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MicroprocessorHVT2019 ch01 intro

(for Embedded Systems)
Huỳnh Việt Thắng
Faculty of Electronic & Telecommunication Engineering
Danang University of Science and Technology

• Introduction

Number systems and data formats (review)
Microprocessor architecture
Introduction to STM32 MCU
Universal Asynchronous Serial Communications
Analog-to-Digital conversion (ADC)
Digital-to-Analog conversion (DAC)

Hệ thống nhúng
• Wikipedia (vi.wikipedia.org):

Hệ thống nhúng là một thuật
ngữ để chỉ một hệ thống có khả năng tự trị được nhúng vào trong
một môi trường hay một hệ thống mẹ. Đó là các hệ thống tích hợp
cả phần cứng và phần mềm phục vụ các bài toán chuyên dụng trong
nhiều lĩnh vực công nghiệp, tự động hoá điều khiển, quan trắc và
truyền tin. Đặc điểm của các hệ thống nhúng là hoạt động ổn định và
có tính năng tự động hoá cao.
• Hệ thống nhúng thường được thiết kế để thực hiện một chức năng
chuyên biệt nào đó. Khác với các máy tính đa chức năng, chẳng hạn
như máy tính cá nhân, một hệ thống nhúng chỉ thực hiện một hoặc
một vài chức năng nhất định, thường đi kèm với những yêu cầu cụ
thể và bao gồm một số thiết bị máy móc và phần cứng chuyên dụng
mà ta không tìm thấy trong một máy tính đa năng nói chung.
• Vì hệ thống chỉ được xây dựng cho một số nhiệm vụ nhất định nên
các nhà thiết kế có thể tối ưu hóa nó nhằm giảm thiểu kích thước và
chi phí sản xuất.

Embedded System
• Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org):

An embedded system is a
programmed controlled and operating system 'RTOS' with a
dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system,
often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of
a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts.
• Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
Ninety-eight percent (98%) of all microprocessors are manufactured
to serve as embedded system component.

Embedded System
• An embedded system can be broadly defined as
a device that contains tightly coupled hardware
and software components to perform a single
function, forms part of a larger system, is not
intended to be independently programmable by
the user, and is expected to work with minimal or
no human interaction.
• Two additional characteristics are very common
in embedded systems: reactive operation and
heavily constrained.
• Source: Reference [1]

Other definition for Embedded

• A combination of hardware and software which together
form a component of a larger machine.
• An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor
that controls an automobile engine.

• An embedded system is designed to run on its own
without human intervention, and may be required to
respond to events in real time.
• Source: www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary


Embedded System vs Computer Systems



Application Areas

• TV
• stereo
• remote control
• phone / mobile phone
• refrigerator
• microwave
• washing machine
• electric tooth brush
• oven / rice or bread cooker
• watch
• alarm clock
• electronic musical instruments
• electronic toys (stuffed animals,handheld toys, pinballs, etc.)
• medical home equipment (e.g. blood
pressure, thermometer)
• [PDAs?? More like standard computer system]
Control Applications; Consumer Products

Application Areas
• Medical Systems
– pace maker, patient monitoring systems, injection systems,
intensive care units, …

• Office Equipment
– printer, copier, fax, …

• Tools
– multimeter, oscilloscope, line tester, GPS, …

• Banking
– ATMs, statement printers, …

• Transportation
– (Planes/Trains/[Automobiles] and Boats)

• Radar, Traffic lights, Signalling systems, …


Application Areas
• Automobiles
– engine management, trip computer, cruise control, immobilizer, car
– airbag, ABS, ESP, …

• Building Systems
– elevator, heater, air conditioning, lighting, key card entries, locks,
alarm systems, …

• Agriculture
– feeding systems, milking systems, …

• Space
– satellite systems, …


Application Areas
• Facts:
– 1997: The average U.S. household has over 10 embedded
computers (source: www.it.dtu.dk/~jan)

• 1998: 90% Embedded Systems vs. 10%
– (source: Frautschi, www.caliberlearning.com)

• 2001: The Volvo S80 has 18 embedded
controllers and 2 busses (source: Volvo)






Early forms of Embedded Systems
• Colossus computer (1943-1945)
• Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_computer

Early forms of Embedded Systems
• Apollo Guidance Computer
• Source:

Birth and Evolution of Modern
Embedded Systems
• Sep 1971: TMS1000 by Texas Instrument
• Nov 1971: i4004 by Intel
• 1970 (?): Central Air Data Computer by Garrett AiResearch
• Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor

4-bit CPU
ROM 1K, RAM 256 bits
1st microcomputer on a chip (uC)

4-bit CPU, 740KHz
addressable to 4K ROM
(+ 4001 ROM, 4002 RAM, 4003 I/O)

Birth and Evolution of Modern
Embedded Systems
• By the end of the 1970s, the design arena was dominated
by 8-bit CPUs and the market for microprocessors-based
embedded applications had grown to hundreds of millions
of dollars.

Texas Instruments
Intel (8080, 80x86/Pentium series)
Motorola 6800 (“six-eight hundred”)
Zilog Z-80

What is a Microprocessor?
• A microprocessor (P) is a computer processor that
incorporates the functions of a Central Processing Unit
(CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC) or at most a few
integrated circuits.
• The microprocessor is

a multipurpose,
clock driven,
register based,
digital integrated circuit that
accepts binary data as input,
processes it according to instructions stored in its memory,
and provides results as output.

Microprocessor Manufacturers

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
Texas Instruments
Freescale (formerly Motorola)
MIPS Technologies
ARM Limited (Arm Holdings owned by SoftBank
Microchip Technology Inc.


Contemporary Embedded Systems
• Microprocessor apps
complexity; requiring
applications to be
broken into several
interacting embedded
• Each
features are typically
individual embedded
systems integrated in
the application

Structure of an Embedded System

Hardware Components

Figure 1.8

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