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Prentice hall migrating to the solaris operating system the discipline of UNIX to UNIX migrations nov 2003 ISBN 0131502638





TableofContents

MigratingtotheSolarisOperating
System:TheDisciplineofUNIX-toUNIX®Migrations
ByKenPepple,BrianDown,DavidLevy

Publisher :PrenticeHallPTR
PubDate :November05,2003
ISBN :0-13-150263-8
Pages :272


Thisbookpresentsanestablished
methodologyfortransitioningthepeople,
processes,andtechnologiesinIT
environmentstotheSolaris(TM)Operating
System.Itstepsyouthroughthevarious

phasesofthemigrationprocess,using
detailedcasestudiestoillustratethe
benefits,costs,andrequirementsassociated
withamigrationproject.Whilethisbook
focusesonUNIXservermigrations,the
methodologyandbestpracticespresented


applyformostmigrationstotheSolaris
environment.Theycanbeusedforprojects
rangingfromthesmallestdataconversionto
thelargestlegacymigration.






TableofContents

MigratingtotheSolarisOperating
System:TheDisciplineofUNIX-toUNIX®Migrations
ByKenPepple,BrianDown,DavidLevy

Publisher :PrenticeHallPTR
PubDate :November05,2003
ISBN :0-13-150263-8
Pages :272



Copyright

Acknowledgments

Preface
HowThisGuideisOrganized

RelatedDocumentation




TypographicConventions




UsingUNIXCommands

ShellPrompts
AccessingSunDocumentation


Chapter1.IntroductiontoMigrations
MigrationGoals

MigrationMotivators




MigrationBenefits
MigrationProblems


Chapter2.UNIXMigrationOverview
BriefHistoryofUNIX

ComparisonofCommercialandDerivativeVersionsofUNIX





Chapter3.MigrationStrategies




UnderstandingtheConcepts




ExaminingStrategies

EvaluatingtheEnvironment
ChoosingaStrategyandDevelopingTactics


Chapter4.JustifyingandPlanningaMigrationProject
EstablishingaBusinessJustificationforaMigrationEffort

PlanningYourMigrationProject



ClosingtheProject


Chapter5.IntroducingtheSunToneMethodologyforMigration
SunToneArchitectureMethodology

ArchitectPhaseDefined




ImplementPhaseDefined



MovingBetweenPhases

ManagePhaseDefined


Chapter6.ArchitectingaMigration
AssessingtheEnvironment

DesigningandArchitectingaMigrationSolution


Chapter7.ImplementingaMigration
PortinganApplicationtoaNewOperatingSystem

MigratingData




CreatingtheProductionEnvironment




RefiningandDocumentingYourMigrationMethodology

TestingtheMigratedEnvironment
TrainingEndUsersandStaff


Chapter8.ManagingaMigratedEnvironment
ExtendingtheE-Stack

DefiningMigration-SpecificManagementTasks


Chapter9.MigratingFromRedHatLinux
OverviewofLinux

JustifyingtheMigration




ArchitectingtheTargetSolarisEnvironment



ManagingtheNewSolarisEnvironment

ImplementingtheMigrationtotheSolarisEnvironment


Chapter10.MigratingFromTru64UNIX
OverviewofTru64

64-BitComputing



Clustering




JustifyingtheMigration




ArchitectingtheMigration



ManagingtheNewSolarisEnvironment

ImplementingtheMigrationtotheSolarisEnvironment


Chapter11.MigratingFromtheHP/UXPlatform
JustifyingtheMigration

ArchitectingtheMigrationSolution




ImplementingtheMigrationtotheSolarisOperatingSystem



Results



ManagingtheNewSolarisEnvironment

AppendixA.SampleJScoreReportandAnalysis
Solaris(TM)OEAnalyzerforC/C++andCobolSourceCodeMigration

AnalysisResults


Copyright
Copyright2003SunMicrosystems,Inc.
4150NetworkCircle,
SantaClara,California95054U.S.A.Allrightsreserved.
Thisproductordocumentisprotectedbycopyrightand
distributedunderlicensesrestrictingitsuse,copying,
distribution,anddecompilation.Nopartofthisproductor
documentmaybereproducedinanyformbyanymeans
withoutpriorwrittenauthorizationofSunanditslicensors,if
any.Third-partysoftware,includingfonttechnology,is
copyrightedandlicensedfromSunsuppliers.
PartsoftheproductmaybederivedfromBerkeleyBSD
systems,licensedfromtheUniversityofCalifornia.UNIXisa
registeredtrademarkintheUnitedStatesandothercountries,
exclusivelylicensedthroughX/OpenCompany,Ltd.
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Acknowledgments
It'sdifficulttoacknowledgeeveryonewhowaspartofthis
book.Butourthankscertainlygotothefollowing:
JulieSnowforhertirelesseffortsatkeepingusontimeandon
track,andforherexceptionaltechnicalwritingexpertise.Gary
RushandothersintheSunBluePrints™programforallowingus
towriteandpublishthisbook.EnisKonukandAmandaBlake
forunderstandingtheimportanceofenterprisemigrationand
approvingthefundingforthiseffort.EdwardWustenhoffand
MikeMoorefordevelopingChapter8"ManagingaMigrated
Environment."Manythankstothosewhoofferedtheirtimeand
expertisetoreviewandcommentondraftsofthebook,
includingMartynCope,JamesFan,JohnS.Howard,Patrick
Hudelot,LuizJuk,AmjadKhan,TimMac,andRobMowat.
AcknowledgmentsfromKenPepple:Iwouldliketothank
mySunProfessionalServices'AsiaPacificpracticecolleagues,
especiallyNiallCrawford,LaurenceSibley,KCFung,IvanYue,
KenBuchanan,JeffMcIver,andWoon-TaekParkfortheir
informalinputduringafewweeksofgruelingtraining.Iwould
alsoliketothankGaryKellyandAndrewLeStrangefortheir
insightsduringmyfrequenttripstoAustralia.Allofthese
peoplehavewittinglyandunwittinglyinfluencedtheformation
oftheideasandthoughtsthathavegoneintothisbook.
Iwouldliketothankmybrother,BrianPepple,forthebenefitof
hisLinuxexpertise.Last,butcertainlynotleast,Iwouldliketo
thankShelleyandZekeforsupportingmethroughthickand
thin,bothhomeandaway.
AcknowledgmentsfromBrianDown:I'dliketothankMike
HabeckandTomPallmannforallowingmetoworkonthebook
thispastseveralmonths.I'dalsoliketothankDeanKempwho
hiredmeandhadthevisiontostartthemigrationcenterin


Torontosome10yearsago,aswellasBradKeatesforhis
continuedsupport.I'dparticularlyliketothankJefFutchforhis
vision,energy,andguidance,andforgivingmeachance.
Additionally,I'dliketothankthoseonthemigrationteamin
Torontowhohelpedmedevelopthematerialforthisbook:Rob
Mowat,JamesForonda,LuizJuk,RoyKressin,andJulia
Vladimirsky.
Mybiggestthanksgotomysweetie,VeronicaCallinan,whoput
upwiththedemandingscheduleandlonghoursandtomycat
Ralph,whodesperatelywantedtocontributetothisbook,
judgingfromtheamountoftimehespentwalkingonmylaptop
keyboardandsittingontheattachedmouse.
AcknowledgmentsfromDaveLevy:I'dliketothankSue,
Dan,andBenforputtingupwiththeallthelonghoursand
extraworkIbroughthomewhileworkingonthisbook.I'dalso
liketothankSteveBeckleyandRichardCroucherfortheir
supportofmyefforts,andDaveParrforhissupportwhile
undertakingthefieldworkonwhichChapter11isbased.
AcknowledgmentsfromJulieSnow:AsapilotfortheSun
BluePrintsresidencyprogram,thisbookwaswrittenand
publishedmorequicklythananybookinthehistoryofthis
endeavour.Thisaccomplishmentwasadirectresultofthe
tirelesseffortsofthefollowingpeople:Ourdedicatedand
talentedauthorsKenPepple,BrianDown,andDaveLevy,allof
whomexceededmyexpectations;ourcommittedand
responsivereviewers,whoprovidedinvaluablefeedbackwithin
days,insteadofweeks;ourextremelytalentedillustrator,Dany
Galgani;ourdedicatededitors,BillieMarkimandSue
Blumenberg;oursupportivemanagementteam,VickyHardman
andBarbJugo;andoursupportatPrenticeHall,GregDoench,
JaneBonnell,andMaryLouNohr.
Inaddition,I'dliketothankmyhusband,JustinSnow.His
ongoingsupport,patience,andhumorhavemadethelongdays
possibleandthedemandingworkloadbearable.


Preface
ThisbookisdesignedtohelpcustomersandSunstaff
strategicallytransitionthepeople,processes,andtechnologies
inITenvironmentstotheSolaris™OperatingSystem(Solaris
OS).ByexplaininghowyoucanuseSun'smigration
methodologytorealizethebenefitsthatcanresultfroma
migrationeffort,wehopetominimizeoreliminatethe
reluctancemanypeoplehavetoundertakingUNIX®migration
projects.WhilewefocusonUNIXservermigrations,muchof
themethodologyandmanyofthebestpracticespresentedin
thisbookapplytoanymigrationtotheSolarisenvironment.
Usingthemethodologypresentedinthisbook,youshouldbe
abletotackleprojectsrangingfromthesmallestdata
conversiontothelargestlegacymigrationprojectwitha
repeatableandsystematicapproachthatensurespredictability
andsuccess.Alongtheway,weprovideguidancetohelpyou
avoidsomeofthepitfallsthatarecommontomigration
projects.Themethodologyandbestpracticesinclude:
Assessingthecurrentenvironmenttomigrate
Planningforamigrationproject
Architectinganewtargetenvironment
Implementingamigrationbyusingavailabletoolsand
processes
Managingthenewlymigratedenvironment
Toillustratethebenefits,costs,andrequirementsofamigration
project,weprovidethefollowingdetailedcasestudies:


Asmallsoftwaredevelopmentcompany,migratingfrom
LinuxtotheSolarisenvironment
Asimple,custom-writtenapplicationthatusesaSybase
database,migratingtotheSolarisenvironmentandan
Oracledatabase
Aledgersolutionfromthefinancialservicesindustry,
migratingfromtheHP/UXplatformtotheSolaris
environment


HowThisGuideisOrganized
Thisguideisorganizedinthefollowingchapters:
Chapter1presentsabriefoverviewofthehistoricalevents
thatcreatedanenvironmentinwhichmigrationwas
necessary.Thischapterdescribessomeofthemost
commongoals,motivators,benefits,andproblemsofany
migrationproject.
Chapter2explainshowUNIXhasevolvedovertheyears
anddescribesthemajordifferencesbetweenversionsof
UNIX,whileplacingotheroperatingsystemsincontext.This
chapteralsoexplainswhymigrationisimportant,whatits
benefitsare,andwhatthescopeofamigrationprojectis.
Chapter3definesthemostimportanttermsusedin
migrationeffortsanddifferentiatestheseterms.Inaddition,
thischapterpresentsmigrationstrategies,explainsthe
benefitsandrisksofeachstrategy,anddescribesthe
appropriatenessofeachstrategyforvarioussituations.
Chapter4presentsadetailedimplementationofthe
migrationmethodologyandexplainshowtoplanfor
importantprojectactivitiesandmilestones.Thischapter
alsodescribesthetasksinvolvedinestablishingabusiness
justificationforamigrationeffort.
Chapter5introducesSun'shigh-levelmigration
methodologiesandreviewstherolesofthearchitecture,
implementation,andmanagementstagesinvolvedinthe
methodology.
Chapter6exploresthetasksinvolvedinarchitectinga


migrationsolution.
Chapter7describesthestepsinvolvedinmigratingthe
currentenvironmenttothetargetenvironment.
Chapter8explainshowmanagementtasksrelatetothe
Enterprisestack(E-stack).Thischapteralsopresents
considerationsandtoolsusedformanagingmigrationstoa
Solarisenvironment.
Chapter9presentsanexampleoftheprocessinvolvedin
migratingfromtheLinuxenvironmenttotheSolaris
environment.
Chapter10presentsacasestudythatillustratesthe
methods,tools,andbestpracticesusedtomigrateaTru64
environmenttotheSolarisenvironment.
Chapter11presentsacasestudythatillustratesthe
methodology,tools,andbestpracticesusedtomigrate
customersfromHP/UXplatforms.
AppendixApresentsasampleJScorereportandanalysisas
referencedinChapter7.


RelatedDocumentation
Topic

Datacenter
consolidation

Title

ConsolidationintheDataCenter:SimplifyingITEnvironments
toReduceTotalCostofOwnership

Part
Number
8173375-10

WebSites
Note
SunisnotresponsiblefortheavailabilityofthirdpartyWebsitesmentionedinthisdocument.Sun
doesnotendorseandisnotresponsibleorliablefor
anycontent,advertising,products,orother
materialsthatareavailableonorthroughsuchsites
orresources.Sunwillnotberesponsibleorliablefor
anyactualorallegeddamageorlosscausedbyorin
connectionwiththeuseoforrelianceonanysuch
content,goods,orservicesthatareavailableonor
throughsuchsitesorresources.

BMCSoftware:toolsforsystemsmanagement
http://www.bmc.com
ControlObjectivesforInformationRelatedTechnology
(COBIT):informationaboutarchitecturematuritymodels


http://www.isaca.org)
DistributedManagementTaskForce(DMTF):information
aboutWeb-BasedEnterpriseManagement(WBEM)
standards
http://www.dmtf.org
Expecttool:toolforautomatingFTPandNFS
http://expect.nist.gov/
GNUC/C++/Fortran/ObjectiveC-to-Cconverter(GCC2CC)
http://www.sun.com/migration/linux/gcc2c_tool.html.
HalcyonMonitoringSolutions:informationandtoolsfor
monitoringandmanagingsoftware
http://www.halcyoninc.com
ITInfrastructureLibrary(ITIL):architecturematuritymodel
http://www.itsmf.com
TheOpenGroupandUNIXstandards:
http://www.opengroup.org/
PatchPro:toolforpatchmanagement
http://www.sun.com/PatchPro
SunMigrationgroup:issuesdatabase,compatibility
libraries,migrationkits,andassessmenttoolsformigrating
totheSolarisOS


http://www.sun.com/migration/
SolarisOEAnalyzerforC/C++andCobolSourceCode
(formerly,JScore):
http://www.sun.com/migration/ntmigration/tools/jscoretool.html
SunTone™ArchitectureMethodology:
http://www.sun.com/service/sunps/jdc/suntoneam_wp_5.2.4.pdf
SoftwareEngineeringInstitute:architecturematuritymodel
http://www.sei.cmu.edu)


TypographicConventions
Thefollowingtabledescribesthetypographicconventionsused
inthisbook.
Typeface
orSymbol

Meaning

AaBbCc123 Thenamesofcommands,files,and
directories;on-screencomputeroutput

Example

Edityour.loginfile.
Usels-atolistallfiles.
machine_name%Youhavemail.

AaBbCc123 Whatyoutype,contrastedwithon-screen
computeroutput
machine_name%su
Password:

AaBbCc123 Command-lineplaceholder:replacewitha Todeleteafile,typermfilename.
realnameorvalue
AaBbCc123 Booktitles,newwordsorterms,orwords ReadChapter6inUser'sGuide.
tobeemphasized
Thesearecalledclassoptions.
Youmustberoottodothis.


ShellPrompts
Shell

Prompt

Cshell

machine-name%

Cshellsuperuser

machine-name%

BourneshellandKornshell

$

BourneshellandKornshellsuperuser

#


UsingUNIXCommands
ThisdocumentdoesnotcontaininformationonbasicUNIX
commandsandproceduressuchasshuttingdownthesystem,
bootingthesystem,andconfiguringdevices.
Seeoneormoreofthefollowingforthisinformation:
SolarisOperatingSystemdocumentationat
http://docs.sun.com
Othersoftwaredocumentationthatyoureceivedwithyour
system


AccessingSunDocumentation
Youcanview,print,orpurchaseabroadselectionofSun
documentation,includinglocalizedversions,at:
http://www.sun.com/documentation
TolearnmoreaboutSunBluePrintsbooks,visittheSun
BluePrintsWebsiteat:
http://www.sun.com/solutions/blueprints/pubs.html


Chapter1.IntroductiontoMigrations
The1940ssawthebirthofmoderncomputing.Withtheadvent
ofprogrammingconceptsandadvancesinvacuumtube
technology,computersmovedfrommainlymechanicalto
electronicdevices.However,evenatthisearlystageof
development,theseedsofmajoroperationalproblemswere
becomingapparent.
In1946,thefirstgenerallyrecognizedcomputer,ENIAC,was
developed.ENIACcouldperform5000addition,357
multiplication,or38divisioncalculationsasecond.Itcovered
1800squarefeet,andweighed30tons.ENIACwasconsidered
atechnologicalmarvelforitsuseofvacuumtubesandits
groundbreakingperformance.However,changingthe
programmingtookweeks,andmaintenancewascostly.
Twoyearslater,severalmodificationsweremadetotheENIAC
tosimplifyprogramming,increaseperformance,andease
maintenance.Thesemodificationsincludedconvertercodefor
serialoperationsandswitchestocontrolcodeselection.Of
course,tousethenewmodifications,software,hardware,and
maintenanceproceduresalsohadtobemodified.
In1949,theEckert-MauchlyComputerCorporationintroduced
theBINACcomputer,whichrevolutionizedtheinfantcomputing
fieldwiththeintroductionofmagnetictapemediafordata
storage.BINACrepresentedaquantumleapforthefledgling
computerindustry,settingapaceforprogressthatcontinuesto
thisday.However,inthatspaceofthreeyears,wehadalready
discoveredthefirstandmostenduringheadachesforIT
professionals:upgradesandmigrations.
Thischapterdescribessomeofthemostcommongoals,
motivators(drivers),benefits,andproblemsofanymigration
project.Itcontainsthefollowingsections:


"MigrationGoals"onpage2
"MigrationMotivators"onpage2
"MigrationBenefits"onpage5
"MigrationProblems"onpage6


MigrationGoals
Amigrationisdefinedasthetransitionofanenvironment's
people,processes,ortechnologiesfromoneimplementationto
another.Intheprecedinghistoricalexamples,migration
occurredwhenresearcherswantedtousethenewBINAC
computerbutneededtheirprogramsanddatafromtheolder
systems.
Thetermadoptionisusedtorefertoinstancesforwhichyou
addorchangeanimplementationwithoutchangingthe
interface.Ontheotherhand,anupgradeimplieschangesinthe
underlyingtechnologiesorinterfaces,whichrequiresubstantial
applicationchanges.Thesetermsaremostcommonlyusedto
addresshardwareandsoftwareissues.Forexample,moving
fromoneversionoftheSolarisOperatingSystem(SolarisOS)
toanother,suchasfromtheversion7oftheSolarisOSto
version9,isacommonuseofthetermadoption.Inthiscase,
developersaddfeaturestoacomponentoftheenvironment
withoutchangingthecoretechnologyorprocessemployed.The
phrase"withoutchangingthecoretechnologyorprocess"
differentiatesanupgradefromamigration.Additionalexamples
ofadoptionsareprovidedinChapter3,"MigrationStrategies."
Whetheryouareattemptingamigration,adoption,orupgrade,
thegoalofyourprojectistoreplaceorenhancethe
functionalityandservicelevelsofyourcurrentsolutionwhile
movingtoanewenvironment.


MigrationMotivators
Nowthatwe'veexplainedwhatmigrationsandupgradesare,
weneedtoinvestigatewhatpromptsthemtooccur.
Unfortunately,thereasonsformigratingorupgradingare
diverseandplentiful.However,theycanbebroadlycategorized
aseitheroriginatinginternallywithintheorganizationorbeing
thrustuponanorganizationbyexternalforces.
Internalbusinessandtechnicalmotivatorsformigrationsand
upgradesincludethefollowing:
Businessprocesschanges.BecausemostIT
environmentsexisttosupportaspecificbusinessandits
processes,itisnaturalthatanychangestothoseprocesses
mightrequirechangestothesupportingenvironment.Most
likely,thiswilltriggeranupgradewhenanapplicationcan
addafeaturetosupportthechangeoramigrationwhena
newsolutionmightbenecessarytosupportthechange.
Businessreorganizations.Mostcompaniesareinnearconstantstatesoforganizationalfluxastheytryto
maximizeprofitsandminimizeoverheadincompetitiveand
turbulenteconomicenvironments.Whenareorganization
occurs,theaffectedbusinessunit'scomputationalsupport
needsoftenchange,promptingretirementsofsome
applications,migrationsofothers,andtheintroductionof
stillothers.
Changestocorporatestandardsorstrategies.Today's
businessdependenceoninformationtechnologyhas
escalatedtherateofvendorchangeandpartneringwithin
manyorganizations.Asonevendor'sapplicationorplatform
isreplacedbystrategicpartneringwithanothervendor,


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