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OReilly RFID essentials theory in practice jan 2006 ISBN 0596009445

RFIDEssentials
ByHimanshuBhatt,BillGlover
...............................................
Publisher:O'Reilly
PubDate:January2006
PrintISBN-10:0-596-00944-5
PrintISBN-13:978-0-59-600944-1
Pages:276

TableofContents|Index

RadioFrequencyIdentification(RFID)israpidlychangingthe
waybusinessestrackinventoryandassets.FromWal-MartandTescotothe
U.S.DepartmentofDefense,earlyeffortsarealreadyshowingbenefits,
butsoftware,integration,anddataprocessingforRFIDstillpresenta
challenge.Ifyouareadeveloperoranarchitectchargedwith
developinganRFIDsystem,thisbookisforyou.Drawingonextensive
experience,BillGloverandHimanshuBhattprovideyouwithessential
informationonthisemergingtechnology.

Withtheknowledgeyougaininthesepages,youwillpossessthe

informationandunderstandingyouneedtostartdesigning,building,or
integratingwithRFIDsystems.

InRFIDEssentialsyouwillfindinformationon:

----Tagsandtagprotocols,includingtheElectronic
ProductCode(EPC)
----Readersandreaderprotocols
----RFIDmiddleware
----Securityandprivacy
----ManagingRFIDdevices


----RFID'simpactonyourarchitecture

BillGloverhasbeenwritingsoftwaresince1981andhasworkedasa
programmer,leaddeveloper,orarchitectonsystemsofallsizes,from
small,automatedsystemscontrollingdamsandfeedmillsuptoa
completeredesignandreimplementationofoneoftheworld'sbusiest
travelwebsites.BillfirstworkedwithRFIDin1995,tracking
individualcattleusingeartags.HeiscurrentlyaSeniorJava
ArchitectwithSunMicrosystems,Inc.,andworkswithSun'sRFID
consultingpracticeandtheRFIDTestCenter.

HimanshuBhattheadstheU.S.RFIDPracticeandSoftwareTechnologyLab
forSunMicrosystems,Inc.Priortoassumingthisrole,Himanshuwas
responsibleforbusinessdevelopmentandconsultinginemergingareas
oftechnology.Himanshuhasover16yearsofexperienceinthe
architectureanddevelopmentofdistributed,multitiersystemsusinga
hostoftechnologiesforFortune1000companies.Himanshuhasspokenat
industryconferencessuchasJavaOneandtheLoneStarSymposiumandhas
publishedarticlesonJava/J2EEtechnologies.

"TheInformationAgeisover.We'reenteringanerawhere
networkconnectivityisalmostubiquitous-it'sparticipateorperish."
--JonathanSchwartz,PresidentandCOO,SunMicrosystems,Inc.

"Uniquecompetitiveadvantageeruptsfromenterprisesthatcouplethe
RFIDtechnologieslaidoutinRFIDEssentialswithmodernbusinessintegrationusing
service-orientedarchitectures.Thisisthebooktoreadinordertounderstandthisnew


landscape."
--MarkBauhaus,SeniorVicePresident,SunMicrosystems,Inc.

"ThisisamustreadforRFIDSoftwareandSolutionarchitectsandis
highlyrecommendedforanyoneneedingtogainmoreinsightintothemyriadof
components,standardsandtechnologiesthatmakeupanRFIDsolutionsenvironment."
--BryanTracey,ChiefArchitect,GlobeRangerCorporation


"Theauthorshavedoneacommendablejobofcoveringalotofgroundin
theRFIDspace,includingtheinfrastructureneededtosharethevolumesofdataRFIDwill
likelygenerate."
--GrahamGillen,SeniorProductManager,VeriSign


RFIDEssentials
ByHimanshuBhatt,BillGlover
...............................................
Publisher:O'Reilly
PubDate:January2006
PrintISBN-10:0-596-00944-5
PrintISBN-13:978-0-59-600944-1
Pages:276

TableofContents|Index













































Copyright
PraiseforRFIDEssentials
Preface
WhoThisBookIsFor
StructureofThisBook
ConventionsUsedinThisBook
CommentsandQuestions
Safari®Enabled
Acknowledgments
ChapterOne.AnIntroductiontoRFID
Section1.1.TheCaseforRFID
Section1.2.TheErasofRFID
Section1.3.ApplicationTypes
Section1.4.Summary
ChapterTwo.RFIDArchitecture
Section2.1.AConfluenceofTechnologies
Section2.2.KeyFunctionalities
Section2.3.RFIDSystemComponents
Section2.4.SystemicQualityConsiderations
Section2.5.ArchitectureGuidelines
Section2.6.SystemManagement
Section2.7.Summary
ChapterThree.Tags
Section3.1.BasicTagCapabilities













































































Section3.2.PhysicalCharacteristics
Section3.3.PowerSource
Section3.4.AirInterface
Section3.5.InformationStorageandProcessingCapacity
Section3.6.Standards
Section3.7.Summary
ChapterFour.TagProtocols
Section4.1.ProtocolTermsandConcepts
Section4.2.HowTagsStoreData
Section4.3.SingulationandAnti-CollisionProcedures
Section4.4.TagFeaturesforSecurityandPrivacy
Section4.5.LearntoTroubleshootTagCommunications
Section4.6.Summary
ChapterFive.ReadersandPrinters
Section5.1.PhysicalComponentsofanRFIDReader
Section5.2.LogicalComponentsofanRFIDReader
Section5.3.PartsofanRFIDPrinterandApplicator
Section5.4.TypesofReaders
Section5.5.LayoutforReadersandAntennas
Section5.6.ConfiguringReaders
Section5.7.Summary
ChapterSix.ReaderProtocols
Section6.1.PartsofaReaderProtocol
Section6.2.VendorProtocols
Section6.3.EPCglobalProtocolOverview
Section6.4.SimpleLightweightRFIDReaderProtocol
Section6.5.FutureProtocols
Section6.6.Summary
ChapterSeven.RFIDMiddleware
Section7.1.Motivations
Section7.2.LogicalArchitecture
Section7.3.ApplicationLevelEventsSpecification
Section7.4.CommercialRFIDMiddleware
Section7.5.Summary
ChapterEight.RFIDInformationService
Section8.1.RFIDData
Section8.2.TheEPCglobalNetwork
Section8.3.TheObjectNamingService
Section8.4.TheEPCInformationServices





























































Section8.5.Summary
ChapterNine.Manageability
Section9.1.EdgeDeploymentOptions
Section9.2.CapabilitiesNeededforEdgeManagement
Section9.3.StandardsandTechnologies
Section9.4.Summary
ChapterTen.PrivacyandSecurity
Section10.1.PrivacyandSecurityIssues
Section10.2.RFIDPrivacy
Section10.3.RFIDSecurity
Section10.4.Summary
ChapterEleven.TheFuture
Section11.1.Standards
Section11.2.Technology
Section11.3.Business
Section11.4.Summary
AppendixA.EPCIdentityEncodings
SectionA.1.GS1SGTINEncoding
SectionA.2.GS1SSCCEncoding
SectionA.3.GS1GLN/SGLNEncoding
SectionA.4.GS1GRAIEncoding
SectionA.5.GS1GIAIEncoding
AppendixB.References
SectionB.1.Organizations,Standards,andSpecifications
SectionB.2.ImportantPapersonRFID
SectionB.3.RelatedBooks
SectionB.4.Periodicals
SectionB.5.History
SectionB.6.FreeTools
Glossary
AbouttheAuthors
Colophon
Index


RFIDEssentials
byBillGloverandHimanshuBhatt
Copyright©2006O'ReillyMedia,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.
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FirstEdition.

TheO'ReillylogoisaregisteredtrademarkofO'ReillyMedia,
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ISBN:0-596-00944-5
[M]




PraiseforRFIDEssentials
"RFIDisoneofthoserare'changetheworld'technologies
thatwillforcearethinkingofmanyvalue-chainstrategies.
Inthatcontext,BillandHimanshu'scomprehensive
expert-in-a-bookcreationshouldbeonthemust-readlist
forstrategistsandITprofessionalswhoseeRFIDintheir
future.Uniquecompetitiveadvantageeruptsfrom
enterprisesthatcoupletheRFIDtechnologieslaidoutin
RFIDEssentialswithmodernbusinessintegrationusing
service-orientedarchitectures.Thisisthebooktoreadin
ordertounderstandthisnewlandscape."
MARKBAUHAUS,SVP:BUSINESS
INTEGRATION,IDENTITY,ANDAPPLICATIONPLATFORM
SOFTWARE
"RFID,orRadioFrequencyIdentification,gotlegswith
mandatesfromgiantssuchasWal-MartandtheU.S.
DepartmentofDefense;however,theuseisgoingbeyond
thesupplychain.Companiesareseeingthebenefitsof
RFIDinotherareassuchasassettrackinganddrug
authentication.Nomatterwhattheneed,thefirststepin
anyengagementisunderstandingthetechnologyandhow
itcanbeusedtogainbusinessbenefits.Thisbookgivesa
goodfoundationonRFIDfundamentalsandisamust-read
ifyouareconsideringadoptingRFIDforyourbusinessor
applications."
JULIESARBACKER,DIRECTOR,SUNMICROSYSTEMSRFID
BUSINESSUNIT
"Theauthorshavedoneacommendablejobofcoveringa
lotofgroundintheRFIDspace,includingthe
infrastructureneededtosharethevolumesofdataRFID


willlikelygenerate.Whiletheshort-termissuesseem
focusedonreadratesandhardwareprices,intheendwe
mayseeyetanothertransformationaluseoftheInternet
inexchangingdataaboutserializedassetsandproducts."
GRAHAMGILLEN,SENIORPRODUCTMANAGER,VERISIGN


Preface
Likesomanyothers,thisbookwaswrittenbecausewe
couldn'tfindonelikeit.Weneededsomethingtohandtoall
ofthosepeoplewhohavecometousaskingfor"agoodbookto
readonRFID."Whenwelookedforcandidateswefoundsome
greatbooks,butmostwereaimedatelectricalengineersor
top-levelmanagers,withverylittleforthoseofuswhoarein
between.Thisbookisfordevelopers,systemandsoftware
architects,andprojectmanagers,aswellasstudentsand
professionalsinalloftheindustriesimpactedbyRadio
FrequencyIdentification(RFID)whowanttounderstandhow
thistechnologyworks.Asthetitlesuggests,thisbookisabout
RFIDingeneralandnotjustthemostrecentdevelopments;
however,becausesomuchisgoingonintheareaofRFIDfor
thesupplychainandespeciallytheElectronicProductCode
(EPC),wehavedevotedconsiderablespacetothesetopics.
RegardlessofthetypeofRFIDworkyoumaybedoing,we
thinkyouwillfindsomethingusefulhere.




WhoThisBookIsFor
ThisbookisfordeveloperswhoneedtogetthatfirstRFID
prototypeoutthedoor;systemsarchitectswhoneedto
understandthemajorelementsinanRFIDsystem;andproject
managerswhoneedtodividework,setgoals,andunderstand
vendorproposals.Studentsandinstructorsshouldfindenough
detailheretousethisbookasatleastasupplementarytextfor
astudyofRFID.Eventhosewithconsiderableexperiencein
RFIDshouldfindthisbookausefulupdateonthelatest
developments,withenoughofthefundamentalstoserveasa
reference.Thisbookisprobablynotforanyonewhowants
eitheracursoryoverviewofthetechnologyoradeepdiscussion
ofsupplychainmanagement,manufacturing,accesscontrol,or
conspiracytheories.Theseareallinterestingtopicsintheirown
right,butthisisonlyonebook!




StructureofThisBook
Thereare11chapters,2appendices,andaglossaryinthis
book.RFIDisabroadsubject,sowhilewethinkallofthe
sectionsofthebookarenecessarytotellthewholestory,not
everysectionwillappealtoeveryreader.Thebook'sstructure
dividesneatlyintotwobroadareasofinterest:ageneral
overview(the"Everyone"section),whichshouldbeofinterest
toanyreader,andasectioncontainingmore-technical
discussion("DevelopersandArchitects").

Everyone
Chapters1and2coverthebasicsofRFIDandgivereadersa
frameworkforfurtherdiscussion.Mostreaderswillalsowantto
coverChapters9-11fordiscussionsofkeytopicsinRFID.

DevelopersandArchitects
AnyonewhowillactuallybecreatingorinterfacingwithanRFID
systemorwhowantstounderstandhowallofthepieceswork
shouldreadChapters38,wherewegetintothedetailsoftags,
readers,middleware,andtheRFIDinformationservice.

What'sinEachChapter
Thechaptersproceedinwhatwehopeyouwillfindisanatural
progression,startingwithanintroductionandoverview,a
chapteronarchitecture,andthenadiscussionofeach
componentofthatarchitecture.Followingourdiscussionofall
ofthepieces,wetakealookatthequalitiesoftheentire


systemthatdeservespecialattention,suchasmanageability,
security,andprivacy.Wethenwrapthingsupinthefinal
chapterwithalookatthefutureofRFID.Here'sabrieftour:

Chapter1,AnIntroductiontoRFID
DefinesRFIDandintroducessomeofthefundamental
concepts

Chapter2,RFIDArchitecture
DescribesthepartsofanRFIDsystem,theirrelationshipsto
eachother,andsomeofthefunctionalandservice-level
requirementsspecifictoRFID

Chapter3,Tags
Describesthetagsthatattachanidentitytoanitemand
communicatethatidentitytoreaders

Chapter4,TagProtocols
Examineshowtagstalktoreaders

Chapter5,ReadersandPrinters
Describesthereadersthatcommunicatewithtagsand
connectRFID-taggeditemstothenetwork


Chapter6,ReaderProtocols
Covershowreaderstalktomiddlewareandapplications

Chapter7,RFIDMiddleware
DescribesthemiddlewarethatmanagesRFIDinformation
andedgedevices

Chapter8,RFIDInformationService
ExaminesthestorageanduseofRFIDinformation

Chapter9,Manageability
Discussessomeofthespecificconcernsrelatedto
managingRFIDdevicesontheedgeofthenetwork

Chapter10,PrivacyandSecurity
DiscussesrealconcernsregardingtheimpactofRFIDon
securityandprivacy,aswellasdispellingsomeofthemyths

Chapter11,TheFuture
ProvidesalookatwhereRFIDmaytakeusinthenextfew
years


AppendixA,EPCIdentityEncodings
Providesadditionalencodingstocompletethediscussionof
EPCidentityencodingsintroducedinChapter4

AppendixB,References
Listsresourcesavailableforthosewhowantmore
informationonRFIDorwhowouldliketobecomeinvolved
indefiningthetechnologyasitdevelops

Glossary
Includeskeyacronymsandtermstohelpyousortoutsome
ofthejargonusedinthisfield


ConventionsUsedinThisBook
Thefollowingisalistofthetypographicalconventionsusedin
thisbook:

Italic
Indicatesnewterms,URLs,emailaddresses,filenames,file
extensions,pathnames,anddirectories

Constantwidth
Isusedforexamplesandthecontentsoffiles

Constantwidthitalic

Showstextthatshouldbereplacedwithuser-supplied
values
Youshouldpayspecialattentiontonotessetapartfromthe
textwiththefollowingicons:

Note:Thisisatip,suggestion,orgeneralnote.Itcontains
usefulsupplementaryinformationaboutthetopicathand.
Warning:Thisisawarningornoteofcaution,oftenindicating
thatyourmoneyoryourprivacymightbeatrisk.


CommentsandQuestions
Pleaseaddresscommentsandquestionsconcerningthisbookto
thepublisher:
O'ReillyMedia
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(800)998-9938(intheU.S.orCanada)
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(707)829-0104(fax)
Wehaveawebpageforthisbook,wherewelisterrata,
examples,andanyadditionalinformation.Youcanaccessthis
pageat:
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/rfid
Theauthorsalsomaintainasitewhereyoucanfindalistof
RFIDresources,alongwithnewsandupdates:
http://www.rfidessentials.com
Tocommentorasktechnicalquestionsaboutthisbook,send
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Acknowledgments
Wewouldliketothankthemanypeoplewhohaveprovided
bothtremendoussupportanddirecthelptomakethisabetter
book.Muchofwhatisgoodaboutthisbookisduetotheir
diligenceandcare,andanymistakesorweaknessesareentirely
ours.
WewouldliketothankoureditorsatO'ReillyMedia,Inc.:Mike
Hendricksonforgettingusofftoagreatstart;Andrew
Odewahnforseeingthisthrough;andSusanBrownZahn,
MarloweShaeffer,andMaryO'Brienforbringingitalltogether.
Manypeoplewentoutoftheirwaytohelpbyreadingearly
draftsandprovidingdetailedadviceandreviews.Wewouldlike
tothankChukBiebighauser,JeffCoffin,BryanHelm,Ravi
Kalidindi,BrendanMcCarthy,BenMenasha,andTimSeltzer.We
werealsoluckyenoughtohavesomeverychallengingtechnical
reviewerscritiqueourpenultimatedraft,andthisisamuch
betterbookbecauseoftheirhelp.ManythankstoKevinEllison
fromSunMicrosystems,Inc.;GrahamGillenfromVeriSign,
Inc.;JohnHill,JimBoth,andDennisDearthfromESync;Mark
JohnsonofRFIDTribe;SteveLazarofTexasInstruments;Mark
PalmerfromProgressSoftware;KenTraubfromConnecTerra;
BryanTraceyfromGlobeRanger,Inc.;andMarcLinsterof
Avicon.AspecialthanksgoestoPaulBodifeeofthe"Signals
Collection4045."Wedidnotusehisphotosinthefinaldraft,
buthisinformationaboutWWII-eraRFtechnologywasagreat
inspiration(seeAppendixBforalinktotheSignalsCollection
website).WewouldalsoliketothanktheentireRFIDteamat
SunMicrosystemsfortheirpassionforthisspaceandfortheir
support.
Billwouldalsoliketothankhisfamilyfortoleratingasleepless,
grumpy,andsometimesoverwhelmedhusband,father,andson
forthesepastmonths.ThankstoJaniseandRhian,andthank
youtoBill'sparents,JanetandBill.


Himanshuwouldliketothankhiswife,Teju,forher
encouragementandsupportthroughthewritingofthisbook.
Hewouldalsoliketothankhislittleones,RohanandRitu,for
theirinnocence,boundlessenergy,andenthusiasm.Finally,
thankstohisparents,VinodandYashavati,andhissiblings,
RajendraandJigu,fortheirlifelongloveandguidance.




ChapterOne.AnIntroductiontoRFID
InTwelfthNight,Shakespearewrote,"Someareborn
great,someachievegreatness,andsomehavegreatnessthrust
uponthem."RFIDisoneofthemorerecentfour-letter
abbreviationstohavegreatnessthrustuponitinaflurryof
industrymandates,governmentallegislation,andhyperbole.
RFIDstandsforRadioFrequencyIdentification,atermthat
describesanysystemofidentificationwhereinanelectronic
devicethatusesradiofrequencyormagneticfieldvariationsto
communicateisattachedtoanitem.Thetwomosttalked-about
componentsofanRFIDsystemarethetag,whichisthe
identificationdeviceattachedtotheitemwewanttotrack,and
thereader,whichisadevicethatcanrecognizethepresenceof
RFIDtagsandreadtheinformationstoredonthem.Thereader
cantheninformanothersystemaboutthepresenceofthe
taggeditems.Thesystemwithwhichthereadercommunicates
usuallyrunssoftwarethatstandsbetweenreadersand
applications.ThissoftwareiscalledRFIDmiddleware.Figure11showshowthepiecesfittogether.
MuchoftherecentinterestsurroundingRFIDhasarisenfrom
mandatesandrecommendationsbygovernmentagenciessuch
astheU.S.DepartmentofDefense(DoD)andtheFoodand
DrugAdministration(FDA),andfromafewprivatesector
megacorporations.Forinstance,inanefforttoimprove
efficiency,Wal-Martcalledforitstop100supplierstobegin
providingRFIDtagsbyearly2005onpalletsshippedtoits
stores.ThismandatecausedthecompaniesinWal-Mart's
supplychaintofocusonimplementingRFIDsolutions.
Companiesworkedtodecidewhichtagsandreaderstouse,
howtoattachtagsto(orembedthemin)containersor
products,andhowtotestthereadratesforRFtagsonpallets
astheymovedthroughdoorsandontotrucks.Several
companieshaveannouncedtheirsupportforwhatarenow


commonlyknownastagandshipapplications,whichtaga
productjustbeforeshippingitsomewhereelse,butfewof
thesecompanieshavemovedbeyondminimumcompliancewith
themandatestousingtheinformationonRFIDtagstoincrease
efficiencyintheirowninternalprocesses.

Figure1-1.SpreadsheetofCDDiscsanddays

Themandateshavealsofocusedmostoftheseearly
implementationsontagging,andthusonthephysicalsideof
theRFIDsystems.However,whileitisimportanttobothselect
tagsandreadersandfindjusttherightarrangementof
antennastorecognizetagsastheymovethroughdocksand
conveyorbelts,thetruebenefit(andcomplexity)ofRFID
systemsdoesn'tcomefromreadingthetags,butfromgetting
theinformationfromthosereadstotherightplaceinausable
form.Thefirst100wereonlythebeginningoftheWal-Mart
RFIDrollout.Manymoresupplierswillbetaggingpalletsand
cartonsandsomeindividualitemsbytheendof2006.
Meanwhile,thebiggestnewsinRFIDmaysurroundthe
ePedigreeinitiativesaimedatreducingcounterfeitingand
improvingefficiencyandsafetyinthedistributionof
pharmaceuticals.Bythen,manymorenewinitiativeswillhave
beenlaunchedtoapplyRFIDtootherindustriesinwayswecan
hardlypredict(althoughwe'lltryinChapter11).


Inthepagestocome,weexplaintheessentialsofanRFID
system,andinordertoputtheseconceptsinperspective,we
willalsobrieflydiscussthehistory,currentstatus,andfutureof
thetechnology.Thisbookwillgiveyoutheinformationand
understandingyouneedtotakeonyourfirstRFIDproject,but
wehopeyou'llfinditjustasusefulonceyoubecomea
seasonedveteraninthefield.




1.1.TheCaseforRFID
RFIDtechnologiesofferpracticalbenefitstoalmostanyonewho
needstokeeptrackofphysicalassets.Manufacturersimprove
supply-chainplanningandexecutionbyincorporatingRFID
technologies.RetailersuseRFIDtocontroltheft,increase
efficiencyintheirsupplychains,andimprovedemandplanning.
PharmaceuticalmanufacturersuseRFIDsystemstocombatthe
counterfeitdrugtradeandreduceerrorsinfillingprescriptions.
MachineshopstracktheirtoolswithRFIDtoavoidmisplacing
toolsandtotrackwhichtoolstouchedapieceofwork.RFIDenabledsmartcardshelpcontrolperimeteraccesstobuildings.
Andinthelastcoupleofyears,owinginlargeparttoWal-Mart
andDoDmandates,manymajorretailchainsandconsumer
goodsmanufacturershavebeguntestingpallet-andcase-level
merchandisetaggingtoimprovemanagementofshipmentsto
customers.
PartofwhatmadethegrowthinRFIDtechnologiespossible
werethereductionsincostandsizeofsemiconductor
components.SomeoftheearliestRFIDtagswereasbigas
microwaveovens,andtheearliestreaderswerebuildingswith
largeantennas,asdescribedinChapter3.Figure1-2showsa
modernRFIDtag(intheclearapplicator)andareader.

Figure1-2.Atagandreader(imagecourtesyof
MertenG.Pearson,D.V.M.)


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