stem
12. Identify the root, base and affixes (prefix and suffix) of the following
words:
a. girlfriend
b. boyfriends
c. unbelievable
d. outputs


CHAPTER 4 WORD CLASSES
I. Introduction:
1. (Open) Lexical words: Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs.
2. (Close) Function words: Pronouns, Determiners, Conjuntions,
Auxiliaries, Complementizers.
II. Characteristics of word classes:
1. Nouns:
A word (other than a pronoun) that names a person, place or thing,
functions as a subject and complement.
1.1 Formal characteristics:
A word may be a noun if it
...ends in two noun inflections: plural (-s or –es) and gentitive (‘s or s’)
Example: children, women,...
...end in a nominal derivational suffix:
-age
-ance/-ence

baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, etc.
importance, significance, dependence, etc.

-cy

bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, etc.

-dom
-er/-or

: earldom, freedom, kingdom, etc.
actor, creator, hatter, geographer, etc.

-ness
-hood

happiness, sadness, darkness, conceiteness, etc
childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, etc.

-ism

baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, etc.

-ist

chemist, dramatist, economist, etc.

-ity
-ment

purity, authority, dubiety, majority, etc.
enhancement, axcitement, fragment, etc.

-th

bath, birth, death, etc.

-tion
-ure

nation, pollution, suggestion, etc
closure, picture, etc.


...preceded by Determiners
+ Articles: a, an, the
+ Gentitives: my, our, your, his, her, its, ... and genitive nuons phrases
(eg., the girl’s mother,..)
+ Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
+ Quantifiers: some, any, all, many, much, no, every, numerals(one,
two,...), ordinals(first, second,..), ...
+ Most adjectives: good, ridiculous, excellent, pretty, ...
1.2 Functional characteristics:
Single nouns have one dominant function – that of head of a noun phrase
 Classes of nouns
- proper nouns
- common nouns
+ non-count (mass) nouns: concrete: gold, salt, furniture,...
Abstract:music, homework,...
+ count nouns:

concrete:
Abstract: advantages, duties,...

2. Verbs:
... words that designate actions (walk, build,...), process (grow, turn,
develop,...),experiences (feel, see, know,...) or state of being (be, have)
Verbs can likewise be categorized along a number of dimensions.
Some important dimensions:
The dimensions in which type of verb is concerned
Verbs

Intransitive verb

Transitive verb

Ditransitive verb


Definitio
n

Some
common
verbs of
each type

Example

Intransitive verb ( nội
động từ )

Transitive verb ( ngoại
động từ )

Ditransitive verb
( động từ có 2 bổ ngữ )

Intransitive verbs are
English verbs that
cannot or do not take
objects
 Cough
 Die
 Dream
 Go
 Sit
 Sneeze
 The baby
coughed
 The old woman
died
 My dog dreams
about chasing
rabbits
 Sit down!

Transitive verbs are English
verbs that take direct
objects

Ditransitive verbs are
English verbs that take
both direct objects and
indirect objects
 Bring
 Buy
 Catch
 Give
 Pass
 Trade
 My husband
bought me some
flowers
 The police caught
themselves a
criminal
 Please pass me the
rice












Borrow
Clean
Eat
Kick
Swallow
Write
The man tore the paper
Rabbits destroy my
garden every year
My cat kills rabbits
He closed the door

2.1 Formal characteristics:
A word may be a verb if it...
...can take the four verb inflections: V-s, V-ing, V-ed, V-en
Examples:
+ She travels to work by train
+ David is singing in the room
+ We walked five miles to a garage
+ I’m so worried that she will frighten me again
...begins or ends in a verbal derivational affix



 Suffixes:
Suffixes
-ate

-fy (ify, efy)
-ize

Examples
Abdicate, accelerate, calculate, calibrate, capitulate, captivate,
castigate, celebrate, debilitate, decorate, educate, elaborate, elevate,
eliminate, participate,...
Beautify, classify, crucufy, rarefy, stupefy,...
Categorize, characterize, civilize, criticize, economize, emphasize,
equalize,...
Awaken, batten, blacken, brighten, broaden, burden, enlighten,
fasten, frighten, harden, lengthen, listen, open, quicken,...

-en

 Prefixes:

Prefixes

Examples

Dis-

Disagree, disappear, disapprove,...

Un-

Undo, untie, unfit, unarm, ...

Mis-

Misinterpret, mistake, misunderstand, misuse, mistake, ...

Mal-

Maltreat, malfunction,...

Out-

Outlive, outdistance,outbalance, outdo, ...

Over-

Overwork, overload, overflow,overact,...

Under-

Underbid, understand,undercut, underfeed, ...

Fore-

Forecast, forehead, foresee, foreword, forego, forerun, ...

Re-

Return, reunite, rediscover,rewrite, recount, ...

En-, em-

Embrace, encode, embed, enclose,enlarge, enchant, ...

Be-

Behave, befriend,...

De-

Devalue, derail, demotivate,deform, de-emphasize, ...

... preceded by words typically precede verbs,
i.e., have the potential to occur immediately following:
1. Auxiliaries ( be and have)
2. Modal ( do, did, will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should,
must)
3. To ( infinitival)
4. Not
...agrees with subject, tense & aspect of action


2.2 Functional characteristics: Head of the verb phrase
 Subclasses of verbs: Verbs are subdivided into transitive, instransitive
and linking verbs.
3. Adjectives:
...words that refers to the nature, extent, scope, etc of a person or thing.
A adjective modifies a noun.
3.1 Formal characteristics:
A word may be an adjective if it...
... allow comparison through the audition of the inflectional suffixes –er and –
est or being preceded by more and most
... ends in adjectival derivational suffix
Suffix
-ish

Examples
Foolish, childish, selfish,...

-al

National, international,...

-ful

Successful, painful, thoughful,...

-y

Funny, sunny, daily,...

-ic

Energetic, economic, domestic,...

-able/-ible

Reliable, liable, manageable, possible,...

-ing

Amazing, breaking, overwhelming,...

-ed

Frustated, seated, preferred,...

3.2 Functional characteristics: head of AP
3.2.1 Attributive adjective: modifies nouns by preceding or following them
Example:

They are sick children.
She is a person unusual for her knowledge of astrology.

However, there are some special cases such as:
a. Adjectives that follow a phrase are indicative of measurement:
Example: A girl 21 years old
b. Stand behind: something, anything, nothing, everything.
Example: There is nothing new
c. After the noun has a modified group for the word


Example: She showed me into a room full of people
d. In the case of multiple adjectives, some nouns can be placed behind
Example: She is a girl both beautiful and intelligent
3.2.2 Predicative adjective:
a. Adjective modifiers when combined with a verb as the predicate of a
sentence
Example: She becomes famous
b. Adjectives can also be followed by verbs and adjectives that modify the
object
Example: He makes me sad
- Adjective used as a noun:
Example: The rich get richer
- Adjectives are used as pronoun:
Example: They catch the first
3.2.3 object complement Adj: (verb ) – NP – adj (AP)
Cut (X)short,

push (X) open,

drain (X) dry

Put (X) straight,

keep (X) loose,

set (X) right

Leave (X) clean,

shake (X) free,

make (X) plain,...

4. Adverbs:
A word that describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective or
phrase.
Types of adverbs:
- adverb of time:

yesterday, tomorrow, ago,..

- adverb of place:

above, below, here, outside, over there, there, under,
upstairs

- adverb of manner:

badly, happily, sadly, slowly, quickly,...

- adverb of degree:

almost, much, nearly, quite, really, so, too, very

- adverb of frequency:
+ Again, almost, always, ever, frequently, generally, hardly, ever, nearly
+ Always, never, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, sometimes, twice,
usually, weekly
4.1 Formal characteristics:
A word may be an adverb if it...


...undergoes comparision by the addition of suffixes –er and –est or being
preceded by more and most
...ends in adverbial derivation suffix: -ly, –wise, -ward
-ly
-wise
-ward

quickly, frequently, beautifully, seriuosly,...
otherwise, likewise,...
forward, westward,...

...tends to be relatively movable in a sentence
Frequently, Harriet was a visitor
Harriet was frequently a visitor
Harriet was a visitor frequently
4.2 Functional characteristics:

Head of adverb phrases

Sentence modifiers
Disjuncts

Conjunct

Adjunct

Apparently/obviously/clearly, Joan of D’Art is a heroine.
Hopefully, the book will inspire readers to a wider interest in weather.
Frankily/honestly, my dear, I don’t love you
Luckily/Unfortunately, she regained control of her mind
The boy came and eventually he wear the suit
Summer arrived; however, the weather remained poor
He gambled away his inheritance, and consequently had to work for a living
They are waiting outside
She talked to me about it slowly and carefully
She really came here

5. Prepositions:
Relate objects, people or events in space or time,...
5.1 formal characteristics
Single-word prepositions
About

above

across

after

against

Along

amid(st)

among

around

astride

At

before

behind

below

beneath

Beside(s)

between

beyond

but (=except) by

Concerning

down

during

except

from

In

inside

into

like

of

On

onto

out

outside

over

Since

through

throughout

till

to


Towardunder
Up

underneath
upon

with

until

unto
within

without


Multiword prepositions
According to alongwith

apart from

as for

as to

because of

inside of

instead of

out of round about,...

except for

5.2 Functional characteristics: head of prepositional phrases
6. Pronouns:
A word used in place of one or more nouns. Pronouns bear the
grammatical functions of person, case, gender and number.
Pronouns are closely related to nouns, as they both function as NPs.
Pronouns are traditionally characterized as ‘substitutes’ for noun or as ‘standing
for’ noun
6.2. Demonstrative pronouns:
This

That

These

Those

Examples:
- This is a book that she need to buy.
- Those are some friends of my elder sister.
6.1 Personal pronouns:
Person
First

Case
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive

Second

Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Masculine
Nominative He
Accusative Him
Genitive
His
his

Third

Singular
I
Me
My
mine
You
You
Your
yours
Gender
Feminine
She
Her
Her
Hers

Plural
We
Us
Our
ours
You
You
Your
yours
Neutral
It
It
Its
Its

Examples:
- Yesterday, I had dinner with my family in a famous restaurant
- Her room is bigger than mine
6.3. Reflexive ( and intensive) promouns:
Person
First
Second
Third

Singular
myself
yourself
Himself
Herself
Itself

Plural
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

They
Them
Their
Theirs


Examples:
- I myself will present the prizes.
- The children can look after themselves for a couple of hours.
6.4. Indefinite pronouns:
Head or modifier
All, another, any, both, each, either, few,
many, most, neither, other, several, some,
such

Head only
Anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone,
nobody, none, no one, others, one,
somebody, someone

7. Wh- words:
Who

whom

which

what

who

When

where

why

whether

how

Wh-words occur in three distinct functions:
a. Introducing information questions
b. Introducing relatives
c. Introducing noun clauses
Examples:
a. Who is the woman in the black hat?
b. The postman comes at 6.30 in the morning, at which time I’m usually fat
asleep.
c. Whether you come or not is no concern of mine.
c’. What makes me mad is his ignorance.
8. Minor categories:
Quantifiers, as the label implies, express quantity-related concepts.
English quantifiers include every, each, all, many and few, as well as the
numberals one, two, three, etc,... e.g: everybody, many, books, the seven sisters.
Conjunctions ( or conjuncts), like and, but and or, serve to link the
elements in a conjoined expression. All major lexical categories can be linked by
conjunctions to form conjoined expression.
a. Coordinating conjunctions
- Single word coordinating conjunctions
For

And Nor

But

Or

yet

So

- Multiword coordinating connjunctions
both ... and, not only ... but (also)
either ... or, neither ... nor, whether ... or


b. Subordinating conjunctions ( or adverbial conjunctions)
Time

After, as, as long as, as soon as, before, just as, now that, since, until, till,
when, whenever, while

Place

Where, wherever

Manner

As, as if, as though

Reason or
cause
Result

As, because, in as much, since

Comparision

As, as...as, just as, so...as, than

Purpose

In order that, lest, so, so that, that

Condition

As long as, if, on ( the) condition that, provided, provided that, unless

Concession

Although, even if, even though, though, whereas, while

So...that, so that, such...that,

c. Relative conjunctions:
The Wh-word class and the word that
Example:
Anyone [who knows the answer]will receive a prize.
The cat [that caught the mouse] was jubilant.


REVISION
1. Which of the following word classes does not take the grammatical
category of number?
a. Verb
b. Adjective
c. Noun
d.
Demonstrative
2. Which of the following adjectives cannot stand before (attribute) a noun?
a. Medical
b. Ugly
c. Ill
d. Elder
3. Which of the following word classes belongs to lexical categories?
a. Conjuntion
b. Preposition
c. Determiner
d. none of them
4. Which of the following indefinite pronouns has a plural form?
a. Other
b. Both
c. Everyone
d. None
5. Which of the following words cannot stand before a noun?
a. Awoken
c. Awaking
b. Awake
d. Awaken
6. Which of the following verbs can have an objective complement?
a. Seek
c. Discover
b. Look for
d. Find
7. What is the type of the adverb in the sentence “The children decided to do
their homework quickly”?
a. Adjunct
c. Disjunct
b. Conjunct
d. Intensifier
8. What is the type of the adverb in the sentence “Finally, he found a way to
get out of the jungle”?
a. Adjunct
c. Conjunct
b. Disjunct
d. Intensifier
9. Which of the following words is NOT an adverb?
a. Quickly
c. Politely
b. Hardly
d. Costly
10. The underlined word in teh sentence “ i find you my most reliable friend”
is a/an ...
a. Attributive adjective
c. Subjective complement
b. Predicative adjective
d. Objective complement
11. The suffix –wise in crabwise and clockwise is an affix to form ... in
english.
a. nouns
b. Adjectives
c. Adverbs
d. b and c


Chapter 5 WORD FORMATION
I. Words
A word is an arbitrary union of sound form and meaning.
1. Simple, compound and complex words
- Simple words are those made up of only one stem and cannot be broken
down into smaller meaningful units.
Ex: house, money, book, …
- Complex words are those made up of stem(s) and one or more
inflectional and/or derivational affixes. Complex words can be broken
down /analyzed into constituent part.
Ex: teach.er.s, house.s, drink.ing, mouth.ful, prison.er.s, eat.s, ...
- Compound word: composed from the combination of two or more free
morphemes.
Ex: classroom, hotdog, boyfriend, sunflower, …
2. Closed and open word categories
 The closed categories are the function words:
Pro (you, she, he…)
Conj (and, if, because, but, for, or, when,…)
Det (a, an, the, some, this, that,…) and a few others.
 The categories of words that are open are the major lexical categories:
N (happiness, beauty, nation,…)
V ( include, compare, beautify, …)
Adj ( happy, beautiful, national,…)
Adv ( happily, beautiful,…).

II.

Word formation

1. Derivation: is the process by which a new word is built from a base,
usually through the addition of an affix (prefix and suffix).
N

V

Af


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