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Wiley red hat linux fedora for dummies dec 2003 ISBN 076454232x

RedHatLinuxFedoraForDummies
ISBN:076454232x
byJon'maddog'HallandPaul
G.Sery
JohnWiley&Sons©2004
ThishandyguidehelpsyouworkwithFedora
bywalkingyouthroughinstallingand
configuringtheOS,gettingonline,buildinga
firewall,usingWindowsapplicationswithWine,
tuninginwithMPlayer,andmuchmore.
TableofContents
RedHatLinuxFedoraforDummies
Introduction
PartI-InstallingRedHatLinux

Chapter1
Chapter2
Chapter3
Chapter4

AndintheOppositeCorner...a

Penguin?
- GettingReadyforRedHatLinux
- Ready,Set,Install!
- GettingRedHatLinux
-

PartII-GotNet?

Chapter5
Chapter6
Chapter7
Chapter8

- Dial-UpModemsStillGettheJobDone
- BroadbandRocks!
ConnectLocally,CommunicateGlobally:
ConnectingtoaLAN
- OnlyYouCanPreventNetworkBreak-Ins

PartIII-Linux,Huh!WhatIsItGoodFor?Absolutely
Everything!

Chapter9 - GnowingGNOME
Chapter10 - GnowingMoreApplications


Chapter11
Chapter12
Chapter13
Chapter14

- Surfin’theNetandGroovin’toTunes
- LivefromtheNet
- GoingtotheOffice
- DaysofWineandApplications

PartIV-RevengeoftheNerds

Chapter15 - BuildingYourOwn,PrivateNetwork
Chapter16 - CreatingBasicLinuxNetworkServices


Chapter17 - SecuringYourFuture
BringingIntheRedHatLinuxRepair
Chapter18 Man
Chapter19 - BuildingaStreamingAudioServer
PartV-ThePartofTens

Chapter20 - TenProblemAreasandSolutions
Chapter21 - TenSecurityVulnerabilities
PartVI-Appendixes

AppendixA - RedHatLinuxAdministrationUtilities
AppendixB - DiscoveringYourHardware
AppendixC - FilingYourLifeAway
BecomingaSuit:ManagingtheRedHat
AppendixD LinuxFileSystem
AppendixE - RevvingUpRPM
AppendixF - AbouttheDVD
Index
CheatSheet - RedHatLinuxFedoraForDummies
ListofFigures
ListofTables
ListofSidebars


BackCover
ConfigurebroadbandInternetconnections,workwith
OpenOffice.org,andmore.RedHathasmergedits
flagshipRedHatLinuxproductwiththeFedoraProject
tocreatetheFedoraCoredistribution.Thishandy
guidehelpsyouworkwithFedora.Itwalksyou
throughinstallingandconfiguringtheoperating
system,gettingonline,buildingafirewall,using
WindowsapplicationswithWine,tuningintostreaming
multimediawithMPlayer,andevencreatingyourown
secure,privatenetwork.
Discoverhowto:
Getonlinewithcable,DSL,ordial-upmodems
Managee-mailwithMozillaandEvolution
Troubleshootanetwork
Partitionanddefragmentharddrives
UsetheGNOMEdesktopenvironment
WorkwithOpenOffice.org
AbouttheAuthors
Jon“maddog”HallisExecutiveDirectorofLinux
InternationalandauthorofseveralbooksonLinux.
PaulG.Seryassistsinoperatingandmanagingthe
ComputerScienceResearchInstituteNetwork.


RedHatLinuxFedoraforDummies
Jon‘maddog’Hal
PaulG.Sery
PublishedbyWileyPublishing,Inc.
111RiverStreet
Hoboken,NJ07030-5774
Copyright©2004byWileyPublishing,Inc.,Indianapolis,Indiana
PublishedbyWileyPublishing,Inc.,Indianapolis,Indiana
PublishedsimultaneouslyinCanada
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AbouttheAuthors
Jon‘maddog’HallistheexecutivedirectorofLinuxInternational,a
vendororganizationdedicatedtopromotingtheuseoftheLinux
operatingsystem.Hehasbeeninthecomputerindustryformorethana
quarterofacentury(somehow,thatsoundsmoreimpressivethanjust
“25years”),thepast18yearsofwhichhavebeenspentusing,


programming,andadmiringtheUnixoperatingsystem.Jonworksfor
CompaqComputerCorporation,whereheishelpingtoshapeCompaq’s
strategywithrespecttoLinux.Previously,Jonwasthedepartmenthead
ofcomputerscienceatHartfordStateTechnicalCollege,wherehis
studentslovingly(hehopes)gavehimthenickname‘maddog’ashetried
toteachthemoperatingsystemdesign,compilertheory,andhowtolive
anhonorablelife
WhileworkingforDigitalEquipmentCorporationinMayof1994,
‘maddog’metLinusTorvalds,andwasintelligentenough(hiscriticssay
‘maddog’wasjustlucky)torecognizethepotentialoftheLinuxoperating
system.Linuxchangedhislife,mostlybyprovidinghimwith22-hour
workdays.Since‘maddog’hasstartedworkingwithLinux,however,he
hasalsostartedmeetingmoregirls(inparticular,histwogodchildren).
YoucanusuallyfindJonspeakingatvariousLinuxconferencesand
events(‘maddog’justbarks),andhehasalsobeenknowntotravellong
distancestospeaktolocalLinuxusergroups.
PaulG.SeryisacomputersystemsengineeremployedbySandia
NationalLaboratoriesinAlbuquerque,NewMexico.Heisamemberof
theComputerSupportUnit,SpecialProjects,whichspecializesin
managingandtroubleshootingUNIXandLinuxsystems.
Whenheisnotbeatinghisheadagainstsystemsadministration
problems,Paulandhiswife,Lidia,enjoyridingtheirtandembicycle
throughtheRioGrandevalley.Theyalsoenjoytravelingthroughout
Mexico.PaulistheauthorofLinuxNetworkToolkitandtheco-authorof
severalotherbooks.Hehasabachelor’sdegreeinelectricalengineering
fromtheUniversityofNewMexico.
Dedication
Jon‘maddog’Hall:ToMom&Pop(TM),whoseaversiontothings
electroniciswellknown,andwhocanstillcalltheirsonJonratherthan
maddog.
PaulG.Sery:Tomywife,LidiaMauraVazquezdeSery.
Author’sAcknowledgments


Iwanttothankmywife,Lidia,forherpatience,support,andgoodadvice,
allofwhichhavemadewritingthisbookpossible.Withouther,Iwould
stillbethepocket-protector-wearing,busted-eye-glass-fixed-with-tapelooking,“StarTrek”-watching,wrinkled-shirt-suffering,spaghetti-in-thepot-over-the-sinkeating,Saturday-night-hackingsorrysortaguy.Well,I
neverwasinto“StarTrek,”andIampeckingatthiskeyboardon
Saturdaynight,butmybeautifulwifesurehasmademeabetterman.
IwouldalsoliketothankAnneHamiltonandLauraLewin,whogaveme
thechancetowriteingeneralandthisbookinparticular.Bothshowed
greatconfidenceandpatienceinme.Iamverygratefulandwishthem
successintheirventures.
And,ofcourse,IwanttothankthestaffatWileyPublishing,who
providedconsiderableandessentialhelp,too.TerriVarverisand
RebeccaWhitneyprovidedconstantandessentialassistance.
Iwanttoacknowledgeatotallackofassistanceinwritingthisbookfrom
mydog,theinfamousOsoMaloso;eaterofmanythingsthatshouldhave
endedhislongcareerearly,includingbutnotlimitedtoantpoison,Advil,
manypoundsofTootsieRollsoneHalloween,severalbagsofchicken
bonesatoneparty,beer,andotherassorteditems;escaperofmany
fencesandgates;andfriendofthelate,greatPaunchy(whosenameyou
seethroughoutthisbook)andotherlocaldogs.
HowusefulwasOso?Well,onenightwhileworkingonthisbookIgota
phonecall.Leavingmyapplepiebehindnexttothekeyboard,Iwent
downstairstotakethecallandpassedhimonhiswayup.Ishouldhave
knownsomethingwasupbecausehehadacellphonewithhimandno
oneansweredwhenIpickeduptotakethecall.Iwentupthestairswhile
hewentdown.Theapplepiewasgone.Oso1,human0.—PaulG.Sery
Publisher’sAcknowledgments
We’reproudofthisbook;pleasesendusyourcommentsthroughour
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Introduction
RedHatLinuxFedoraForDummiesisdesignedtohelpyouinstalland
useRedHatLinux.Thisbookshowsyouhowtodofunandinteresting—
tosaynothingofuseful—taskswithRedHatLinux.Thisbookisalso
designedtobeaneffectivedoorstoporcoffeecupcoaster.Whateveryou
useitfor,wehopethatyouhavefun.


AboutThisBook
Thisbookisdesignedtobeahelping-handstutorial.Itprovidesaplace
toturnforhelpandsolaceinthosemomentswhen,aftertwohoursof
tryingtogetyournetworkconnectionworking,yourdogbumpsintothe
cableanditmagicallystartsworking.
Note:Atpresstime,RedHatrenameditsLinuxproducttotheFedora
Project.Throughoutthisbook,weusuallyrefertotheproductasRedHat
Linux.You’llprobablyseetheproductreferredtoastheFedoraProjectin
thenews,ontheWeb,andelsewhere,butyoucanrestassuredthatthe
differentterms,asusedinthisbook,arereferringtothesameproduct.
Wetriedourhardesttofillupthisbookwiththethingsyouneedtoknow
about,suchashowto
InstallRedHatLinux
GetconnectedtotheInternetbyusingbroadbandDSLandcable
modemsorold-fashioneddial-upmodems
GetconnectedtoyourLocalAreaNetwork(LAN)
Buildasimplebuteffectivefirewall
BuildInternetandLANservices,suchasWebpagesandprint
servers
UseRedHatLinuxtoplayCDsandlistentoInternetradio
stations
UsetheGNOMEdesktopenvironment
Takeadvantageofusefulandusableapplications,suchasthe
OpenOfficedesktopproductivitysuite,Evolutiondesktop
organizerande-mailclient,andstreamingmultimediaMPlayer.
WorkwiththeOpenOfficedesktopproductivitysuitetosatisfy


yourwordprocessing,spreadsheet,andpresentationneeds
Upgradeyourcomputerandnetworksecurity
Knowwheretogoforhelp
ManageyourRedHatLinuxworkstation
Youseetroubleshootingtipsthroughoutthisbook,andChapter18is
devotedtothesubject.It’snotthatRedHatLinuxisallthatmuchtrouble,
butwewantyoutobepreparedincaseyourunintobadluck.
Warning Theinstructionsinthisbookaredesignedtoworkwiththe
versionofRedHatLinuxyoufindonthecompanionDVD;
wealsodescribehowtodownloadseveralsoftware
packagesnotfoundontheDVD-ROMs.Feelfreetouse
otherversionsofRedHatLinuxorevenotherLinux
distributions,butbeawarethatourinstructionsmaynot
workexactlyorevenatall.Goodluck!


FoolishAssumptions
Youknowwhattheysayaboutpeoplewhomakeassumptions,butthis
bookwouldneverhavebeenwrittenifwedidn’tmakeafew.Thisbookis
foryouifyou
WanttobuildaRedHatLinuxworkstation:Youwanttouse
theLinuxoperatingsystemtobuildyourpersonalworkstation.
Surprise!TheDVD-ROMinthebackofthisbookcontainsthe
RedHatLinuxdistribution.
Haveacomputer:It’sjustatechnicality,butyouneeda
computerbecausethisbookdescribeshowtoinstallRedHat
Linuxonacomputer.
Havenoducttape:YouwanttoputtheRedHatLinuxoperating
systemandthecomputertogether,andusingducttapehasn’t
worked.
Don’twanttobeaguru:Youdon’twanttobecomeaRedHat
Linuxguru—atleastnotyet.
However,thisbookisnotforyouifyou’relookingfor
Anall-encompassingreference-stylebook:Wesimplydon’t
haveenoughspace,orpermissionfromthepublisher,toprovide
acomprehensiverangeoftopics.Weconcentrateonproviding
helpwithgettingpopularandusefulstuffupandrunning.We
devotemorespace,forexample,togettingyourDSLorcable
modemworkingthantodescribingthetheorythatmakesthem
work.
Asystemadministrationbook:Again,wedon’thaveenough
spacetodothesubjectjustice.Weprovideinstructionsonhowto
performcertainessentialadministrativetasks,likeaddingusers,
packages,andnetworkconnections.Thisbookselectscertain
topicstofocusonandleavestherestforotherbooks.


ConventionsUsedinThisBook
Atcomputerconventions,thousandsofcomputerpeoplegettogether
andtalkaboutdeeptechnicalissues,suchas
WhatisthebesthardwareforrunningRedHatLinux?
IsCokebetterthanPepsi?
CouldSupermanbeatBatman?
CouldSuperman,Batman,andSpidermantogetherbeatThe
Punisher?(Noway!)
Buttheseconventionsaren’tthetypeswemean.Ourconventionsare
shorthandwaysofdesignatingspecificinformation,suchaswhatisand
isn’tacommandorthemeaningofcertainfunny-lookingsymbols.

Typingcode
Weshowyouhowtousegraphicalinterfacestorunmostofthe
programs,utilities,andapplicationswedescribeinthisbook.Sometimes,
however,runningcommandsfromatext-basedinterfaceisbetteror
necessary.InChapter4,forexample,wedescribehowtostartaterminal
emulatorwindowinwhichtorunthecommand.Inanticipationofrunning
text-basedcommands,wedescribetheconventionsweuse.
Whenyouseefilenames,directories,commands,andparametersinthe
text,they’reformattedinmonospacetype.Thathelpsdifferentiate
thoseitemsfromthegeneraltext.
Whenyouseewordsinboldface,theyindicatesomethingyoushould
type;forexample:
TypemanchownatthecommandpromptandpressEnter.
ThatlinemeanstoenterthecommandmanchownandpresstheEnter
(orReturn)key.Thecommandisthenexecuted.(Throughoutthisbook,
wesay“presstheEnterkey”wheneverwewantyoutoexecutea


command;theEnterkeyissynonymouswiththeReturnkey.)
Commandsnotshowninthetext,butsetoffonlinesbythemselves,look
likethis:
pwd
Here’sarundownofthecommandsyntaxinLinux:
Textnotsurroundedby[]or{}bracketsmustbetyped
exactlyasshown.
Textinsidebrackets[]isoptional.
Textinitalicsindicatesthepartofacommandthatmustbe
replacedwithappropriatetext.Youshouldnottypeverbatimthe
italicizedpartofacommand.Ifwesay“Enterthecommandmore
somefile,”wemeanforyoutoreplacesomefilewiththenameof
thefileyou’reinterestedin.Forexample,youmayendup
enteringthecommandmore/etc/passwd,whereyousubstitute
/etc/passwdforsomefile.
Textinsidebraces{}indicatesthatyoumustchooseoneofthe
valuesinsidethebracesandseparatedbythe|sign.For
example,youshouldentereitherecho“one”orecho“two”or
echo“three”ifyouseethecommandecho“{one|two|three}”.
Anellipsis(...)meansandsoonortorepeatthepreceding
commandlineasneeded.
Don’tconcernyourselfmuchwiththeseconventionsfornow.Inmost
chaptersinthisbook,youdon’tneedtoknowtheseparticulars.When
youdoneedtoknowsomethingaboutaparticularsyntax,comebackto
thisintroductionforarefreshercourse.

Keystrokesandsuch
Keystrokesareshownwithaplussignbetweenthekeys.Forexample,
Ctrl+Alt+DeletemeansthatyoushouldpresstheCtrlkey,Altkey,and


Deletekeyallatthesametime.(No,wedon’tmakeyoupressanymore
thanthreekeysatthesametime.)
Mostapplicationsandutilitieswedescribeinthisbookuseagraphical
userinterface(GUI),suchasGNOME,whichallowsyoutocontrolyour
computerbypointingandclickingwithyourmouse.Occasionally,
however,wegivenongraphicalinstructionsthatrequireyoutopresskeys
onyourkeyboard.Inthosesituations,weoftensimplifytheinstructions
bysaying“clickOK.”Thatinstructiongenerallymeansthatyoupressthe
Tabkey,whichmovesthecursortotheOKbutton,andthenpressthe
Enterkey.Thattwo-stepprocessisequivalenttoclickinganOKbuttonin
aGUI.


HowThisBookIsOrganized
LikeallproperForDummiesbooks,thisbookisorganizedinto
independentparts.Youcanreadthepartsinanyorder.Heck,tryreading
thembackwardforarealchallenge.Thisbookisnotmeanttoberead
fromfrontcovertoback;rather,it’smeanttobeareferencebookthat
helpsyoufindwhatyou’relookingforwhenyou’relookingforit.Between
theContentsataGlancepage,thetableofcontents,andtheindex,you
shouldhavenoproblemfindingwhatyouneed.
Ifyoudoreadthechaptersinthisbookinorder,youencountertheuseful
andinterestingthingsfirstandthemoretechnicalitemslast.For
example,afterinstallingRedHatLinuxinPartI,youmaywantto
proceedimmediatelytoPartIItoseehowtoconnectLinuxtotheInternet
oryourlocalnetwork.Fromthere,youcanuseyournewworkstationto
surftheInternetandusee-mail.
Thefollowingsectionsdescribeeachpart.

PartI:InstallingRedHatLinux
InPartI,youfindoutwhatLinuxisandhowtoprepareyourcomputerto
installRedHatLinux.Wethenwalkyouthroughtheinstallationandshow
youthebasicsofworkingwithRedHatLinux.

PartII:GotNet?
InPartII,youfindoutaboutconnectingtotheInternetandlocal
networks.YouseehowtojumpontheInternetwithyoureveryday
modemorhigh-speed(broadband)DSLorcablemodem.Wealsoshow
youhowtoconnecttoanexistingnetwork.Ifthatlocalnetworkhasa
high-speedInternetconnection,youcanuseitasyourportaltothe
wonderfulworldofsurfing.TheInternetcanbedangerous,soweinclude
instructionsforcreatingyourownfirewall.

PartIII:Linux,Huh!WhatIsItGoodFor?Absolutely
Everything!


PartIIIguidesyouthroughthegloriousparticularsofdoingsomething
withRedHatLinux.You’reintroducedtotheGNOMEdesktopwindow
environment.You’retakenthroughitspacesbyfindingouthowtomove,
resize,hide,andclosewindowsandhowtousethefilemanagerand
muchmore.TwochaptersaredevotedtousingtheRedHatLinux
multimediacapabilities,suchaslisteningtoCDsandMP3s,inadditionto
howtoripandrecordthem.Theworld’sradiostationsarenowavailable
toyouwithstreamingmediatechnology.WeintroduceyoutotheMozilla
browsersothatyoucansurftheNetandusetheEvolutionorganizerto
readyoure-mail,docalendaring,andothertasks.Wealsodescribein
detailthefull-featuredOpenOfficedesktopproductivitysuite.Youcanuse
OpenOfficewithyourRedHatLinuxmachinetodoallyourwritingand
otherwork-relatedfunctions.Youcanevenwriteabookwithit!Finally,
youseehowtogetorganizedwithRedHatLinux.

PartIV:RevengeoftheNerds
InPartIV,weguideyouthroughtheuseofyourRedHatLinux
computer’snetworkcapabilities.It’sNerdCity,butit’salsofunanduseful.
Westartbyshowingyouhowtobuildasimplenetwork.Afteryour
networkisupandrunning,wedescribehowtobuildnetworkservices,
suchastheApacheWebserver,Samba,andprinterservers.Thelast
twochaptersaredevotedtoexploringtheartofnetworkcomputer
securityandtroubleshootingnetworkproblems.Insertyourpocket
protector,straptheoldHPcalculatortoyourhip,retapeyourglasses,
andgetreadyforSaturdaynight!

PartV:ThePartofTens
AForDummiesbookjustisn’tcompletewithoutThePartofTens,where
youcanfindtenall-importantresourcesandanswerstothetenmost
bothersomequestionspeoplehaveafterinstallingRedHatLinux.(The
folksatRedHatSoftwareprovidedthesequestions.)Weintroducethe
tenmostimportantsecurityconcernstoo.

PartVI:Appendixes


Ah,theappendixes.AppendixAoutlinestheRedHatLinuxsystems
administrationutilities.AppendixBdescribeshowtofindoutaboutthe
detailsofyourcomputer’sindividualpiecesofhardware;thisinformation
issometimeshelpfulwhenyou’reinstallingRedHatLinux.AppendixesC
andDintroduceyoutousingandmanagingtheLinuxfilesystem.
AppendixEshowshowtousetheRedHatPackagemanager(RPM).
AppendixFcompletesthisbookbydescribingwhatyoucanfindonthe
companionDVD-ROM.


WhatYou’reNottoRead
Heck,youdon’thavetoreadanyofthisbookifyoudon’twantto,but
whydidyoubuyit?(Notthatwe’recomplaining.)PartIhasbackground
information.Ifyoudon’twantit,don’treadit.Also,thetextinsidebarsis
optional,althoughoftenhelpful.Ifyou’reonthefasttracktousingLinux,
youcanskipthesidebarsandthetextnexttotheTechnicalStufficon,as
describedinthefollowingsection.Butwesuggestinsteadthatyouslow
downabitandenjoytheexperience.


IconsinThisBook
Thissectiondescribestheiconsyouseeinthisbook.Iconsamplifythe
discussionbyinjectinginterestingorimportantinformation.
TipNiftylittleshortcutsandtimesaversareunderthisicon.RedHat
Linuxisapowerfuloperatingsystem,andyoucansaveunbelievable
amountsoftimeandenergybyusingitstoolsandprograms.Wehope
thatourtipsshowyouhow.
WarningDon’tletthishappentoyou!Wehopethatourexperiences
withRedHatLinuxcanhelpyouavoidthemistakeswehavemade.
RememberThisinformationhelpsyoutorecallinformationpresented
elsewhereinthebook.
TechnicalStuffThisinformationisparticularlynerdyandtechnical.You
canskipit,butyoumayfinditinterestingifyou’reofageekierbent.


WheretoGofromHere
You’reabouttojointhelegionsofpeoplewhohavebeenusingand
developingLinux.WehavebeenusingUnixformorethan20years,
Linuxformorethan10years,andRedHatLinuxfor10years.Wehave
foundRedHatLinuxtobeaflexible,powerfuloperatingsystem,capable
ofsolvingmostproblemsevenwithoutalargesetofcommercial
software.ThefutureoftheLinux—andRedHatLinux,inparticular—
operatingsystemisbright.Thetimeandenergyyouexpendinbecoming
familiarwithitwillbeworthwhile.CarpeLinuxum.


PartI:InstallingRedHatLinux


ChapterList:
Chapter1:AndintheOppositeCorner...aPenguin?
Chapter2:GettingReadyforRedHatLinux
Chapter3:Ready,Set,Install!
Chapter4:GettingRedHatLinux
Inthispart...
You’reabouttoembarkonajourneythroughtheRedHatLinux
installationprogram.Perhapsyouknownothingaboutsettingupan
operatingsystemonyourcomputer.That’sokay.TheRedHatLinux
installationsystemiseasygoingbynatureandstraightforwardtouse.
Plus,wehelpguideyouthroughtheinstallationprocess.
InChapter1,youbegintodiscoverwhatRedHatLinuxisallaboutand
whatitcandoforyou.Chapter2helpsyoutogetreadytoinstallRedHat
Linuxandrepartitionyourharddrive,ifnecessary.Therealfunbeginsin
Chapter3,whenyouinstallyourownpenguin.(LinusTorvalds,the
inventorofLinux,lovespenguins;andtheyhavebeenadoptedasthe
Linuxmascot.)Chapter4givesyouabrief,butimportant,introductionto
workingwithRedHatLinux.


Chapter1:AndintheOppositeCorner...a
Penguin?


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