Tải bản đầy đủ

OS x mavericks the missing manual

The #1 bestselling Mac Guide for Over 10 years
“Pogue, the New York Times computer columnist, is among the world’s best explainers.”
—Kevin Kelly, co-founder of Wired

OS X
Mavericks
Covers
OS X 10.9

David Pogue
www.it-ebooks.info


www.it-ebooks.info


OS X
Mavericks
The book that should have been in the box

®


www.it-ebooks.info


www.it-ebooks.info


OS X
Mavericks
The book that should have been in the box

®

David Pogue

Beijing | Cambridge | Farnham | Köln | Sebastopol | Tokyo

www.it-ebooks.info


OS X Mavericks: The Missing Manual
by David Pogue
Copyright © 2013 David Pogue. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc.,
1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472.
O’Reilly Media books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales
promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles: safari@oreilly.
com. For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department:
800-998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com.
December 2013: First Edition.

The Missing Manual is a registered trademark of O’Reilly Media, Inc. The Missing
Manual logo, and “The book that should have been in the box” are trademarks of
O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers
to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations
appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media is aware of a trademark claim, the designations are capitalized.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the
publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages
resulting from the use of the information contained in it.



ISBN: 978-1-449-36224-9
[M]

www.it-ebooks.info

[12/13]


Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................................... 1
The Mac Becomes an iPad.................................................................................................................1
What’s New in Mavericks...................................................................................................................3
About This Book..................................................................................................................................4
The Very Basics....................................................................................................................................6

Part One: The OS X Desktop
Chapter 1: Folders & Windows............................................................ 11
Getting into OS X.................................................................................................................................11
Windows and How to Work Them...................................................................................................15
The Four Window Views....................................................................................................................31
Icon View..............................................................................................................................................33
List View................................................................................................................................................42
Column View........................................................................................................................................49
Cover Flow View..................................................................................................................................53
Quick Look...........................................................................................................................................55
Finder Tabs...........................................................................................................................................59
Logging Out, Shutting Down.............................................................................................................62
Getting Help in OS X...........................................................................................................................64

Chapter 2: Organizing Your Stuff......................................................... 69
The OS X Folder Structure..................................................................................................................69
Icon Names..........................................................................................................................................74
Selecting Icons.....................................................................................................................................76
Moving and Copying Icons................................................................................................................79
Aliases: Icons in Two Places at Once................................................................................................85
Finder Tags...........................................................................................................................................87
The Trash..............................................................................................................................................92
Get Info.................................................................................................................................................95
Shortcut Menus, Action Menus.........................................................................................................98

Chapter 3: Spotlight.............................................................................. 101
The Spotlight Menu.............................................................................................................................101
The Spotlight Window........................................................................................................................112
Customizing Spotlight.........................................................................................................................125
Smart Folders.......................................................................................................................................128



table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info

v


Chapter 4: Dock, Desktop & Toolbars.................................................. 129
The Dock...............................................................................................................................................129
Setting Up the Dock............................................................................................................................130
Using the Dock....................................................................................................................................138
The Finder Toolbar..............................................................................................................................143
Designing Your Desktop.....................................................................................................................147
Menulets: The Missing Manual.........................................................................................................148

Part Two: Programs in OS X
Chapter 5: Documents, Programs & Mission Control........................ 155
The Mac App Store..............................................................................................................................155
Other Ways to Get Mac Software.....................................................................................................158
Opening OS X Programs....................................................................................................................161
Launchpad............................................................................................................................................162
Windows That Auto-Reopen..............................................................................................................166
The “Heads-Up” Program Switcher..................................................................................................170
Full Screen Mode.................................................................................................................................170
Mission Control: Death to Window Clutter.....................................................................................172
Dashboard............................................................................................................................................181
Exposé...................................................................................................................................................195
Hiding Programs the Old-Fashioned Way.......................................................................................201
How Documents Know Their Parents..............................................................................................204
Keyboard Control................................................................................................................................208
The Save and Open Dialog Boxes.....................................................................................................213
Auto Save and Versions......................................................................................................................218
Documents in the Cloud....................................................................................................................222
Cocoa and Carbon..............................................................................................................................224

Chapter 6: Data: Typing, Dictating, Sharing & Backing Up................ 231
The Mac Keyboard..............................................................................................................................231
Notes on Right-Clicking......................................................................................................................235
Power Typing.......................................................................................................................................237
Dictation...............................................................................................................................................243
The Many Languages of OS X Text....................................................................................................250
Data Detectors.....................................................................................................................................256
Moving Data Between Documents...................................................................................................258
Exchanging Data with Other Macs....................................................................................................261
Exchanging Data with Windows PCs................................................................................................266
The Share Button ...............................................................................................................................267
Time Machine......................................................................................................................................270

Chapter 7: Automator, AppleScript & Services................................... 281
Services.................................................................................................................................................283
Automator............................................................................................................................................287
AppleScript...........................................................................................................................................298

vi

table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info


Chapter 8: Windows on Macintosh...................................................... 303
Boot Camp...........................................................................................................................................304
Windows in a Window.......................................................................................................................312
Life with Microsoft Exchange.............................................................................................................314

Part Three: The Components of OS X
Chapter 9: System Preferences............................................................ 319
The System Preferences Window.....................................................................................................319
Accessibility..........................................................................................................................................322
App Store..............................................................................................................................................328
Bluetooth..............................................................................................................................................329
CDs & DVDs..........................................................................................................................................331
Date & Time.........................................................................................................................................332
Desktop & Screen Saver.....................................................................................................................334
Dictation & Speech..............................................................................................................................340
Displays................................................................................................................................................340
Dock......................................................................................................................................................344
Energy Saver........................................................................................................................................344
General.................................................................................................................................................348
iCloud....................................................................................................................................................351
Internet Accounts................................................................................................................................351
Keyboard..............................................................................................................................................351
Language & Region.............................................................................................................................352
Mission Control...................................................................................................................................353
Mouse...................................................................................................................................................353
Network................................................................................................................................................354
Notifications.........................................................................................................................................354
Parental Controls.................................................................................................................................354
Printers & Scanners.............................................................................................................................354
Security & Privacy................................................................................................................................354
Sharing..................................................................................................................................................354
Sound....................................................................................................................................................355
Spotlight................................................................................................................................................357
Startup Disk..........................................................................................................................................357
Time Machine......................................................................................................................................358
Trackpad...............................................................................................................................................358
Users & Groups....................................................................................................................................361

Chapter 10: Notifications...................................................................... 363
Insta-Respond to Bubbles..................................................................................................................364
Shutting Up the Bubbles....................................................................................................................365
The Notification Center......................................................................................................................366



table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info

vii


Chapter 11: The Free Programs of OS X.............................................. 371
Your Free OS X Programs...................................................................................................................371
App Store..............................................................................................................................................372
Automator............................................................................................................................................372
Calculator.............................................................................................................................................372
Calendar...............................................................................................................................................374
Chess.....................................................................................................................................................389
Contacts................................................................................................................................................392
Dashboard............................................................................................................................................392
Dictionary.............................................................................................................................................392
DVD Player...........................................................................................................................................394
FaceTime..............................................................................................................................................394
Font Book.............................................................................................................................................397
Game Center........................................................................................................................................397
GarageBand.........................................................................................................................................400
iBooks...................................................................................................................................................400
iChat......................................................................................................................................................406
Image Capture.....................................................................................................................................406
iMovie, iPhoto......................................................................................................................................411
iTunes....................................................................................................................................................412
Launchpad............................................................................................................................................412
Mail.......................................................................................................................................................412
Maps.....................................................................................................................................................412
Messages..............................................................................................................................................418
Mission Control...................................................................................................................................418
Notes.....................................................................................................................................................418
Photo Booth.........................................................................................................................................421
Preview.................................................................................................................................................425
Reminders............................................................................................................................................435
QuickTime Player................................................................................................................................439
Safari.....................................................................................................................................................439
Stickies..................................................................................................................................................440
System Preferences.............................................................................................................................442
TextEdit..................................................................................................................................................442
Time Machine......................................................................................................................................450
Utilities: Your OS X Toolbox................................................................................................................451

Chapter 12: CDs, DVDs & iTunes.......................................................... 471
Disks Today..........................................................................................................................................471
Disks In, Disks Out..............................................................................................................................472
Startup Disks........................................................................................................................................473
Erasing a Disk.......................................................................................................................................474
Burning CDs and DVDs.......................................................................................................................475
iTunes: The Digital Jukebox................................................................................................................479
DVD Movies..........................................................................................................................................491

viii

table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info


Part Four: The Technologies of OS X
Chapter 13: Accounts, Security & Gatekeeper.................................... 497
Introducing Accounts..........................................................................................................................497
Creating an Account...........................................................................................................................499
Parental Controls.................................................................................................................................508
Editing Accounts..................................................................................................................................516
Setting Up the Login Process.............................................................................................................517
Signing In, Logging Out......................................................................................................................521
Sharing Across Accounts....................................................................................................................523
Fast User Switching.............................................................................................................................525
Six OS X Security Shields....................................................................................................................527
And Four Privacy Shields...................................................................................................................543

Chapter 14: Networking, File Sharing & AirDrop............................... 545
Wiring the Network.............................................................................................................................545
File Sharing: Three Ways....................................................................................................................549
Accessing Shared Files........................................................................................................................559
Networking with Windows.................................................................................................................567
Screen Sharing.....................................................................................................................................574
More Dialing In from the Road.........................................................................................................583

Chapter 15: Graphics, Fonts & Printing............................................... 585
Mac Meets Printer...............................................................................................................................585
Making the Printout............................................................................................................................589
Managing Printouts.............................................................................................................................592
Printer Sharing.....................................................................................................................................593
Faxing....................................................................................................................................................594
PDF Files...............................................................................................................................................595
Fonts—and Font Book.........................................................................................................................597
ColorSync.............................................................................................................................................605
Graphics in OS X..................................................................................................................................606
Screen-Capture Keystrokes...............................................................................................................608

Chapter 16: ound, Movies & Speech.................................................... 611
Playing Sounds....................................................................................................................................611
Recording Sounds...............................................................................................................................613
QuickTime Player................................................................................................................................614
The Mac Reads to You........................................................................................................................625
VoiceOver.............................................................................................................................................629
Ink: Handwriting Recognition............................................................................................................629



table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info

ix


Part Five: OS X Online
Chapter 17: Internet Setup & iCloud.................................................... 633
The Best News You’ve Heard All Day...............................................................................................634
Network Central and Multihoming...................................................................................................634
Broadband Connections.....................................................................................................................636
Cellular Modems.................................................................................................................................642
Tethering...............................................................................................................................................642
Dial-Up Modem Connections............................................................................................................643
Switching Locations............................................................................................................................643
Internet Sharing...................................................................................................................................645
iCloud....................................................................................................................................................648

Chapter 18: Mail & Contacts................................................................. 659
Setting Up Mail....................................................................................................................................659
Checking Your Mail.............................................................................................................................663
Tailoring the Look of Mail..................................................................................................................664
Writing Messages................................................................................................................................670
Stationery.............................................................................................................................................676
Reading Email......................................................................................................................................679
VIPs........................................................................................................................................................696
The Anti-Spam Toolkit.........................................................................................................................697
Contacts (Address Book)....................................................................................................................698

Chapter 19: Safari.................................................................................. 713
Browsing Basics...................................................................................................................................713
The Unified Address/Search Bar.......................................................................................................714
Full Screen and Gestures....................................................................................................................716
Top Sites................................................................................................................................................717
Customizing the Toolbar....................................................................................................................718
Bookmarks (and the Sidebar)...........................................................................................................721
Saved Passwords and the iCloud Keychain.....................................................................................723
14 Tips for Better Surfing...................................................................................................................730
Tabbed Browsing.................................................................................................................................739
Privacy and Security Features...........................................................................................................742

Chapter 20: Messages........................................................................... 745
Welcome to Messages........................................................................................................................745
iMessages.............................................................................................................................................746
The Traditional Chat Networks..........................................................................................................749
Let the Chat Begin...............................................................................................................................754
Text Chatting........................................................................................................................................755
Audio Chats..........................................................................................................................................758
Video Chats..........................................................................................................................................759
Juggling Chats and Windows.............................................................................................................764
Sharing Your Screen............................................................................................................................764
Messages Theater................................................................................................................................766
x

table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info


Chapter 21: SSH, FTP & VPN................................................................ 769
FTP.........................................................................................................................................................769
Connecting from the Road.................................................................................................................772
Remote Access with SSH....................................................................................................................773
Virtual Private Networking.................................................................................................................775

Part Six: Appendixes
Appendix A: Installing OS X Mavericks............................................... 783
Hardware Requirements....................................................................................................................784
Psychological Requirements..............................................................................................................785
The Standard Installation...................................................................................................................785
The Setup Assistant.............................................................................................................................788
The Homemade Installer Disk...........................................................................................................792

Appendix B: Troubleshooting............................................................... 795
Minor Eccentric Behavior...................................................................................................................795
Frozen Programs (Force Quitting)....................................................................................................797
Recovery Mode: Three Emergency Disks........................................................................................798
Application Won’t Open.....................................................................................................................802
Startup Problems.................................................................................................................................802
Fixing the Disk......................................................................................................................................805
Where to Get Troubleshooting Help.................................................................................................808

Appendix C: The Windows-to-Mac Dictionary................................... 809
Appendix D: The Master OS X Secret Keystroke List......................... 823
Index....................................................................................................... 831



table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info

xi


xii

table of contents
www.it-ebooks.info


The Missing Credits
About the Author
David Pogue (author, illustrator) wrote the weekly tech column for
The New York Times for 13 years. In late 2013, he joined Yahoo to
launch Yahoo Tech.
He’s also a monthly columnist for Scientific American, a two-time
Emmy-winning correspondent for CBS News Sunday Morning, the host of NOVA miniseries on PBS, and the creator of the
Missing Manual series. He’s written or co-written over 60 books, including 28
in this series, six in the For Dummies line (including Macs, Magic, Opera, and
Classical Music), two novels (one for middle-schoolers), and The World According to Twitter. In his other life, David is a former Broadway show conductor, a
magician, and a funny public speaker. He lives in Connecticut with his wife, Nicki,
and three awesome children.
Links to his columns and videos await at www.davidpogue.com. He welcomes feedback
about his books by email at david@pogueman.com.

About the Creative Team
Julie Van Keuren (copy editor) quit her newspaper job in 2006 to move to Montana
and live the freelancing dream. She and her husband, M.H. (who’s living the novelwriting dream), have two sons, Dexter and Michael. Email: little_media@yahoo.com.
Kirill Voronin (technical editor) is the head of an IT consulting company, aptly called
Shortcut, based in Moscow, Russia. He has worked with Macs since the ’90s, and he’s
an Apple Certified System Administrator and Apple Certified Trainer for IT courses.
He lives with his wife, Maria, and son, Nil. In his spare time, he enjoys backpacking.
Email: kirill.voronin@shortcut.ru.
Phil Simpson (design and layout) runs his graphic design business from Southbury,
Connecticut. His work includes corporate branding, publication design, communications support, and advertising. In his free time, he is a homebrewer, ice cream maker,
wannabe woodworker, and is on a few tasting panels. He lives with his wife and four
great felines. Email: phil.simpson@pmsgraphics.com.
Brian Jepson (technical consultant) is an O’Reilly editor and hacker, and co-organizer
of Providence Geeks and the Rhode Island Mini Maker Faire. He’s also been involved
in various ways over the years with AS220, a nonprofit arts center in Providence,
Rhode Island. Email: bjepson@oreilly.com.



the missing credits
www.it-ebooks.info

xiii


Acknowledgments
Over the years, over the nine editions of this book, many friends and colleagues have
contributed enthusiasm, expertise, and even prose to this book’s editions. They include
Zachary Brass, Dan Pourhadi, Rich Koster, J.D. Biersdorfer, Teresa Noelle Roberts,
Ben Waldie, and Lesa Snider.
In addition to the dream team members identified above, I owe debts of thanks to
O’Reilly’s Missing Manuals editor-in-chief, Brian Sawyer; Apple’s Ryan James for going beyond the call of duty to chase down tweaky tech answers; Philip Michaels, who
wrote about Game Center for this book; my crack team of eleventh-hour proofreaders,
Kellee Katagi, Judy Le, and Nancy Young; and my assistant Jan Carpenter, who makes
my very survival possible.
I’ve never met, or even spoken to, Kirill Voronin; he lives in Moscow. But he submitted so many corrections to the previous edition’s Errata page online that I wound up
hiring him to be the tech editor for this book—and he knocked it out of the park.
I also wish I could send out an “I Made the Book Better!” T-shirt to every reader who
ever took the time to write with corrections, suggestions, tips, and tricks. And thanks,
as always, to David Rogelberg for believing in the idea.
Above all, this book owes its existence to the patience and affection of Nicki, Kelly,
Tia, and Jeffrey. They make these books—and everything else—possible.
—David Pogue

The Missing Manual Series
Missing Manuals are witty, superbly written guides to computer products that don’t
come with printed manuals (which is just about all of them). Each book features a
handcrafted index; cross-references to specific page numbers (not just “see Chapter 14”); and an ironclad promise never to put an apostrophe in the possessive
pronoun its.
Here’s a list of current and upcoming titles:
For the Mac
•• AppleScript: The Missing Manual by Adam Goldstein
•• FileMaker Pro 12: The Missing Manual by Susan Prosser and Stuart Gripman
•• iMovie: The Missing Manual by David Pogue and Aaron Miller
•• iPhoto: The Missing Manual by David Pogue and Lesa Snider
•• iWork ’09: The Missing Manual by Josh Clark
•• Office 2011: The Missing Manual by Chris Grover
•• Switching to the Mac: The Missing Manual, Mavericks Edition by David Pogue

xiv

the missing credits
www.it-ebooks.info


•• Photoshop CC: The Missing Manual by Lesa Snider
•• Photoshop CS6: The Missing Manual by Lesa Snider
•• Photoshop Elements 12: The Missing Manual by Barbara Brundage
For Windows
•• Windows 8.1: The Missing Manual by David Pogue
•• Windows 8: The Missing Manual by David Pogue
•• Windows 7: The Missing Manual by David Pogue
•• Access 2013: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald
•• Excel 2013: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald
•• Microsoft Project 2013: The Missing Manual by Bonnie Biafore
•• Office 2013: The Missing Manual by Nancy Conner and
Matthew MacDonald
•• QuickBooks 2014: The Missing Manual by Bonnie Biafore
•• Photoshop CS6: The Missing Manual by Lesa Snider
•• Photoshop Elements 12: The Missing Manual by Barbara Brundage
Electronics
•• iPhone: The Missing Manual, Seventh Edition by David Pogue
•• David Pogue’s Digital Photography: The Missing Manual by David Pogue
•• iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual by Craig Hockenberry
•• iPad: The Missing Manual, Sixth Edition by J.D. Biersdorfer
•• iPod: The Missing Manual, Eleventh Edition by J.D. Biersdorfer
•• Kindle Fire HD: The Missing Manual by Peter Meyers
•• Netbooks: The Missing Manual by J.D. Biersdorfer
•• NOOK HD: The Missing Manual by Preston Gralla
•• Droid X2: The Missing Manual by Preston Gralla
•• Galaxy S4: The Missing Manual by Preston Gralla
•• Galaxy Tab: The Missing Manual by Preston Gralla
Web Technologies
•• Adobe Edge Animate: The Missing Manual, Third Edition by Chris Grover
•• Creating a Web Site: The Missing Manual, Third Edition by Matthew
MacDonald



the missing credits
www.it-ebooks.info

xv


•• CSS3: The Missing Manual, Third Edition, by David Sawyer McFarland
•• Dreamweaver CS6: The Missing Manual by David Sawyer McFarland
•• Dreamweaver CC: The Missing Manual by David Sawyer McFarland
•• Flash CS6: The Missing Manual by E. A. Vander Veer and Chris Grover
•• Google+: The Missing Manual by Kevin Purdy
•• HTML5: The Missing Manual, Second Edition by Matthew MacDonald
•• JavaScript & jQuery: The Missing Manual, Second Edition by David Sawyer
McFarland
•• PHP & MySQL: The Missing Manual, Second Edition by Brett McLaughlin
•• WordPress: The Missing Manual, by Matthew MacDonald
Life
•• Personal Investing: The Missing Manual by Bonnie Biafore
•• Your Brain: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald
•• Your Body: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald
•• Your Money: The Missing Manual by J.D. Roth

xvi

the missing credits
www.it-ebooks.info


Introduction

OS X is an impressive technical achievement; many experts call it the best personalcomputer operating system on earth. But beware its name.
The X is meant to be a Roman numeral, pronounced “ten.” Don’t say “oh ess ex.”
You’ll get funny looks in public.
In any case, OS X Mavericks is the 10th major version of Apple’s Unix-based operating
system. It’s got very little in common with the original Mac operating system, the one
that saw Apple through the 1980s and 1990s. Apple dumped that in 2001, when CEO
Steve Jobs decided it was time for a change. Apple had just spent too many years piling
new features onto a software foundation originally poured in 1984. Programmers and
customers complained of the “spaghetti code” the Mac OS had become.
On the other hand, underneath OS X’s classy, translucent desktop is Unix, the
industrial-strength, rock-solid OS that drives many a Web site and university. It’s
not new by any means; in fact, it’s decades old and has been polished by generations
of programmers.
Note: Apple no longer refers to its computer operating system as Mac OS X. Now it’s just “OS X,” without
the “Mac.” Why? Apple says it’s to match up better with iOS, its operating system for the iPhone and iPad.

The Mac Becomes an iPad
If you could choose only one word to describe Apple’s overarching design goal in its
recent versions of OS X, there’s no doubt about what it would be: iPad. That’s right.
In this software, Apple has gone about as far as it could go in trying to turn the Mac
into an iPad.

introduction
1

www.it-ebooks.info


The Mac Becomes
an iPad

Two things made the iPad the fastest-selling electronic gadget in history. First, it’s
so simple. No overlapping windows; every app runs full screen. No Save command;
everything is autosaved. No files or folders. No menus. All your apps are in one place,
the Home screen. To beginners, technophobes, and even old-timers, the iPad’s software
represents a refreshing decluttering of the modern computer.
The second huge iPad sales point is that multitouch screen. You operate the whole
thing by touching or dragging your fingers on the glass. For example, you cycle through
screens by swiping. You zoom out on a map, photo, or Web page by pinching two
fingers. You rotate a photo by twisting two fingers, and so on.
So Apple thought, if simplicity and touch gestures made the iPad a megahit, why can’t
we do the same for the Mac?
And it set out to bring as many of the iPad’s features and as much of its personality
to your Mac as possible. Today’s OS X features like Full Screen mode, Auto Save, and
Launchpad are total iPad rip-offs; if Apple hadn’t stolen these features from itself, it
would surely be suing for copyright infringement. In Mountain Lion, even the app
names became the same as what’s on iOS: Reminders, Notes, Notification Center,
Game Center, and so on. And in Mavericks, iPad apps like iBooks and Maps make
their way to the Mac, too.
Apple even brought over the whole multitouch thing to the Mac. No, you don’t touch
the screen; you’d get screaming arm pain if you had to spend the day with your arm
outstretched, manipulating tiny controls on a vertical surface three feet away. (The
resulting ache actually has a name in the computer biz: gorilla arm.)

UP TO SPEED

Upside-Down Scrolling
If you haven’t upgraded OS X in a couple of years, you might
discover something alarming when you try to scroll using
your laptop’s trackpad: When you slide your fingers upward,
the page scrolls down. That’s backward, isn’t it?
For your entire computing career so far, you’ve always
dragged the scroll bar down to move the contents of the
page up—and now Apple has swapped the directions. Why
would Apple throw such a monkey wrench into your life?
The main reason is (what else?) to make the Mac match the
iPad, where you drag your finger up to move the page up.
Anyway, you have two choices: You can spend a couple of
days getting used to the new arrangement—or you can put

2

things back to the way they’ve always been. (To do that, open
System Preferences. For a trackpad: Click Trackpad, click
Scroll & Zoom, and then turn off “Scroll direction: natural.”
For a Magic Mouse: Click Mouse, click Point & Click, and
then turn off “Scroll direction: natural.”)
Note: If you have a non-Apple mouse that has a scroll wheel,
then the Mouse preference pane doesn’t offer this scrolldirection option. You can still reverse the scroll-direction
logic, though, if you’re handy in Terminal (page 469).
Just open Terminal and type defaults write ~/Library/Preferences/.GlobalPreferences com.apple.swipescrolldirection
-bool false. When you press Return and log out, you’ll find
that the time-honored scroll directions have been restored.

os x mavericks: the missing manual

www.it-ebooks.info


Instead, you use all those same iPad gestures and more, right on the surface of your
laptop trackpad, Apple Magic Trackpad, or (if you have Apple’s Magic Mouse) the
top surface of the mouse.

The Mac Becomes
an iPad

All of OS X’s big-ticket features are intended to work together. For example, suppose
you’re looking at a document in full-screen view (feature #1). How are you supposed
to switch to the next app? By swiping across the trackpad in the “next app” gesture
(feature #2). Then you might pinch four fingers together to open Launchpad (feature
#3) so you can open another program.
It’s a new way to work, for sure. And it’s optional. If it doesn’t float your boat, you
can ignore all of it (full-screen, gestures, Launchpad, Auto Save). But you should at
least make an informed decision—and this book should come in handy that way.
Note: Truth is, Mavericks represents only a gentle continuation of the iPadization that began with OS X 10.7,
known as Lion. Often in this book, you’ll read references to “Lion/Mountain Lion/Mavericks,” because they’re
fundamentally the same software. Even so, there are enough nips, tucks, and improvements to justify the
free Mavericks download you just enjoyed.

What’s New in Mavericks
Apple says there are over 200 new features in OS X Mavericks, but it’s pretty generous
with its counting procedure. Still, there are many, many goodies.
In the Index, “what’s new in Mavericks” gives you a pretty comprehensive listing. But
here are the big-ticket items:
•• Finder tabs and tags. Now desktop windows can have tabs, just like a Web browser,
thus cramming multiple views into a single window. And you can tag your files with
as many color-coded keywords (“Back me up,”  “Important,”  “Smithers project”)
as you want, making it easy to round them all up with a click.
•• New apps. iBooks (for reading digital books you buy from Apple) and Maps (for
plotting trips and sending routes to your phone) are now Mac programs—but
they synchronize with your iPhone or iPad.
•• Updated apps. Calendar has built-in travel times for your appointments. Safari
uses less battery power and consolidates bookmarks, Reading List, and tweets that
contain Web links into a single sidebar.
•• iCloud Keychain. This one’s rather huge: OS X can now memorize all your passwords (for Web sites and WiFi networks) and credit cards and then auto-fill them
when you’re logging into a Web site or buying something. Best of all, they’re also
synced across your other Macs, iPhone, and iPad, so you have almost nothing to
remember.
•• Multiple monitors. Each screen has its own menu bar; the Dock moves to whichever screen you click. If you have an Apple TV, then your TV screen can act as a
wireless second monitor.

introduction
3

www.it-ebooks.info


What’s New in
Mavericks

•• Notification improvements. You know those little top-right bubbles that let
youknow about incoming messages? You can now delete or reply to an email message or a Messages text right in the notification bubble. When you wake your Mac,
you see a summary of notifications that came in while you were out.
And if there are certain hours when you don’t want any notifications to interrupt
or wake you, Do Not Disturb makes its debut on the Mac, too.
•• Offline dictation. You no longer need an Internet connection to use OS X’s “speak
to type” feature.
•• Engineering improvements called things like App Nap, Timer Coalescing, and
Compressed Memory are all designed to make your laptop’s battery charge last
longer. Handy, since 75 percent of all Macs are laptops these days.

About This Book
You can’t get OS X Mavericks on a disc or flash drive; it’s a download-only operating
system. In other words, you don’t get a single page of printed instructions.
To find your way around, you’re expected to use Apple’s online help system. And as
you’ll quickly discover, these help pages are tersely written, offer very little technical
depth, lack useful examples, and provide no tutorials whatsoever. You can’t even mark
your place, underline, or read them in the bathroom.
The purpose of this book, then, is to serve as the manual that should have accompanied
OS X—version 10.9 in particular.
OS X Mavericks: The Missing Manual is designed to accommodate readers at every
technical level. The primary discussions are written for advanced-beginner or intermediate Mac fans. But if you’re a Mac first-timer, miniature sidebar articles called Up
To Speed provide the introductory information you need to understand the topic at
hand. If you’re a Mac veteran, on the other hand, keep your eye out for similar shaded
boxes called Power Users’ Clinic. They offer more technical tips, tricks, and shortcuts.
When you write a book like this, you do a lot of soul-searching about how much stuff
to cover. Of course, a thinner book, or at least a thinner-looking one, is always preferable; plenty of readers are intimidated by a book that dwarfs the Tokyo White Pages.
On the other hand, Apple keeps adding features and rarely takes them away. So this
book isn’t getting any thinner.
Even so, some chapters come with free downloadable appendixes—PDF documents,
available on this book’s “Missing CD” page at www.missingmanuals.com—that go
into further detail on some of the tweakiest features. (You’ll see references to them
sprinkled throughout the book.)
Maybe this idea will save a few trees—and a few back muscles when you try to pick
this book up.

4

os x mavericks: the missing manual

www.it-ebooks.info


About the Outline

About This Book

OS X Mavericks: The Missing Manual is divided into six parts, each containing several
chapters:
•• Part One: The OS X Desktop covers everything you see on the screen when you
turn on an OS X computer: the Dock, the Sidebar, Spotlight, Dashboard, Spaces,
Mission Control, Launchpad, Time Machine, icons, windows, menus, scroll bars,
the Trash, aliases, the a menu, and so on.
•• Part Two: Programs in OS X is dedicated to the proposition that an operating
system is little more than a launchpad for programs—the actual applications you
use in your everyday work, such as email programs, Web browsers, word processors, graphics suites, and so on. These chapters describe how to work with applications in OS X—how to open them, switch among them, swap data between
them, use them to create and open files, and control them using the AppleScript
and Automator automation tools.
•• Part Three: The Components of OS X is an item-by-item discussion of the individual software nuggets that make up this operating system—the 30-ish panels of
System Preferences and the 50-some programs in your Applications and Utilities
folders.
•• Part Four: The Technologies of OS X treads in more advanced territory. Networking, file sharing, and screen sharing are, of course, tasks OS X was born to do. These
chapters cover all of the above, plus the prodigious visual talents of OS X (fonts,
printing, graphics, handwriting recognition), and its multimedia gifts (sound,
speech, movies).
•• Part Five: OS X Online covers all the Internet features of OS X, including the Mail
email program and the Safari Web browser; Messages for instant messaging and
audio or video chats; Internet sharing; Apple’s free, online iCloud services; and
connecting to and controlling your Mac from across the wires—FTP, SSH, VPN,
and so on.
•• Part Six: Appendixes. This book’s appendixes include guidance on installing this
operating system; a troubleshooting handbook; a Windows-to-Mac dictionary (to
help Windows refugees find the new locations of familiar features in OS X); and
a thorough master list of all the keyboard shortcuts and trackpad/mouse gestures
in Mavericks.

AboutÆTheseÆArrows
Throughout this book, and throughout the Missing Manual series, you’ll find sentences
like this one: “Open the System folderÆLibrariesÆFonts folder.” That’s shorthand for
a much longer instruction that directs you to open three nested folders in sequence,
like this:
“On your hard drive, you’ll find a folder called System. Open that. Inside the System
folder window is a folder called Libraries; double-click to open it. Inside that folder
is yet another one called Fonts. Double-click to open it, too.” See Figure I-1.

introduction
5

www.it-ebooks.info


About This Book

About MissingManuals.com
To get the most out of this book, visit www.missingmanuals.com. Click the “Missing
CD-ROM” link—and then this book’s title—to reveal a neat, organized, chapter-bychapter list of the shareware and freeware mentioned in this book.
Figure I-1:
If this book says “Choose aÆ​
DockÆ​
Position on Bottom,” it’s describing a logical sequence of steps.
In this example, that would mean clicking
the a menu, choosing the Dock command from it, and then choosing Position
on Bottom from the submenu.

The Web site also offers corrections and updates to the book. (To see them, click the
book’s title, and then click View/Submit Errata.) In fact, please submit such corrections and updates yourself! In an effort to keep the book as up to date and accurate as
possible, each time O’Reilly prints more copies of this book, I’ll make any confirmed
corrections you’ve suggested. I’ll also note such changes on the Web site so that you
can mark important corrections into your own copy of the book, if you like. And I’ll
keep the book current as Apple releases more Mac OS 10.9 updates.

The Very Basics
To use this book, and indeed to use a Macintosh computer, you need to know a few
basics. This book assumes you’re familiar with a few terms and concepts:
•• Clicking. To click means to point the arrow cursor at something on the screen
and then—without moving the cursor—press and release the clicker button on
the mouse or trackpad. To double-click, of course, means to click twice in rapid
succession, again without moving the cursor at all. And to drag means to move
the cursor while holding down the button.
When you’re told to c-click something, you click while pressing the c key (which
is next to the space bar). Shift-clicking, Option-clicking, and Control-clicking work
the same way—just click while pressing the corresponding key.

6

os x mavericks: the missing manual

www.it-ebooks.info


(There’s also right-clicking. That important topic is described in depth on page
235.)

The Very Basics

•• Menus. The menus are the words at the top of your screen: a, File, Edit, and so
on. Click one to make a list of commands appear.
Some people click and release to open a menu and then, after reading the choices,
click again on the one they want. Other people like to press the mouse button continuously after the initial click on the menu title, drag down the list to the desired
command, and only then release the mouse button. Either method works fine.
•• Keyboard shortcuts. If you’re typing along in a burst of creative energy, it’s disruptive to have to grab the mouse to use a menu. That’s why many Mac fans prefer
to trigger menu commands by pressing key combinations. For example, in word
processors, you can press c-B to produce a boldface word. When you read an
instruction like “Press c-B,” start by pressing the c key, and then, while it’s down,
type the letter B, and finally release both keys.
Tip: You know what’s really nice? The keystroke to open the Preferences dialog box in every Apple program—Mail, Safari, iMovie, iPhoto, TextEdit, Preview, and on and on—is always the same: c-comma. Better
yet, that standard is catching on in other apps, too, like Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.

•• Gestures. A gesture is a swipe across your trackpad (on your laptop, or on an
external Apple trackpad) or across the top surface of the Apple Magic Mouse.
Gestures have been given huge importance in OS X. Page 829 contains a handy
list of these gestures.
Figure I-2:
Knowing what you’re doing on the Mac often requires
knowing what things are called. Here are some of the
most common onscreen elements. They include checkboxes (turn on as many as you like) and radio buttons
(only one can be turned on in each grouping).

Toolbar

Pop-up menu

Tabs

Text box

Pressing Return is usually the same as clicking the
default button—the lower-right button that almost
always means “OK, I’m done here.”

Checkbox Radio buttons

Default button

introduction
7

www.it-ebooks.info


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×