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Linux bible

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Linux Bible
®

2006 Edition

Boot Up to Fedora™, KNOPPIX,
Debian®, SUSE™, Ubuntu™, and
7 Other Distributions

Christopher Negus

www.it-ebooks.info


Linux Bible
®

2006 Edition


www.it-ebooks.info


www.it-ebooks.info


Linux Bible
®

2006 Edition

Boot Up to Fedora™, KNOPPIX,
Debian®, SUSE™, Ubuntu™, and
7 Other Distributions

Christopher Negus

www.it-ebooks.info


Linux® Bible 2006 Edition: Boot Up to Fedora™, KNOPPIX, Debian®, SUSE™, Ubuntu™, and 7 Other Distributions
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2006 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN-13: 978-0-471-75489-3
ISBN-10: 0-471-75489-7
Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1O/RS/QR/QW/IN
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LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND
SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A
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DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A
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PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS
IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE
CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.
For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer
Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Negus, Chris, 1957–
Linux bible / Christopher Negus.—2006 ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-471-75489-3 (paper/dvd)
ISBN-10: 0-471-75489-7 (paper/dvd)
1. Linux. 2. Operating systems (Computers) I. Title.
QA76.76.O63N42143 2006
005.4'32—dc22
2005032276
Trademarks: Wiley and related trade dress are registered trademarks of Wiley Publishing, Inc., in the United States and
other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Debian is a registered trademark of Software in the Public Interest, Inc. SUSE is a
trademark of Novell, Inc. Ubuntu is a trademark of Canonical Limited Company. All other trademarks are the property of
their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in
electronic books.

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About the Author
Chris Negus has written or co-written dozens of books on Linux and UNIX, including Red Hat Linux Bible (all editions), Linux Troubleshooting Bible, and the recent
Linux Toys II. For eight years he worked with the organization at AT&T that developed UNIX before moving to Utah to help contribute to Novell’s short-lived UnixWare
project in the early 1990s. When not writing about Linux, Chris enjoys playing soccer and just hanging out with his family.

About the Contributing Authors
Wayne Tucker is a Linux enthusiast and has been a professional system administrator for six years. He is currently a technical manager, systems administrator, and network engineer at an Internet company in Washington state. He lives in Bellingham,
Washington, with his beloved wife, Danielle, whom he would like to thank for her
patience while he was working on this project. His future projects include continuing
his education and working on the things that have recently accumulated on his
“honey-do” list.
Kurt Wall is a professional technical writer by trade and a historian by training.
These days, Kurt works for TimeSys Corporation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His
primary responsibility is managing TimeSys’s Content Group. In addition to overseeing production of the technical and end-user documentation of TimeSys’s
embedded Linux operating system and development tools, he writes most of the
documentation for TimeSys’s embedded Linux products and all of the content
available on the TimeSys Network. Kurt has written or co-written 15 books on
Linux system administration and programming topics and contributes the occasional product review to LinuxPlanet. In his spare time, he has no spare time.
Kurt, who dislikes writing about himself in the third person, receives entirely too
much e-mail at kwall@kurtwerks.com.

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Credits
Executive Editor
Carol Long

Vice President and Executive
Publisher
Joseph B. Wikert

Acquisitions Editor
Debra Williams Cauley

Project Coordinator
Michael Kruzil

Development Editor
Sara Shlaer

Graphics and Production Specialists
Denny Hager
Joyce Haughey
Heather Ryan
Alicia B. South
Erin Zeltner

Technical Editors
Kurt Wall
Wayne Tucker
Bill von Hagen
John Kennedy
Dilip Thomas

Quality Control Technicians
John Greenough
Joe Niesen
Brian H. Walls

Copy Editor
Nancy Rapoport
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield

Media Development Associate
Producer
Rich Graves

Production Manager
Tim Tate

Media Development Specialist
Kate Jenkins

Vice President and Executive Group
Publisher
Richard Swadley

Media Development Coordinator
Laura Atkinson
Proofreading and Indexing
TECHBOOKS Production Services

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As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree.

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Contents at a Glance
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii

Part I: Linux First Steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1: Starting with Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Part II: Running the Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Chapter 6: Securing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution . . . . . . . . . 241
Chapter 7: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 8: Running Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 10: Running SUSE Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 15: Running Linspire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 16: Running Mandriva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions . . . . . . .

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243
275
299
325
341
363
383
399
415
425
441
459
485

Part IV: Running Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video . . . . .
Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images .
Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing . . .
Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux . . . . . . . . .

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505
545
585
619


Part V: Running Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server
Chapter 25: Running a Mail Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 26: Running a Print Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 27: Running a File Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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647
673
691
715

Part VI: Programming in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751
Chapter 28: Programming Environments and Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753
Chapter 29: Programming Tools and Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
Appendix A: Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817
Appendix B: Entering the Linux Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831
GNU General Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873

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Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii

Part I: Linux First Steps

1

Chapter 1: Starting with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Understanding Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Exploring Linux History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
From a Free-Flowing UNIX Culture at Bell Labs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
To a Commercialized UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
To a GNU Free-Flowing (not) UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
BSD Loses Some Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Linus Builds the Missing Piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
What’s So Great About Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Features in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
OSI Open Source Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Vibrant Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Major Software Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Linux Myths, Legends, and FUD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Can You Stop Worrying About Viruses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Will You Be Sued for Using Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Can Linux Really Run on Everything from Handhelds to
Supercomputers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Will Linux Crush Microsoft?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Are You on Your Own If You Use Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Is Linux Only for Geeks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
How Do Companies Make Money with Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
How Different Are Linux Distributions from One Another? . . . . . . . 25
Is the Linux Mascot Really a Penguin? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Getting Started with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Starting a Shell . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Shell Prompt . .
Using a Terminal Window .
Using Virtual Terminals . .

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30
30
31
32


xii

Contents

Choosing Your Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using bash (and Earlier sh) Shells . . . . . . . . . .
Using tcsh (and Earlier csh) Shells. . . . . . . . . .
Using ash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using ksh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using zsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Your Login Session . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Directories and Permissions . . . . . . .
Checking System Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Shell in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locating Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rerunning Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting and Expanding Commands . . . . . . .
Creating Your Shell Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Your Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Shell Environment Variables. . . . . . . . . .
Managing Background and Foreground Processes.
Working with the Linux File System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Files . . . . . . . . .
Using the vi Text Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting with vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Around the File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Numbers with Commands . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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32
33
33
34
34
34
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
42
48
51
51
55
59
61
63
70
70
71
74
74
75
76

Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Understanding Your Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Starting the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
K Desktop Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Using the KDE Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Managing Files with the Konqueror File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Configuring Konqueror Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Managing Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Configuring the Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Adding Application Launchers and MIME Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
The GNOME Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Using the Metacity Window Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Using the GNOME panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Using the Nautilus File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Changing GNOME Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Exiting GNOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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Contents

Configuring Your Own Desktop . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Window Manager . . . . . . . .
Choosing Your Personal Window Manager
Getting More Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part II: Running the Show

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114
115
118
120
121
121

123

Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Graphical Administration Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Web-Based Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphical Administration with Different Distributions. . .
Using the root Login. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Becoming Root from the Shell (su Command) . . . . . . .
Allowing Limited Administrative Access. . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring Administrative Commands, Configuration Files, and
Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrative Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrative Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrative Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using sudo and Other Administrative Logins . . . . . . . . . . .
Administering Your Linux System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating User Accounts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Users with useradd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting User Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Removable Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Loadable Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing File Systems and Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the mkfs Command to Create a File System . . . . .
Adding a Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking System Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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171

Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Connecting to the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting via Dial-Up Service . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Single Computer to Broadband . .
Connecting Multiple Computers to Broadband .
Connecting Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Other Equipment . . . . . . . . . . .

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xiv

Contents

Using Ethernet Connections to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Ethernet During Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Ethernet from the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Network Configuration GUI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Other Computers (Hosts and DNS) . . . . . . . .
Understanding Your Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Dial-up Connections to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Dial-Up PPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Dial-Up Connection with the Internet Configuration
Wizard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launching Your PPP Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launching Your PPP Connection on Demand . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Your PPP Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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194

Chapter 6: Securing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Linux Security Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding Distribution-Specific Security Resources. . . . . .
Finding General Security Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Linux Securely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Password Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing Good Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Shadow Password File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Role of Syslogd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redirecting Logs to a Loghost with syslogd . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the messages Log File . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Secure Shell Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the ssh Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the ssh, sftp, and scp Commands . . . . . . . . . . .
Using ssh, scp, and sftp Without Passwords . . . . . . . .
Securing Linux Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Access to Services with TCP Wrappers . . . .
Understanding Attack Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting Against Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . .
Protecting Against Distributed DOS Attacks. . . . . . . . .
Protecting Against Intrusion Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Securing Servers with SELinux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting Web Servers with Certificates and Encryption
Using Security Tools Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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239


Contents

Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution 241
Chapter 7: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Choosing a Linux Distribution . . . . . . . . . . .
Linux at Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Your Own Linux Distribution . . . . . . .
Finding Another Linux Distribution. . . . .
Understanding What You Need . . . . . . .
Downloading the Distribution . . . . . . . .
Burning the Distribution to CD . . . . . . .
Exploring Common Installation Topics . . . . . .
Knowing Your Computer Hardware. . . . .
Upgrading or Installing from Scratch . . . .
Dual Booting with Windows or Just Linux?
Using Installation Boot Options . . . . . . .
Partitioning Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . .
Using LILO or GRUB Boot Loaders . . . . .
Configuring Networking . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Other Administrative Features
Installing from the Linux Bible CD or DVD . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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273

Chapter 8: Running Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux . . . 275
Digging into Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Red Hat Installer (Anaconda) . . . . . . .
RPM Package Management . . . . . . . .
Kudzu Hardware Detection . . . . . . . .
Red Hat Desktop Look-and-Feel . . . . . .
System Configuration Tools . . . . . . . .
Going Forward with Fedora Core . . . . . . . .
Growing Community Support for Fedora
Fedora Extras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fedora Legacy Project . . . . . . . . . . .
Forums and Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . .
Listening to the People at Red Hat . . . . . . .
Listening to the Red Hat Community . . . . . .
Installing Fedora Core. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing Computer Hardware . . . . . .
Choosing an Installation Method . . . . .
Choosing to Install or Upgrade . . . . . .
Beginning the Installation . . . . . . . . .
Running Fedora Setup Agent . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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xv


xvi

Contents

Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Inside Debian GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Debian Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Debian Package Management Tools . . . . . . . . .
Debian Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Help with Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Debian GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Requirements and Installation Planning .
Running the Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Your Debian System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Network Connections . . . . . . . . . .
Package Management Using APT . . . . . . . . . . .
Package Management Using dpkg. . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Package Sets (Tasks) with Tasksel . . . .
Alternatives, Diversions, and Stat Overrides . . . .
Managing Package Configuration with debconf . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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323

Chapter 10: Running SUSE Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Understanding SUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What’s in SUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation and Configuration with YaST
RPM Package Management . . . . . . . .
Automated Software Updates . . . . . . .
Getting Support for SUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing OpenSUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting with SUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
KNOPPIX News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KNOPPIX Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . .
Looking Inside KNOPPIX . . . . . . . .
What’s Cool About KNOPPIX . . . . .
Examining Challenges with KNOPPIX
Seeing Where KNOPPIX Comes From.
Exploring Uses for KNOPPIX. . . . . .
Starting KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting a Computer . . . . . . . . . . .
Booting KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . . .
Correcting Boot Problems . . . . . . .

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341
342
342
342
344
346
347
347
349
349
350
350


Contents

Using KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the KDE Desktop in KNOPPIX .
Getting on the Network . . . . . . . .
Installing Software in KNOPPIX . . . .
Saving Files in KNOPPIX . . . . . . . .
Keeping Your KNOPPIX Configuration
Restarting KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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354
355
356
357
357
360
361
362

Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Understanding Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . .
Going Forward with Yellow Dog . . . . . . . . .
Digging into Yellow Dog. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Support . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Your Installation . . . . . . . . .
Beginning the Installation . . . . . . . . .
Rebooting Your Linux Mac . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running Mac Applications with Mac-on-Linux .
Support Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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363
365
366
367
368
369
371
378
378
379
380
381

Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Understanding Gentoo . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gentoo’s Open Source Spirit. . . . . .
The Gentoo Community . . . . . . . .
Building, Tuning, and Tweaking Linux
Where Gentoo Is Used . . . . . . . . .
What’s in Gentoo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Software with Portage . . .
Finding Software Packages. . . . . . .
Installing Gentoo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Gentoo . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Gentoo Installation . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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383
384
385
385
386
387
388
389
390
390
391
398

Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Getting into Slackware . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characterizing the Slackware Community . .
The Slackware Creator . . . . . . . . . .
Slackware Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slackware Internet Sites . . . . . . . . .
Challenges of Using Slackware . . . . . . . . .
Using Slackware as a Development Platform.

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399
401
401
403
403
404
405

xvii


xviii

Contents

Installing Slackware . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Slackware . . . . . . . . .
New Features in Slackware 10.2 .
Hardware Requirements . . . . .
Starting Installation . . . . . . . .
Starting with Slackware . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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405
406
406
407
407
412
414

Chapter 15: Running Linspire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Overview of Linspire . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Into Linspire . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Software with Click-N-Run
Other Installation Options . . . . . .
Linspire Support and Software. . . . . . .
Linspire Forums and Information . .
Audio Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Linspire Five-0 . . . . . . . . . .
Linspire Hardware Requirements . .
Installing Linspire . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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417
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419
420
420
420
421
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423

Chapter 16: Running Mandriva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Mandriva Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring Mandriva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mandriva Installer (DrakX) . . . . . . . . . .
RPM Package Management with RPMDrake .
Mandriva Control Center. . . . . . . . . . . .
The Mandriva Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RPM Repository on Mandrivaclub . . . . . .
Mandriva Forums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Mandriva Limited Edition . . . . . . . .
The Right Hardware for Mandriva . . . . . .
Begin the DrakX Installation . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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427
428
429
429
430
430
431
431
432
433
438

Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Overview of Ubuntu . . . . . . .
Ubuntu Releases . . . . .
Ubuntu Installer . . . . . .
Ubuntu as a Desktop . . .
Ubuntu as a Server . . . .
Ubuntu Spin-Offs . . . . .
Challenges Facing Ubuntu
Installing Ubuntu . . . . . . . .

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441
442
442
443
445
445
446
447


Contents

Starting with Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trying Out the Desktop . . . . . . .
Adding More Software . . . . . . . .
Getting More Information About Ubuntu .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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451
452
453
456
457

Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Understanding Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting Desktops with Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting Your Firewall in Red Hat Linux . . . . .
Configuring a Firewall in Mandriva . . . . . . . .
Using Firewalls with iptables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting with iptables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using iptables to Do SNAT or IP Masquerading .
Adding Modules with iptables. . . . . . . . . . .
Using iptables as a Transparent Proxy . . . . . .
Using iptables for Port Forwarding . . . . . . . .
Making a Coyote Linux Bootable Floppy Firewall . . .
Creating a Coyote Linux Firewall . . . . . . . . .
Building the Coyote Linux Floppy . . . . . . . .
Running the Coyote Linux Floppy Firewall . . .
Managing the Coyote Linux Floppy Firewall . . .
Using Other Firewall Distributions . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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460
461
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464
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470
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472
473
474
474
475
481
482
483
484

Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . 485
Overview of Bootable Linux Distributions
Choosing a Bootable Linux . . . . . . . . .
Security and Rescue Bootables . . .
Multimedia Bootables . . . . . . . .
Tiny Desktops . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Damn Small Linux . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Purpose Bootables . . . . . . . . .
Customizing a Bootable Linux . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part IV: Running Applications

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485
486
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503

Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Playing Digital Media and Obeying the Law
Copyright Protection Issues . . . . . .
Exploring Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Audio Cards. . . . . . . . .
Choosing an Audio CD Player . . . . .

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505
506
508
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512

xix


xx

Contents

Using MIDI Audio Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Audio File Conversion and Compression
Recording and Ripping Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an Audio CD with cdrecord . . . . . . . . . .
Ripping CDs with Grip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating CD Labels with cdlabelgen . . . . . . . . . .
Working with TV, Video, and Digital Imaging . . . . . . . . .
Watching TV with Tvtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Conferencing with GnomeMeeting . . . . . . .
Watching Movies and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watching Video with xine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Helix Player and RealPlayer 10. . . . . . . . . .
Using a Digital Camera with Gtkam and gPhoto2 . . . . . .
Downloading Digital Photos with Gtkam . . . . . . . .
Using Your Camera as a Storage Device . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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521
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530
531
534
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538
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541
542
543

Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Using OpenOffice.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Word Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using StarOffice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AbiWord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using KOffice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Away from Windows. . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Traditional Linux Publishing Tools . . . . . . .
Creating Documents in Groff or LaTeX . . . . . . . . .
Text Processing with Groff . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text Processing with TeX/LaTeX . . . . . . . . .
Converting Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building Structured Documents. . . . . . . . . .
Printing Documents in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing to the Default Printer . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing from the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Print Queues . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Print Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Printer Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Documents with ghostscript and Acrobat
Using the ghostscript and gv Commands . . . .
Using Adobe Acrobat Reader . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manipulating Images with The GIMP . . . . . . .
Acquiring Screen Captures . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Images with KPaint . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Scanners Driven by SANE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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546
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576
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578
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580
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581
582
583
583


Contents

Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Using E-Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing an E-Mail Client . . . . . . . . .
Getting Here from Windows . . . . . . . .
Getting Started with E-Mail . . . . . . . .
Tuning Up E-Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading E-Mail with Mozilla Mail . . . . .
Managing E-Mail in Evolution . . . . . . .
Getting Thunderbird . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Text-Based E-Mail Readers
Choosing a Web Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Browsing with Mozilla . . . . . . . .
Using Mozilla’s Other Components . . . .
Using Text-Based Web Browsers . . . . .
Running the Firefox Web Browser . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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585
585
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589
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595
598
598
601
602
602
612
613
618

Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
Overview of Linux Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Linux Gaming Information. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Information About Linux Gaming .
Choosing a Video Card for Gaming . . . . . . . .
Basic X Window Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GNOME Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KDE Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chess Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freeciv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PlanetPenguin Racer (TuxRacer) . . . . . . . . .
Commercial Linux Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing Commercial Linux Games . . . . . . . .
id Software Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing TransGaming and Cedega Games . . . .
Loki Software Game Demos . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part V: Running Servers

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644

645

Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP
(LAMP) Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
Components of a LAMP Server
Apache . . . . . . . . . . .
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . .
PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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649

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xxii

Contents

Setting Up Your LAMP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Your LAMP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Your Apache Configuration Files. . . . . . . . . .
Adding a Virtual Host to Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Content and the UserDir Setting . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Web Application: Coppermine Photo Gallery
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access Forbidden and Server Internal Errors . . . . . . .
Securing Your Web Traffic with SSL/TLS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Your Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Apache to Support SSL/TLS . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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650
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657
658
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663
663
665
666
668
670
671

Chapter 25: Running a Mail Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Internet E-Mail’s Inner Workings . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the System and the Software Used . . . . . .
Preparing Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring DNS for Direct Delivery . . . . . .
Configuring for Retrieval from a Mail Host . .
Installing and Configuring the Mail Server Software
Installing Exim and Courier . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing ClamAV and SpamAssassin. . . . . .
Testing and Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common Errors (and How to Fix Them) . . . .
Configuring Mail Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Fetchmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Web-Based Mail . . . . . . . . . . .
Securing Communications with SSL/TLS . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 26: Running a Print Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Common UNIX Printing Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Web-Based CUPS Administration . . . . . .
Using the Red Hat Printer Configuration Window
Working with CUPS Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the CUPS Server (cupsd.conf) . . . .
Starting the CUPS Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring CUPS Printer Options Manually . . .

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692
693
693
696
705
705
706
707


Contents

Using Printing Commands . . . . . . . . .
Printing with lpr. . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing Status with lpc . . . . . . . .
Removing Print Jobs with lprm . . .
Configuring Print Servers. . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Shared CUPS Printer .
Configuring a Shared Samba Printer
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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708
708
709
709
710
710
712
714

Chapter 27: Running a File Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Setting Up an NFS File Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sharing NFS File Systems. . . . . . . . . . .
Using NFS File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unmounting NFS File Systems . . . . . . . .
Other Cool Things to Do with NFS . . . . .
Setting Up a Samba File Server. . . . . . . . . . .
Getting and Installing Samba . . . . . . . .
Configuring Samba with SWAT . . . . . . .
Working with Samba Files and Commands
Using Samba Shared Directories . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Your Samba Server . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Part VI: Programming in Linux

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716
718
718
723
729
729
730
731
732
742
745
746
749

751

Chapter 28: Programming Environments and Interfaces . . . . . . . 753
Understanding Programming Environments . . . . . .
Using Linux Programming Environments. . . . . . . .
The Linux Development Environment . . . . . .
Graphical Programming Environments . . . . .
The Command-Line Programming Environment
Linux Programming Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Command-Line Interfaces . . . . . . . .
Creating Graphical Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Programming Interfaces . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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754
754
755
764
768
770
770
776
778
782

Chapter 29: Programming Tools and Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
The Well-Stocked Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the GCC Compiler . . . . . . . . . . .
Compiling Multiple Source Code Files
GCC Command-Line Options . . . . .
Automating Builds with make . . . . . . . .

www.it-ebooks.info

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785
787
788
791
792

xxiii


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