POST-GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT
Summary of doctoral thesis
TEACHING PRESENTATION SKILLS TO FRENCH-SPEAKING
TOUR GUIDES USING DISCOURSE GENRE APPROACH AND
SITUATION-PROBLEM BASED METHOD
DẠY THUYẾT TRÌNH CHO HƯỚNG DẪN VIÊN DU LỊCH TIẾNG
PHÁP THEO PHƯƠNG PHÁP TIẾP CẬN BẰNG LOẠI HÌNH DIỄN
NGÔN VÀ THÔNG QUA CÁC TÌNH HUỐNG – VẤN ĐỀ
Post Graduate: ĐỖ QUỲNH HƯƠNG
Scientific Instructor: Dr. NGUYỄN THỊ CÚC PHƯƠNG
Co-Instructor: Prof. SILVIA LUCCHINI & Prof. MARCEL LEBRUN (Catholic
University of Leuven, Belgium)
1st reviewer : Prof. JEAN-FRANÇOIS BOURDET
2nd reviewer : Prof. THOMAS FRANÇOIS
3rd reviewer : Assoc.Prof : DUONG CONG MINH
Major: French Language
1. Why is this topic chosen?
Trained on French teaching and application of Information Technology in
teaching at bachelor and master levels, initially we intended to design French-teaching
modules in the situation-problem forms using information technology. Later, we
changed our topic to teaching French for specific purposes (FOS), more specifically to
teaching presentation for French-Speaking tour guides. The change based on the need
of the training institution where we work. The French Language Department of Hanoi
University plans to teach French language at bachelor level in combination with
training tour guides. Therefore we decided to integrate the topic into developing
programs and curriculums for the subject of « Tourism Communication with
orientation toward tourist guide career ».
The choice of teaching presentation for tour guides has brought us to a totally
new field of discourse analysis. Research documents on development of French
curriculums for specific purposes show that discourse analysis is a natural part of
compiling programs and curriculums of specialized foreign language subjects. Since
then, the composition of our thesis has become clearer.
2. Questions, théories and study objectives
Our doctoral thesis was born out of personal, professional and academic demands.
It started from a practical question: How to teach presentation for future FrenchSpeaking tour guides? Specialized materials and field studies suggested the following
The development of programs and design of teaching materials for the course
should be based on the results of the discourse analysis of the target which is
presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides;
Using the situation-problem method can improve teaching quality of the
On the basis, we identified main targets of the study, including:
Conducting discourse analysis of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides
Proposing a training course on presentation using the situation-problem
method to train French-speaking tour guides
3. Structure of the thesis
The thesis contains three major parts: theoretical basis and context of the
study, discourse analysis of presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese
tour guides and a proposed training course on presentation for Frenchspeaking tour guides.
In the first part, chapter 1 introduces the situation of training French-speaking
tour guides in Vietnam. We analyze the training demand and main features of training
professional and language skills for future tour guides. The Chapter 2 introduces
context of the study, for example, higher education in Vietnam is being renovated with
more attention to training professional skills, Hanoi University expands training
courses in foreign languages to new domains, and finally the University’s French
Language Department plans to teach French language at bachelor level in combination
with training tour guides. In the theoretical basis, first, we identify the domain of the
study, and then clarify some key definitions of the topic centering around two key
themes of discourse analysis and situation-problem method.
The second part of the thesis reports the outcomes of the first part of the
topic: discourse analysis of the presentation of French-speaking Vietnamese tour
guides. In the first chapter of the part, we introduce the analysis method, chapter 7 and
8 are about discourse characteristics of the genre, how to prepare and present the
presentations and common linguistic characteristics of presentations of Frenchspeaking Vietnamese tour guides. The third part of the thesis summarizes outcomes of
the second part about training course on presentation for tour guides, including the
design of a training course on presentation using the situation-problem method,
experimental teaching and analyzing the results of the experiment to improve the
quality of future curriculum. The designing methodologies and experiment of this
curriculum will be presented in chapter 9.
Finally, in the conclusion, we will summarize contributions to the
thesis and directions of future studies.
PART ONE: CONTEXT AND THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE STUDY
Chapter 1: Training French-speaking tour guides in Vietnam
Since Vietnam opened to the world, the number of international tourists to
Vietnam keeps increasing and reached 10 million in 2016 and 10.9 million in 2017. In
this context, a market has been formed to welcome foreign tourists, providing services
like business to consumer or business to business (B2B)
This context also helps boost the use of French language in Vietnamese
tourism. Every year, we welcome about 300,000 French-speaking tourists; however
we only have 1330 certified French-speaking tour guides. But in fact, the number of
certified tour guides who actually do the job is much lower.
According to applicable regulations, only those who hold French language
bachelor degrees or DELF at B2 level are eligible to apply for a tourist guide
certificate. In fact, most of the tour guides graduate French language Departments of
various universities, so they have good French language background. In recent years,
French for Tourism has been integrated into training programs, however the programs
only provide future tour guides with basic concepts of tourism industry, but fall short
of going further to typical communication contexts which French-speaking tour guides
In order to be able to work as French-speaking tour guides, graduates of
French language Departments have to take an additional training course to obtain a
tourist guide certificate in Vietnamese. The training course provides them with basic
knowledge (history, geography…) and specialized knowledge (tourism economics,
consumer psychology, guide professional skills…). They are also trained on
presentation which makes up a small proportion of the training course.
In summary, the demand for French-speaking tour guides is real, however the
existing training programs see many shortcomings, and no specialized training
program is available for them. Newly recruited French-speaking tour guides are
capable of performing basic communication in French with customers, but they face
difficulties presenting in French because they haven’t been trained on the skill in the
Chapter 2: Situation in the training institution where the study is carried out
Established in 1967, the French Language Department of Hanoi University
has trained French language for a long time, preparing students for
interpretation/translation positions. Like any other foreign language departments in the
university, in recent years, the Department has tried to diversify their training, by
expanding its training to new specialties, including corporate communication in
French or training French language at bachelor level preparing students for
translation/interpretation and tourism positions. Tourism is chosen because this field
offers more job opportunities for graduates in recent years.
To prepare for the tourism-oriented training, in 2012, the Department carried
out a survey with experts in French-speaking tourism service to list professions with
high recruitment demand. Basing on the survey, we identified two professions for the
Tourism-oriented training of French language bachelors, including tourist office staff
and tour guides. Our topic has a special practical significance to the training program:
the training of specialized subjects starts in the 5th semester, awarding 39 credits to the
students, including 3 credits for the subject of « Tourism Communication with
orientation toward tourist guide career ». The module of teaching presentation for
French-speaking tour guides will be the key content of the subject.
Chapter 3. Identifying domains of the study
In order to teach presentation using discourse and situation-problem method,
our study is in between two major fields of teaching French language as a foreign
language and education science.
In teaching French language as a foreign language, our study is one among
the works on teaching French for specific purposes (FOS), mainly featured by the
designing of training courses totally basing on the learner’s demands: collecting target
communication cases and typical discourse types of written or spoken communication
in those cases, collecting, selecting, processing actual linguistic materials and using
them as training materials. The training course which we design is about French
language for tourism, all steps of its development reflect clear orientation toward
training French-speaking tour guides and focus on one specific discourse type of
presentation in typical communication contexts of the profession.
We also implement a new trend in teaching French as a foreign language that
is the approach through action. In our training course, the learners – future tour guides
– are considered as social hosts who use French in their professional activities, in
communicating with native French-speaking tourists. They use French language to
perform specific professional tasks, each of which requires tour guides to have not
only linguistic skills, but also general and professional skills. Each action takes place
in a specific environment and belongs to a specific action field in receiving
international tourists. This context puts forward some specific requirements for tour
guides which we mention in situation-problems designed in the curriculum. The
linguistic activities of tour guides are perception and expression, more often they are
listening, understanding and spoken expression. To perform their tasks, tour guides
have to mobilize their wisdom, instruments and supporting force together with various
strategies. That’s the main content of the training course which we design.
Teaching through discourse types fully catches up with the new trend of
teaching French as a foreign language under the Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages (CEFR) which evaluates communication in French by
measuring the learner’s level of mastering discourse types.
In education science, our study is about vocational training method, as we
teach a discourse type (presentation) of a profession (French-speaking tourist guide in
Vietnam) and analyze the common way they prepare and present their presentation as
well as linguistic characteristics to develop the presentation skill as part of a
professional capacity framework for French speaking tour guides. The process is
based on theories of general teaching methods in pedagogy. Methods in the field of
education technology used to design the training course and the application of
situations and problems follow the socio-constructive and interactive perspectives of
Exploring studies on the same domain, we found that studies on discourse
types in tourism mainly analyze written communication, only one doctoral thesis
studied presentations of tour guides in African countries by comparing them with
sections of the same theme in tourism guidebooks
In designing training courses on French for Tourism for Vietnamese people,
there are some studies at master’s level, but they mainly use written documents and
don’t try teaching in most cases. The situation-problem method originates from the
method actually used to teach sciences in schools and French language as a mother
tongue in France which later was developed to teach undergraduate students in
In French teaching methodology, the assignment-based or project-based and
simulated game-based approaches are often used, but not the situation-problem
In summary, even though out study belongs to the domain of teaching French
for specific purposes (FOS), but when applying the situation-problem method, we
make use of the studies in the domain of education technology and our approach
totally matches the direction which is the current trend of French teaching
methodology. We also use concepts of general teaching methodology and our study is
very close to the studies on vocational training specialized in discourse analysis in
professional activities. Among studies to develop training courses on French language
for tourism basing on discourse analysis, our study is one of very few discourse
analyses of spoken communication and inclusive for experimental teaching.
Chapter 4: Discourse analysis in teaching foreign language
There are many definition of discourse, but we choose the definition by
Mainguenau (Mainguenau & Charaudeau, 2002) : discourse is an organization of
inter-connected oriented, interactive sentences in compliance with standards, is a kind
of action in specific context which is a host is responsible for and belongs to a field of
Using the definition, we study the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour
guides, target of the study, in the second part of the study under various perspectives
Like discourse, there are many definitions of discourse type, but we choose
the definition by Charaudeau (Mainguenau & Charaudeau, 2002), saying that
discourse type is defined by the context of its birth, that is the « socio-psychological
element in combination with the factors of situation and communication »
(Charaudeau, 1995b). In this study, we chose Charaudeau’s theory of communication
contract, taking into account social status and discourse characteristics of the speaker,
factors related to the communicative contents and context, discourse strategies to
identify characteristics of presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides.
The analysis is supplemented with the list of the common ways to prepare and present
the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. The analysis also
mentions characteristics of spoken discourses.
Teaching by types is popular in teaching French as a foreign language, from
communication direction in teaching foreign language in the 1970s to the post- CEFR
period in recent years. In teaching French as a mother tongue, the method is also
popular, especially in the reform of teaching program since 2000. When developing
the training course on presentation for future tour guides, we follow new trend in
teaching French for specific purposes, in which the main objective of learning a
foreign language is to master various types of discourses, and to be able to understand
and express typical discourses in each communicative context, as a basic skill to
integrate into the society and work.
The process of designing, testing and evaluating the training course on
presentation for tour guides follows basic steps, set out by Bronckart & Dolz (1999) in
teaching foreign language by types. The analysis of the discourse of the target type
bases on Charaudeau’s theory of communication contract and has many similarities
with the mediated discourse analysis (Scollon, 2005). We distinguished expected
discourse and realized discourse, pay attention to action of the speaker in preparing
and implementing discourse, and consider personal characteristics of the speaker when
analyzing discourses of the same type.
Chapter 5: Situation-problem method and its position in vocational
The situation-problem is not only a concept, a pedagogical context, a
teaching method and a direction in educational science. It contains a philosophy,
philosophy of surprise and release, in which the learner is placed in front of obstacles,
complicated situations and close to reality, he is forced to mobilize many thinking
tactics to fulfill specific tasks, overcome obstacles and achieve the target of learning
and learn the skills which the program wants them to learn. On the way of exploring,
the learner is guided along a tight roadmap which crisscrossed by conflits sociocognitifs, breakthroughs in recognition method and guidance of the teacher.
Under the teacher’s perspective, the designing of the context must follow a
tight procedure, requiring the program designer or/and teacher to have not only strong
professional knowledge, but also deep understanding of the learner’s perception of the
training content, steer the perception to achieving the set target. The understanding
decides the contexts to be selected, difficulty and complexity levels, the way how the
issue is raised and learning activities are organized. It is very important to evaluate
problem-solving as a whole process. The answer is not the only thing that matters;
instead, the whole problem-solving and perception changing process are the outcome
In vocational training methodology, importance is attached to the situationproblem method in training programs of vocational training institutions, basing on the
analysis of common professional behavior to train a certain professional activity.
When placed in a certain professional context, the selected problem may be more
theoretical or practical. However, a context-based curriculum must have the four
following characteristics: the interaction between the learner’s action and the
“answer” of the curriculum, the originality of the common professional behavior
selected for training, the repetition of problems and contexts with increasing difficulty
level along the training process.
In universities, the training on problem-solving is both teacher’s tactic and
target to pursuit, as the problem-solving process triggers many important thinking
tactics. Among many methods, the most well-known are case study and problem
method which have been applied since the beginning of the 20th century in the US and
European universities. Emerging for the several recent decades, the situation-problem
method focuses on the development of skills which makes it different from other
earlier methods. Recent research on teaching and learning in real situations show
characteristics of the situation – problems in profession-oriented higher education.
PART TWO: DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF PRESENTATIONS OF
Chapter 6: Method of analyzing presentations of tour guides
When analyzing presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides,
we chose to apply the description method, including two steps: sorting tourist guide’s
behaviors when making the presentations, analyzing and explain the behaviors under
the perspective of tour guides and their common ways to prepare and make the
presentations. We chose to systematically observe some sample presentations which
we think are typical examples of this type. For analyzing, we make a table to write the
observed behaviors of tour guides in presentations corresponding with characteristics
of the presentations under the Charaudeau’s theory on communication contract. We
also carried out semi-structured interviews with tour guides who helped us record
presentations in reality and two group interviews with tourists who are customers of
two among the mentioned tourists. The interview conditions, as well as the neutral
behaviors of the interviewers helped minimize the factors that may influence the
survey outcomes. In the next part, the final outcomes of the discourse analysis of this
type are a combination of the analysis of presentations and the answers in the
interviews with tour guides. The answers of the interviewed tourists gave a different
view, helping us have a comprehensive view of the analyzed type.
Chapter 7: Discourse analysis of presentations of French-speaking
Vietnamese tour guides
Presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides are a distinguished
type of discourse, characteristics of which is defined by the social status of tour guides.
Tourist guide’s profession is recognized by the society and institutions, requires them
to have certain knowledge and skills and also allows them to speak. But in reality,
sometimes, tour guides share the rights with their customers. Tour guides use various
tactics to attract customers and convince the customers of what they say: they improve
their French every day, try to express their ideas in a clear, accurate and coherent way,
and at the same time make lively presentations matching each audience. Tour guides
also try to promote a positive image of their country, chose to have a neutral behavior,
because their main role is to communicate information, so tour guides’ presentations
aim at promoting beautiful images of their country to convince tourists to come back.
Whether the presentations are delivered on the coaches or at the tourist
destinations depends on many contextual factors, like the number of tourists, visit plan,
landscape and what tourists see on the way, weather conditions, mood and attention of
tourists, communication supporting tools at the location, entrance to the location and
so on. With their experience, tour guides are likely to adjust their presentations
depending on the factors and decide the locations to deliver the presentation
depending on the context.
If sorting the presentation according to their contents, we have three types:
presentations designed to communicate actual information, comments at the tourist
destination and presentations with flexible themes. The first type is designed to
provide tourists with information about the trip plan, so it is informative and
demanding, even though the tourist guide keeps explaining and arguing their choices.
The second type aims to guide the visit, describe the destination and exhibits on
display, so it is descriptive and informative (for architectural buildings) and
explanatory (for cycles). The third type may require the most preparation, because
before meeting the customers, basing on the visit plan and other contextual factors, the
tourist guide has made a list of flexible themes which he understand very well and
prepared presentations for the customers. Therefore the presentations of this type
should be prepared well, requiring the tourist guide to research documents and take
note of important information and follow a plan. The tourist guide often delivers the
presentation on the car to the destination or at the destination, adds more information
or makes the visit livelier. However, the presentation of this type is likely to change or
be delivered in a different location depending on the situation of the journey.
The above knowledge of the characteristics of the presentations of Frenchspeaking Vietnamese tour guides helps us to better understand this type of discourse,
so that later we draw practical professional activities in preparing, delivering and
adjusting the tour guides’ presentations.
Chapter 8: Practical professional activities of French-speaking
Vietnamese tour guides in preparing and delivering presentations
The analysis of practical professional activities is very important in vocation
training and profession-oriented higher education. In our case, practical professional
activities are the practices which we observe in many tour guides or in one tourist
guide which we think is typical.
The way they prepare and deliver the presentations in term of discourses
which we put in the list will serve the training of future tour guides.
They give details of the preparation, delivery and adjustments of the
presentations, showing the daily work of tourist guide with each group of tourists
which they guide, the information which the tourist guide should collect before
receiving the group to adjust the planned presentations, as well as the way they add
and adjust the presentation after each tour. We also developed plans of about 20
typical presentations, to provide future tour guides with a tool to prepare their own
presentation when they start their careers.
We allocated a large part of this chapter to analyzing linguistic characteristics
of the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. As we were unable to
list all the linguistic characteristics of this type, we only focus on typical
characteristics, on the one hand to understand the linguistic characteristics of this type,
on the other hand to prepare training material for future tour guides. We found that the
presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides have specialized tools and
methods to develop ideas inside a presentation and it also depends on the theme of the
presentation. We analyzed tactics used to structure a presentation, as well as
connecting worlds frequently used by Vietnamese tour guides. Without digging deep
into analyzing syntactic structures and frequent errors, our analysis only aims at
providing a basic linguistic tool for future tour guides and helping them to prepare a
coherent presentation. As of grammatical structures, we didn’t list frequently used
grammatical structures as writers of French for tourism curriculums often do, instead,
we selected typical structures, related to discourse characteristics of this type as
mentioned in the previous chapter. The analysis the errors frequently made by tour
guides, not only revealed the distance between an experienced tourist guide and a
newbie, but also shows the way a tourist guide improves their French language skills
at work, as well as how the errors affect his communication with tourists.
Not all findings of the chapter can be applied immediately in training
presentation for future tour guides, but the analyses provide an overall view of the
training content as a basis to choose the most suitable content for the training course
which we are designing.
PART THREE: EXPERIMENTAL COURSE
Chapter 9: Designing a training course for tour guides
The designing process of this training course follow the procedure set out by
Lebrun, Smidts & Bricoult (2011), including analyzing demand for training,
identifying objectives of training, selecting approaches, tools and resources,
distributing contents to class hours, designing learner’s tasks, evaluating learning
process and evaluating the training course.
Our training course starts from the demand of a training institution to meet
practical requirements of labor market and renovate training program in our workplace.
Therefore the designing of the training course is part of a specific context and
physically and pedagogically bound. In the context, we selected suitable discourses
and practical professional activities when we constructed the above-mentioned
presentations to develop training content. We also used some materials used in the
previous part as training material for this training course. The course was designed in
a mixed environment where lessons taught in classrooms are mixed with homework to
be done a group and discussions on social media in which a Facebook group operates
like a virtual classroom. Students learn new knowledge, skills and behaviors through
situations and problems, including the problems to be solved immediately in a
professional situation or a major task to be fulfilled as a tourist guide and to prepare
and deliver a presentation. The task which we designed always requires students to
work in groups or discuss in classrooms, so as to encourage conflits socio-cognitifs
between them. The training course also mixes theory with practical activities, the
teaching of teachers and instruction of experts who are professional French-speaking
tour guides and available for training the students once the training course has been
appraised and put into operation.
Specifically, the training course is a module designed to teach presentation
includes 33 hours of teaching and 5 hours of evaluating and testing through field trips
where every student plays the role of a French-speaking tourist guide. In the
experimental course, we have added a written test to the beginning and the end of the
training course and a field trip for entrance test. The 33 hours of teaching is divided
into 8 sessions under the themes of social status of tour guides, discourse
characteristics of tour guides presentations, main targets of tourist guide’s
presentations, identifying specific target of presentation paragraphs, contextual factors
of the presentation (two types of presentation), content elements of presentation (3
types of presentation, connecting words used for organizing ideas in the presentation,
indicative words and expressions and relative pronouns in French-speaking tourist
guide’s presentations. We have compiled a book for students, including the
descriptions of topics and tasks to be fulfilled, training materials in written document
and audio-visual format, recordings and virtual classroom in the Facebook group used
for learning activities.
Chapter 10: Experimentally teaching and reporting results of the
training course on presentation
We have experimentally taught the training course on presentation for tour
guides, involving a sample group of 24 students in their second and third years in
university. The training course took place for 2 months in the beginning of 2018. The
training course is a half-experiment carried out in three periods, including: 1 - the
written entrance test of 45 questions to be done on computer, a field trip where every
student plays the role of a tourist guide and a personal interview with half of the
students in the class, in which the students talked with the interviewer about how they
have done the test. 2 – a module of teaching presentation for French-speaking tour
guides comprising of 33 hours of teaching in classrooms, 3 – the outcome test
comprising of 3 parts is similar to the entrance test and carried out in the same
conditions, more group interviews are added to evaluate the training course, the class
is divided into three groups. Results of the experiment aims at confirming two
1- The discourse approach helps future French-speaking Vietnamese
students improve the quality of presentations
2- The situation-problem method helps tourist guide students prepare
presentation suitable with contextual factors and solve problems related
to their presentations.
More specifically, our experiment aims at two targets:
1- Measuring student’s progress in preparing and delivering presentations
as a French-speaking tourist guide
2- Measuring their ability to adapt the ready-made presentations to the
changing situations along the journey, ability to solve problems related
to the presentations in the journey.
Following are variations which we hope can measure student’s improvement
after the training course:
1 – Awareness of tourist guide when serving French-speaking tourists, or their
rights to speaking and responsibility for what they speak;
2 – Awareness of discourse characteristics of tour guides or tactics to show
their neutral behaviors and attract customers in their presentations;
– Selecting main purposes of each presentation (conveying information to
tourists to persuading them), or selecting suitable information and tourist
guide’s point of view when explaining the phenomenon which they
encounter on the journey;
4 – The selecting of purposes of each section in the presentation depends on
speech and makes the structure serve the purpose of the speech which the
tourist guide has selected;
5 – The consistency between the presentation’s plan and its content;
6 – The ability to use linguistic tools to organize the presentation
7 - Ability to ensure the thematic consistency of the presentation
8 – Ability to use words to indicate spaces and introduce people and objects
9 – Ability to transform their presentations to fit contextual communication
factors (time, place, customers, environment and unexpected issues…)
This experiment also aims at testing the use of the situation-problem method
in teaching French for specific purposes, so we have conducted a group
interview for scientific evaluation. Specifically, we want to know:
1- How this method works in profession-oriented training (inductive reasoning
and exploring issues in actual professional situations, social and cognitive
conflicts between the learners and learners, between learners and professional
tour guides who coach them in the training…)
2- How this method works in teaching foreign languages (teaching its
discourses and teaching communication context)
The tests conducted on the learners show improvements in all students
participating in the experiment and in all above-mentioned variations. The
students confirmed vast improvements in their French language, saying that
they are able to deliver presentations in French in real situations which tourist
guide encounter. The interview also show that students have better awareness
of tour guides’ identity, the gap between what they learn and reality, what to
do to prepare and deliver presentations in reality and learning activities …
The hard working and active participation in lessons, their engagement in
teamwork and playing the role of tourist guide are factors deciding
outstanding achievements of some student participating in the experiment.
However, gaps still exist between several variations, mainly because the
questions are not suitable and conditions to carry out spoken and written tests
are not perfect.
Even though, limited time doesn’t allow us to produce a comprehensive
evaluation of the designed training course, however feedbacks from the learners and
ourselves, teachers in the experimental training course are very positive in all aspects:
teaching methodology, training material and tools used for the training course.
Most students understand our pedagogical intentions in using situationproblem method and teamwork to organize activities, mixing theories and practical
activities, evaluating and checking. All of those have helped the training course
achieve set targets and produce useful and easy-to-use tools and training materials.
However, to improve the training course’s quality and put in into operation, some
improvements should be made in organizing situation-problem activities, balancing
individual and group activities, involving professional tour guides in coaching
students to do practical activities, regulations on communication between class
members and on group’s activities, training IT and teamwork skills for the students
before training course, the way to make questions in the written test, technical quality
and use of some multimedia training materials and finally communication between
students and professional tour guides who coach them in the training course.
Regarding the improvements to be made, the students participating in the training
course and we ourselves have made specific recommendations and analyzed
feasibility of the recommendations in the coming courses. Therefore, we are able to
formulate a complete training course and put it into operation on the earliest possible
Amid the trend of renovating programs for profession-oriented training in
foreign language, starting from the wish to improve the quality of training French for
specific purposes and contribute to the cause of training French-speaking Vietnamese
tour guides, we have set the target of formulating a training course on presentations in
profession-oriented training of French-speaking tour guides in our training institution,
the French Department of Hanoi University. On overall, it can be said that we have
achieved the target set out for our study, as the training course which we designed and
tested helped students improve both knowledge and practice of the special discourses.
What are special contributions of the thesis?
First, in methodology of teaching French for specific purposes, we have
referred to models of discourse analysis, especially the intermediary discourse analysis
(Analyze du Discourse Médiée) and based on the Charaudeau’s theory of
communication contract to analyze a special type of discourse: presentations of
French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. We conducted the analysis on a collection
of data, including 14 hour long recording of their presentations, interviews with the
tour guides who prepared and delivered the above-mentioned presentations with
similar duration. Results of the analysis allow us to define characteristics of this type,
Social status of the speaker (French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides who
receive and guide tourists in organized tours): the characteristic is defined
first by the requirement for tourist guide’s linguistic and cultural knowledge
and skills. The social status also requires the tourist guide in the role of a
manager of the tourist group, a representative of the country and the tourism
company and a service provider to make official statement in front of
In overall, tour guides often fully exercise their right to speech, using tactics
to ensure the officiality of their speech, but sometimes, they have to protect
the right to speech to confirm that they are the official speaker in the group.
In some cases, the tour guides has to concede the right to tourists to
encourage them to engage in the talk or draw their attention. Finally, the
analysis of the conflict between social status of tour guides and their
identities helps better solve the conflict.
Identity of tour guides’ discourses: the feature decides tactics to be used by
tour guides to make their presentations more credible and attractive to
tourists. The tactics are reflected in the mood of the presentation, the way
ideas are deployed and especially the way the tourist guide selects
information to present to tourists.
Purpose of discourses: This part indicates main purposes of French-speaking
who aims at both providing information for tourists and convincing them to
come back. In this part, we touched the main purpose – main actions and
words – of sections in the presentation. The actions and words are related to
the task which a tourist guide has to fulfill in a day or a journey. Basing on
the analysis, we distinguish the tasks reflected in the presentation and those
which are not reflected in the presentation. Distinguishing them will help tour
guides better manage contents of their presentations for a day or an entire
- Contextual factors: basing on the locations of the speech, we have identified
two types of presentations: presentations at the destination and those on the
car. Comparing the two types provides a better understanding of their
characteristics and helps tour guides better adapt to surrounding elements
influencing their presentations.
- Thematic factors: Basing on the contents of the presentations, we divided
them into three types: presentations provide actual information, stories about
the destinations and presentations with flexible themes. The analysis not only
indicates discourse characteristics of each type, but also the different
document structures, linguistic characteristics and frequent themes.
In the next part, we listed common methods used in French-speaking Vietnamese
tour guides. First we reconstruct the 4-step process of making a presentation, as
- Obtaining information about tourists to prepare suitable presentations ;
- Researching tour program to make plan for activities in a day and entire
- Preparing contents and linguistic tools for the presentations;
- Delivering and adjusting the presentations.
Next, we analyze special linguistic phenomena in medium and minidiscourses of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. Specifically, we have
- The opening and closing of the presentation
- Structures of metaphors
- The way to expand the themes of three types: presentations to provide actual
information, describe the destination or follow flexible themes
- Tactics to arrange ideas: leading, repeating, presenting in a different way,
- Connecting words reflect the following relations: contradiction, concession,
cause, effect, purpose, adding, and listing.
- Words indicating spaces: demonstrative adjectives and pronouns,
Indicative words and expressions: demonstrative adjectives and pronouns,
introductory words and expressions
Grammar structures : common pronouns (subject personal pronouns, object
personal pronouns, relative pronouns, common verb forms and tenses
(present perfect tense is used to explain and describe what the tourists see,
past progress is used to recall what happened in the past, the imperative
mood and near future tense are used to give command when the tourist guide
plays the role of manager of the tourist group)
Common phonetic phenomena: some common pronunciation errors,
connected speech and breaks.
In general, it can be said that we have elaborately analyzed a type of
communication in tourism: French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides’
presentations. The analysis method can be used to analyze other types of
discourses in the same field, such as French-speaking Vietnamese tour
guides’ presentations at tourist destinations or recorded presentations in
automatic tourist guide systems in Vietnam. The tourist communication
equipment used in tourist destinations or journey on the river is still new in
our country. Results of the analyses can be used in teaching or producing
presentations of the same type.
Basing on the results, demands of the training institution and level of the
target, we have identified training contents, set out pedagogical objectives of the
training course for future tour guides, we also split the training content into many
sessions with specific tasks under a specific program. By designing the module of
training presentations for tour guides, we have applied the research results in a
specific training institution. It is the result of our study in the field of educational
technology, another branch of the thesis. Also in this field of educational science, we
have tested the situation-problem method in profession-oriented training, the
situations and problems which we designed, including professional situations or major
tasks, have been verified and certified by professional tour guides for their authenticity.
These situations and problems have satisfied two objectives of the training course that
is to help the students learn presentations in an active way and help them familiarize
with the actual situations which they will encounter in the future jobs. Together with
the above-mentioned situations and problems, the training course which we design is a
complete product with multimedia training material, learning activities and evaluation
tests, combining lessons in classrooms and homework to be done in Facebook groups
as a virtual classroom. A little improvement is needed to include this training course
into the subject “Tourism Communication with orientation toward tourist guide
profession” of the Tourism-oriented French language Bachelor program of the French
Department, Hanoi University.
In addition to the practical product, basing on our study, the situationproblem method in particular and the method of designing training course in general
can be applied in designing specialized subjects for the French Department and other
language departments of the University.
However, for many reasons, the thesis has some shortcomings.
First, the summaries of theories are only limited to the studies on the usage of
French language, except for the theory of mediated discourse analysis (ADM). The
limitations of time and language didn’t allow us to expand our reference to the
documents in English and other languages, especially in English language for specific
Also due to the limitation of time, we skipped some interesting points in the
thesis: the causes of serious French mistakes which tour guides often make,
explanation of pedagogical intentions and steps to conduct major tasks in situationproblem form in the training course (preparing for a virtual field trip) and many other
recommended pedagogical activities. This can be a direction for our follow-up study,
when we compile guidance book for the trainers of the training course on presentation
for tour guides in the training program of our institution.
As the thesis is relatively long, so we can’t link some chapters of part 2 and
part 3 (discourse analysis and designing a training course) with theoretical bases for
the analysis and designing, presented in the part 1 of the thesis.
Finally, some critics may say that the number of students participating in the
experiment is not representative enough (24 students). Moreover, the experimental
training course encountered some difficulties: some students were absent, their French
language competency level was lower than the expected level of the students to take
part in this training course in the future, the students participating in the experiment
didn’t have background professional knowledge and skills as needed in the program,
some students were not willing to take part, and the training course was disrupted due
to the New Year vocation and peak time of their internship. Hopefully, once put into
operation, all these issues will be solved and the results will be much better.
Anyway, the study is really useful, helping us to vastly improve our
knowledge, professional skills and ourselves. Not limited to a study, the thesis has
opened up new pages in our teaching career and new directions in our researching
journey, helping us, new scientific researchers, to be more confident.
Adam, J.-M. (1990). Eléments de linguistique textuelle: théorie et pratique de
l’analyse textuelle. Editions Mardaga.
Bakhtine, M. (1984). Esthétique de la création verbale. Paris: Gallimard.
Balslev, K., Balslev, C., Claret-Girard, V., Mazurczak, K., Saada-Robert, M., &
Veuthey, C. (2005). La résolution de problèmes en français scriptural: un
outil pour enseigner/apprendre. Revue française de pédagogie, 59–72.
Beacco, J. C. (1992). Les genres textuels dans l’analyse du discours : écriture légitime
et communautés langagières. Langages, n°153 : Les genres de la parole, 8‑
Beacco, J. C. (2013). L’approche par genres de discours dans l’enseignement du
français langue étrangère et langue de scolarisation. Pratiques : linguistique,
littérature, didactique, (157/158), 189‑200.
Beacco, J. C., Coste, D., Van de Ven, P.-H., & Vollmer, H. (2010). Langues et
matières scolaires - Dimensions linguistiques de la construction des
connaissances dans les curriculums Strasbourg: Conseil de l’Europe.
Benveniste, É. (1966). Problèmes de linguistique générale. Schoenhof’s Foreign
Bronckart, J.-P. (1996). Genres de textes, types de discours et opérations
psycholinguistiques. Voies livres, (78), 1-20.
Bronckart, J.-P., & Dolz, J. (1999). La notion de compétence: quelle pertinence pour
l’étude de l’apprentissage des actions langagières? Raisons éducatives, n°2,
Charaudeau, P. (1995b). Le dialogue dans un modèle de discours. Cahier de
Linguistique Française, (17), 141‑178.
Charaudeau, P. (1995a). Une analyse sémiotique du discours. Langages, (117), 96-111.
Charaudeau, P. (2000). De la compétence sociale à de communication aux
compétences de discours. In Didactique des langues romanes : le
développement des compétences chez l’apprenant (p. 41‑54). Louvain-laNeuve: De Boeck - Duculot.
Charaudeau, P. (2001). Visées discursives, genres situationnels et construction
textuelle. Analyse des discours. Types et genres, 341‑348.
Charaudeau, P. (2009). Identités sociales et discursives du sujet parlant. Paris:
Chartrand, S.-G. (2000). Le programme de français de 1995. Un outil pour développer
la compétence d’écriture au secondaire. Québec français, n° hors-série: la
grammaire au coeur du texte, 24‑27.
Chartrand, S.-G., & Blaser, C. (2006). Fonction épistémique des genres disciplinaires
scolaires : prolégomènes à un champ de recherche. In Analyse des objets
enseignés. Le cas du français (p. 179‑194). Bruxelles: De Boeck.
Conseil de l’Europe. (2001). Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues
(CECRL). Paris: Didier.
Coste, D., De Pietro, J.-F., & Moore, D. (2012). Hymes et le palimpseste de la
compétence de communication Tours, détours et retours en didactique des
langues. Langage et société, 1, 103 ‑ 123. Consulté à l’adresse :
Cuq, J.-P. (2003). Dictionnaire de didactique du français langue étrangère et seconde.
Paris: CLE International.
Dalongeville, A., & Hubert, M. (2000). (Se) former par les situations-problèmes. Des
déstabilisations constructives. Lyon: Chronique Sociale.
de Montmollin, M. (1986). L’intelligence de la tâche. Berne: Peter Lang.
De Vecchi, G., & Carmona-Magnaldi, N. (2007). Faire vivre de véritables situationsproblèmes. Paris: Hachette Education.
Dubois, J., Giacomo, M., Guespin, L., Marcellesi, C., Marcellesi, J.-B., & Mével, J.-P.
(2002). Dictionnaire de linguistique. Paris: Larousse.
Ducrot, O. (1974). Dire et ne pas dire. Principes de sémantique linguistique. Revue
Philosophique de la France Et de l’Etranger, 3(164), 339‑340.
Fabre, M. (1999). Situations-problèmes et savoir scolaire. Paris: Presses
Universitaires de France.
Galant, B., & Frenay, M. (2005). L’approche par problèmes et par projets dans
l’enseignement supérieur. Impact, enjeux et défis. Louvain-la-Neuve,
Belgique: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
Grosjean, M. (2001). Verbal et non verbal dans le langage au travail. In Langage et
Travail : communication, action, cognition (Borzeix A. et Fraenkel B. (dir.),
p. 143‑162). Paris: CNRS éditions.
Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In Sociolinguistics J.B. Pride et
Jonnaert, P., & Vander Borght, C. (2009). Créer des conditions d’apprentissage.
Bruxelles: De Boeck.
Lamoureux, A., Archambault, J.-P., Berthiaume, F., & Fréchette, N. (1992). Une
démarche scientifique en sciences humaines. Méthodologie. Laval: Editions
Lebrun, M., Smidts, D., & Bricoult, G. (2011). Comment construire un dispositif de
formation ? Bruxelles: De Boeck.
Mainguenau, D., & Charaudeau, P. (2002). Dictionnaire de l’analyse du discours.
Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
Maingueneau, D. (1996). Les termes clés de l’analyse du discours. Paris: Éditions du
Mangiante, J.-M., & Parpette, C. (2004). Le Français sur Objectifs Spécifiques : de
l’analyse des besoins à l’élaboration d’un cours. Paris: Hachette Français
Martinand, J.-L. (1981). Pratiques sociales de référence et compétences techniques. À
propos d’un projet d’initiation aux techniques de fabrication mécanique en
classe de quatrième. In Diffusion et appropriation du savoir scientifique:
enseignement et vulgarisation (p. 149 ‑ 154). Consulté à l’adresse :
Martinand, J.-L. (2016). La question de la référence en didactique du curriculum.
Investigações em Ensino de Ciências, 8(2), 125‑130. Consulté à l’adresse :
Meirieu, P. (1987). Apprendre… oui, mais comment. Paris: Éditions ESF.
Mourlhon-Dallies, F. (2008). Enseigner une langue à des fins professionnelles. Paris:
Pastré, P. (2011). La didactique professionnelle. Approche anthropologique du
développement chez les adultes. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Proulx, L. P. (1999). La résolution de problèmes en enseignement. Bruxelles: De
Raynal, F., & Rieunier, A. (1997). Pédagogie : dictionnaire des concepts clés. Paris:
Riegel, M., Pellat, J.-C., & Rioul, R. (1994). Grammaire méthodique du français.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Rouayrenc, C. (2010). Le français ora: Les composantes de la chaîne parlée. Paris:
Saint-Georges, I. (2004). Actions, médiations et interactions : une approche
multimodiale sur le chantier de travail. Cahier de Linguistique Française,
n°26, « Les modèles du discours face au concept d’action » (Université de
Scollon, R. (2005). The rythmic integration of action and discourse: work, the body
and heart. In Discourse in Action: Introducing mediate discourse analysis
(Norris N. et John R. H.). Londres: Routledge.
Tardif, J. (2006). L’évaluation des compétences. Montréa: Chenelière Éducation.
Vygotsky, L.., & Piaget, J. (1997). Pensée et langage (3e éd.). Paris: La dispute.