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Prentice hall inside java 2 platform security architecture API design and implementation 2nd edition ISBN jun 2003 0201787911





TableofContents

InsideJava™2PlatformSecurity:
Architecture,APIDesign,and
Implementation,SecondEdition
ByLiGong,GaryEllison,

MaryDageforde

Publisher :AddisonWesley
PubDate :June06,2003
ISBN :0-201-78791-1
Pages :384
Slots :1




InsideJava(TM)2PlatformSecurity,the
definitiveandcomprehensiveguidetothe
Javasecurityplatform,hasbeenthoroughly
updatedtoreflectkeyadditionsandrevisions
toJavasecuritytechnologiescurrentlyinuse
byleadingtechnologycompanies.This
secondedition,pennedbytheJavaexperts
atSunMicrosystems,providesadetailedlook
intothecentralworkingsoftheJavasecurity
architectureanddescribestoolsand
techniquesforsuccessfulimplementationon


eventhemostdemandingnetworkcomputing
environment.
WhileJavahasalwaysprovidedastronger
securitymodelthanotherplatforms,this
bookreviewsallthemethodsandpractices
requiredtoimprovesecuritywithout
sacrificingfunctionality.Withtipsonhowto
customize,extend,andrefinetheJava
securityarchitecture,userswillhave
everythingtheyneedtoprotecttheir
informationassetsfrombothexternaland
internalthreats.
Thisbook'sin-depthcoverageencompasses
securityarchitecture,deployment,
customization,newdevelopments,andmuch
more.
Securityfundamentals
Secureclassloading
Specifyingfine-grainedsecuritypolicy
Enforcingsecuritypolicywith
AccessController,SecurityManager,and
more


Digitalcertificates,certificationpaths,
signedcode,JAAS,andother
authenticationmeasures
Java-basedcryptographywithcode
examples
JSSE,JavaGSS-API,andRMIfornetwork
security
Previewsofotherplatformsforsecurity,
includingJavaCard,J2MEandJini
Designedforboththesystemadministrator
andsoftwarepractitioner,thisbookdelivers
vitalknowledgeforbuildingandmaintaining
asecuresystemusingtheJava2platform.
Withdetailedcodeandusageexamples
throughout,InsideJava(TM)2Platform
Security,SecondEdition,isanindispensable
resourceforallplatformsecurityneeds.
TheJava(TM)Seriesissupported,endorsed,
andauthoredbythecreatorsoftheJava
technologyatSunMicrosystems,Inc.Itisthe
officialplacetogoforcomplete,expert,and
definitiveinformationonJavatechnology.The


booksinthisSeriesprovidetheinside
informationyouneedtobuildeffective,
robust,andportableapplicationsandapplets.
TheSeriesisanindispensableresourcefor
anyonetargetingtheJava(TM)2platform.






TableofContents

InsideJava™2PlatformSecurity:
Architecture,APIDesign,and
Implementation,SecondEdition
ByLiGong,GaryEllison,

MaryDageforde

Publisher :AddisonWesley
PubDate :June06,2003
ISBN :0-201-78791-1
Pages :384
Slots :1




Copyright

TheJava™Series

Preface
HowThisBookIsOrganized

Acknowledgments



AbouttheAuthors


PrefacetotheFirstEdition
AcknowledgmentsfortheFirstEdition


Chapter1.ComputerandNetworkSecurityFundamentals
Section1.1.CryptographyversusComputerSecurity

Section1.2.ThreatsandProtection




Section1.3.PerimeterDefense




Section1.5.UsingCryptography




Section1.7.MobileCode



Section1.4.AccessControlandSecurityModels
Section1.6.Authentication
Section1.8.WhereJavaTechnologyBasedSecurityFitsIn
Chapter2.BasicSecurityfortheJavaProgrammingLanguage




Section2.1.TheJavaProgrammingLanguageandPlatform




Section2.2.OriginalBasicSecurityArchitecture




Section2.4.SignedApplets

Section2.3.BytecodeVerificationandTypeSafety
Section2.5.FurtherEnhancements


Chapter3.Java2SecurityArchitecture
Section3.1.SecurityArchitectureRequirementsofJava2

Section3.2.OverviewoftheJava2SecurityArchitecture




Section3.3.ArchitectureSummary
Section3.4.LessonsLearned


Chapter4.SecureClassLoading
Section4.1.ClassFiles,Types,andDefiningClassLoaders

Section4.2.Well-KnownClassLoaderInstances




Section4.3.ClassLoaderHierarchies




Section4.5.SecureClassLoaderDetails



Section4.7.ClassPaths

Section4.4.LoadingClasses
Section4.6.URLClassLoaderDetails


Chapter5.ElementsofSecurityPolicy
Section5.1.Permissions

Section5.2.DescribingCode




Section5.3.ProtectionDomain




Section5.5.AssigningPermissions

Section5.4.SecurityPolicy
Section5.6.DynamicSecurityPolicy


Chapter6.EnforcingSecurityPolicy
Section6.1.SecurityManager

Section6.2.AccessControlContext




Section6.3.DomainCombiner
Section6.4.AccessController


Chapter7.CustomizingtheSecurityArchitecture
Section7.1.CreatingNewPermissionTypes

Section7.2.CustomizingSecurityPolicy



Section7.3.CustomizingtheAccessControlContext


Chapter8.EstablishingTrust
Section8.1.DigitalCertificates

Section8.2.EstablishingTrustwithCertificationPaths




Section8.3.EstablishingTrustinSignedCode
Section8.4.User-CentricAuthenticationandAuthorizationUsingJAAS




Section8.5.DistributedEnd-EntityAuthentication


Chapter9.ObjectSecurity
Section9.1.SecurityExceptions

Section9.2.FieldsandMethods




Section9.3.StaticFields




Section9.5.PrivilegedCode




Section9.7.InnerClasses




Section9.9.SigningObjects



Section9.11.GuardingObjects

Section9.4.PrivateObjectStateandObjectImmutability
Section9.6.Serialization
Section9.8.NativeMethods
Section9.10.SealingObjects


Chapter10.ProgrammingCryptography
Section10.1.CryptographicConcepts

Section10.2.DesignPrinciples




Section10.3.CryptographicServicesandServiceProviders




Section10.5.AdditionalCryptographyClasses




Section10.7.StandardNames

Section10.4.CoreCryptographyClasses
Section10.6.CodeExamples
Section10.8.AlgorithmSpecifications


Chapter11.NetworkSecurity
Section11.1.JavaGSS-API

Section11.2.JSSE



Section11.3.RemoteMethodInvocation


Chapter12.DeployingtheSecurityArchitecture
Section12.1.InstallingtheLatestJava2PlatformSoftware

Section12.2.TheInstallationDirectory




Section12.3.SettingSystemandSecurityProperties




Section12.5.InstallingProviderPackages




Section12.7.JAASLoginConfigurationFiles




Section12.9.X.500DistinguishedNames




Section12.4.SecuringtheDeployment
Section12.6.PolicyConfiguration
Section12.8.SecurityTools
Section12.10.ManagingSecurityPoliciesforNonexperts
Chapter13.OtherPlatformsandFutureDirections
Section13.1.IntroductiontoJavaCard






Section13.2.IntroductiontoJava2MicroEdition




Section13.4.BriefIntroductiontoJiniNetworkTechnology




Section13.6.ClientContainers



Section13.3.SecurityEnhancementsontheHorizonforJ2SE
Section13.5.BriefIntroductiontoJ2EE
Section13.7.FinalRemarks
Bibliography


Copyright
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Dedication
ToRogerNeedham,19352003
Mysupervisor,mentor,colleague,andfriend
LiGong
ToSAM
GaryEllison


Tomyhusband,TomWills
MaryDageforde


TheJava™Series
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EffectiveJava™ProgrammingLanguageGuide
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TheJava™Tutorial,ThirdEdition:AShortCourseontheBasics
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TheJava™DevelopersAlmanac1.4,Volume1
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TheJava™ClassLibraries,SecondEdition,Volume1:
SupplementfortheJava™2Platform,StandardEdition,v1.2
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ProgrammingOpenServiceGatewayswithJava™Embedded
Server
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JavaCard™TechnologyforSmartCards:Architectureand
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Preface
Inventingisacombinationofbrainsandmaterials.The
morebrainsyouuse,thelessmaterialyouneed.
CharlesKettering
Thephrases"computersecurity,""networksecurity,"and
"informationsecurity"conjureupvariousnotionsandprecepts
toagivenaudience.Somepeopletendtoenvisiontechnical
measures,suchascryptography,asthesolemeansbywhich
securityisattained.Otherpeoplerecognizethelimitationsof
varioustechnicalmeasuresandtreatthemastoolsthat,when
usedincombinationwithothertechnicalmeasures,can
accomplishthetaskathand.Thedistinctionissubtlebut
important.Thephrase"platformsecurity"reflectsaholisticview
ofsecurity,suggestingthatthefoundationissecureandcanbe
reliedonasisorusedasasecuresubsystemtoleveragewhen
buildinglargersystems.Buildingasecureplatformisavery
difficultandexactingtaskthathistoricallyhasbeen
accomplishedonlywhensecurityisadesignrequirementthatis
takenintoconsiderationattheonset.Theideathatsecuritycan
be"boltedon"hasprovedfrailandwroughtwithfailuremodes,
whichhasledtoamulititudeofsecuritybreaches.
Javatechnologyispossiblytheonlygeneral-purposesecure
computingplatformtobecomecommerciallysuccessful.This
wouldneverhavehappenedhadthedesignersnottaken
securityseriouslyfromthestart.ThesecuritypropertiesofJava
technologyaremany,andtheJavaplatformbuildsonitselfto
createareliableandsecureplatform.TheJava2securitymodel
wouldbeimpossibletomaketrustworthyifitwerenotforthe
safetynetprovidedbytheJavalanguageitself.TheJava
languagespecifiesthesemanticstoensuretypesafetyand
referentialintegrityandyetwouldfailmiserablyifitwerenot


fortheenforcementandassurancestheJavavirtualmachine
provides.Thus,fromthesevarioussecuresubsystems,wehave
createdagreaterwhole.
Thetargetaudienceofthisbookisvaried.Webelievethisbook
willbeausefulresourcetothoseseekingageneral
understandingofthesecurityfoundationtheJava2security
architectureprovidesandrelieson.Thebookshouldalsoprove
particularilyusefultosoftwarepractitionersbuildingenterpriseclassapplicationsthatmustmeetvariedsecurityrequirements,
rangingfromauthenticationtoauthorizationtoinformation
protection.Thisbookprovidesinsightintosomeofthedesign
trade-offswemadeaswedevelopedtheplatformandthe
lessonswehavelearnedaswecontinuetoevolveandenhance
theplatform.Weprovideguidancetothoseneedingto
customizethesecuritymodelfortheirspecificpurposes.We
describetheinflectionpointswedesignedintotheplatformto
accommodatethoserarebutcriticalcustomizations.Mostofthe
aforementionedtopicsaretargetedtosystemdevelopers,yet
werecognizethatsecurityisnotlimitedtotheimplementation
ofanapplication.Equallyimportantisthedeploymentofthe
application.Fordeployers,wesupplydescriptionsrangingfrom
expressingsecuritypolicytohardeningtheinstallationofthe
runtimeenvironment.
ThisbookdoesnotexplaintoanylevelofdetailtheJava
programminglanguage.WerecommendthebookbyArnoldand
Gosling[3]asagoodstartingpoint.Also,wedonotcoverthe
varioussecurityAPIsintheirentirety,andthuswereferthe
readertotheJava2SDKdocumentation.


HowThisBookIsOrganized
Thetextofthisbookisorganizedtocatertoitsvarious
audiences.Thefirsttwochapterssupplybackground
informationprovidingthebasisformorespecifictopicscovered
insubsequentchapters.Thereaderneednotbeproficientinthe
Javalanguagetounderstandtheseintroductorychapters.
Chapters3through6describetheJava2securityarchitecture,
startingwithgeneralconceptsandendingwithcomprehensive
coverageofsecuritypolicyenforcement.Chapters7through11
aretargetedtowardtheenterpriseapplicationdeveloper,
coveringtopicsrangingfromtrustestablishmentto
cryptographyandnetworksecurity.Forthesechapters,Java
languageproficiencyisassumed.Chapter12isdirectlytargeted
towarddeployers,whoshouldalsoreadChapter8foradditional
detailsabouttrustestablishment.Itisourbeliefthatdeployers
neednotbeproficientintheJavalanguageandthattheycan
ignorethesectionsofChapter8describingAPIs.
Thecontentofeachchapterofthisbookisasfollows:
Chapter1:Ageneralbackgroundoncomputer,network,
andinformationsecurity
Chapter2:AreviewoftheJavasecuritymodels,starting
withtheoriginalsandboxandprogressingtothefinegrainedaccesscontrolmodel
Chapter3:Anin-depthlookattheJava2security
architecture,whichispolicydrivenandcapableof
enforcingfine-grainedaccesscontrols
Chapter4:Detailedcoverageofclassloading,includinga
descriptionoftheclassloaderinheritancehierarchyand
theruntimedelegationhierarchy


Chapter5:Anexplanationofthesecurityclassesthat
supplythefoundationfortheenforcementofsecurity
policyatruntime
Chapter6:Thoroughcoverageofthepolicyenforcement
classesandthedesignoftheJava2securityarchitecture
accesscontrolalgorithm
Chapter7:Anexplanationofthecustomizationpoints
providedforsystemsprogrammerswhoneedtoenhance
thecoresecurityarchitecture
Chapter8:Anoutlineofthetrustestablishment
capabilitiesandmechanismssuppliedbythesecurity
architecture
Chapter9:Apresentationofcommonpitfallsand
defensiveprogrammingstrategies
Chapter10:Comprehensivecoverageofthe
cryptography-relatedAPIs
Chapter11:AnoperationaloverviewoftheAPIsusedto
securenetworkprotocols,includingthosefor
authentication,confidentiality,andintegrityprotection
Chapter12:Apresentationofthedeploymentoptions
thatmaybeusedtosecurelydeploytheJavaruntimeand
Javatechnology-basedapplications
Chapter13:AlookatthevariousJavatechnology
platformsandaglancetowardthefutureofJavasecurity


Acknowledgments
ThisprojectbeganasacasualconversationbetweenLiGong
andmeatthe2001JavaOneconferenceinSanFrancisco.Prior
tothatconversation,Lihadtransitionedfromtheroleofchief
securityarchitectfortheJava2securitydevelopmentprojectto
leadingProjectJXTA,whereasIhadtransitionedintothelead
securityarchitectrolefortheJava2developmentteamnear
theendofthepriormillennium.ImentionedtoLithatthe
securityarchitecturehadevolvedtothepointthatthefirst
editionwasnolongercurrentandthusnotanauthoritative
text.
Nearlytwoyearslater,theresultsofthatconversationhave
cometofruition,andIcanconfidentlystatethatwehavecome
alongwaytoreachourgoalofproducingabookthat
thoroughlyandaccuratelydescribestheJava2security
architecture.Thisclearlywouldnothavebeenpossiblewithout
Li'ssupport,andIamgratefulforhavinghadtheopportunityto
workwithLiinthepastandespeciallyonthisproject.
Thisbookwouldprobablybestuckinthestartingblocksifit
werenotfortheguidanceandgentlenudgingofLisaFriendly,
ManagerofSoftwareTechnicalPublicationsatSun
Microsystems.Lisarecognizedearlyonthatmycommitmentto
theprojectwasabsolutebutthatmycopiousfreetime,which
wasallottedtothiseffort,fellbetweenthehoursof10P.M.and
2A.M.LisaquicklysolvedthisproblembyengagingMary
Dagefordeastechnicaleditor.Iamforevergrateful.Notonlyis
Maryanexcellenttechnicalwriterandeditorwhoendedup
writingenoughtogetcoauthorbilling,butshecancodetoo!
Marytrulymadethisprojecthappenwithherdrive,dedication,
andthoroughness.IcannotsayenoughaboutMary,soIwill
keepitbrief.Thankyou,Mary.
TimLindholmwasalsoanearlyinspiration,andIappreciatehis


supportinhelpingmekeepthingsinperspective.Ialsowantto
acknowledgethesupportofmymanagementLarryAbrahams,
MaxineErlund,SharonLiu,andStephenPelletierwho
understoodhowimportantthisprojectwastome.
MypeersintheJavasecuritydevelopmentteamparticipatedin
thispublicationinmanyways,andIwishtoacknowledgethem
fortheircontentcontributions,insights,patience,camaraderie,
constructivecriticism,andmostofalltheirfriendship.Thank
you,AlanBateman,Jean-ChristopheCollet,JayaHangal,
CharlieLai,RosannaLee,JanLuehe,SeemaMalkani,Ram
Marti,MichaelMcMahon,SeanMullan,JeffNisewanger,YuChingPeng,ChokPoh,VincentRyan,ScottSeligman,Andreas
Sterbenz,MayankUpadhyay,YingxianWang,andBrad
Wetmore.
Beingapartoftheteamthatcreatedsomethingthathashad
suchasignificantimpactoncomputingisanhonornotshared
bymany.ThesuccessofJavaisobviouslyaresultofthehigh
caliberofpeoplewhomadeitareality.Ihavehadtheluxuryof
workingalongsidemanytalentedpeople,andIexpresslywant
tothankLarsBak,JoshBloch,GiladBracha,ZhiqunChen,
SteffenGarup,JamesGosling,GrahamHamilton,MarkHapner,
StanleyHo,PeterJones,PeterKessler,TimLindholm,Ron
Monzillo,HansMuller,HemmaPrafullchandra,MarkReinhold,
ReneSchmidt,BillShannon,BobScheifler,JimWaldo,andAnn
Wollrathforthegreatexperience,mentoring,andtechnical
challenges.
Fewpeoplerealizetheexistenceandcloseworkingrelationship
theJavasecuritydevelopmentteamatSunMicrosystems
maintainswithourpeersinotherorganizations.Ispecifically
wishtoacknowledgetheteamatIBM,includingLarryKoved,
MarcoPistoia,TonyNadalin,andBruceRich,whohavebeen
instrumentalinenhancingthefeaturesetoftheJava2security
architecture.
Asnewtechnologiesemerge,wehaveworkedcloselywith


securityresearcherswithinSunLabstointegrateandproductize
theiroutput.IwishtoacknowledgeAnneAnderson,Whitfield
Diffie,SteveHanna,SusanLandau,andRadiaPerlmanfor
passingalongbest-in-breedsecuritytechnology.
Ialsowanttothankthemanyreviewersofthistextand
specificallyrecognizeGiladBracha,MattCurtin,JamesHoburg,
PeterJones,CharlieLai,BrianLarkins,RosannaLee,JohnLinn,
RamMarti,DougMonroe,SeanMullan,ShivaramMysore,
VincentRyan,BobScheifler,AndreasSterbenz,BradWetmore,
andPhilYeaterforthefeedbacktheyprovided.Ialsowishto
recognizePeterJonesandShivaramMysorefortheircontent
contributions.
ThanksalsotoAlanSommerer,theSunMicrosystemsManager
ofTechnicalPublicationsfortheJavaplatform,forhishelpin
usheringthisbooktopublication.
Finally,Iwanttoexpressmygratitudetotheproductionteam.I
thankthecopyeditor,EvelynPyle,andtheproductionfolksat
Addison-Wesleyfortheirsupportandeffortingettingthisbook
offmylaptopandintoprint.ThankstoMarcyBarnes,Jacquelyn
Doucette,AmyFleischer,JohnFuller,MikeHendrickson,Michael
Mullen,andAnnSellers.Also,IwanttoacknowledgeMary
DarbyandAmyGirardfromDuarteDesignfortheirinnate
abilitytotakemygraphicallychallengedimagesandturnthem
intoathousandwords.
GaryEllison
SanMateo,California
March2003
IamgratefultoallpastandcurrentmembersoftheJava
SecurityandNetworkinggroupatSun,aswellascontributors
fromallovertheworld,whocontinuetostrengthenJava's
positionasthepremiercomputingplatformintheseareas.Iam
indebttoGaryEllisonandMaryDagefordefortheirtremendous
effortinproducingthissecondeditionwhichsignificantly


expandsthecoverageofthefirst.
LiGong
Beijing,China
IthasbeenapleasureworkingwithGaryEllisononthisbook.I
thankhimforhisvision,dedication,encouragement,feedback,
enormouseffortinthefaceofmultiplecompeting
responsibilities,andsenseofhumor.Ithasalsobeenmygood
fortunetoworkwithLiGongandmembersofthetop-notch
JavaSecurityandNetworkingteamatSunatvarioustimes
throughoutthepastseveralyears.Ithankthemall.Thanksalso
toLisaFriendlyofSunandMikeHendricksonofAddison-Wesley
fortheirsupportandtheirrolesinfacilitatingpublicationofthis
book.Finally,Iwouldliketothankthecopyeditor,thegraphics
designers,andtheveryhelpfulproductionfolksatAddisonWesley.
MaryDageforde
SantaClara,California


AbouttheAuthors
LiGongisManagingDirectorofSunMicrosystems'Engineering
andResearchInstituteinBeijing,China.PreviouslyatSun,he
wasengineeringheadofJavaSecurityandNetworking,Java
EmbeddedServers,andJXTA.HeobtainedB.S.andM.S.
degreesfromTsinghuaUniversity,Beijing,andaPh.D.fromthe
UniversityofCambridge.HeisAssociateEditor-in-ChiefofIEEE
InternetComputing.
GaryEllisonisaSeniorStaffEngineeratSunMicrosystems,
wherehedesignssecurenetworkcomputingplatforms.His
primaryroleisfocusedonaspectsoftrust,security,and
privacy.From1999through2002,heledthearchitecture,
design,andimplementationofthesecurityandnetworking
componentsintheJava2Platform,StandardEdition.Heholds
aB.Sc.inMathematicsandPhysicalSciencefromTheOhio
StateUniversity.
MaryDagefordeisafreelanceconsultantwhowritessoftware
documentationforvariousSiliconValleycomputercompanies,
includingSunMicrosystems.ShehasanM.S.inComputer
SciencefromStanfordUniversityandasoftwaredesignand
developmentbackgroundencompassingcompilerand
interpreterimplementation,languagedesign,anddatabase
management.Since1990,shehasconcentratedon
documentingAPIs,languages,tools,andsystems.Shewrote
theSecuritytrailofTheJava™TutorialContinued(AddisonWesley,1999).


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