Tải bản đầy đủ

OReilly high performance linux clusters with OSCAR rocks openmosix and MPI nov 2004 ISBN 0596005709










TableofContents
Index
Reviews
ReaderReviews
Errata
Academic

HighPerformanceLinuxClusterswith
OSCAR,Rocks,OpenMosix,andMPI
ByJosephD.Sloan

Publisher :O'Reilly

PubDate :November2004
ISBN :0-596-00570-9
Pages :360


Thisnewguidecoverseverythingyouneedto
plan,build,anddeployahigh-performance
Linuxcluster.You'lllearnaboutplanning,
hardwarechoices,bulkinstallationofLinux
onmultiplesystems,andotherbasic
considerations.Learnaboutthemajorfree
softwareprojectsandhowtochoosethose
thataremosthelpfultonewcluster


administratorsandprogrammers.Guidelines
fordebugging,profiling,performancetuning,
andmanagingjobsfrommultipleusersround
outthisimmenselyusefulbook.











TableofContents
Index
Reviews
ReaderReviews
Errata
Academic

HighPerformanceLinuxClusterswith
OSCAR,Rocks,OpenMosix,andMPI
ByJosephD.Sloan

Publisher :O'Reilly
PubDate :November2004
ISBN :0-596-00570-9
Pages :360



Copyright

Preface
Audience

Organization




Conventions




UsingCodeExamples

HowtoContactUs
Acknowledgments


PartI:AnIntroductiontoClusters
Chapter1.ClusterArchitecture

Section1.1.ModernComputingandtheRoleofClusters




Section1.2.TypesofClusters



Section1.4.Limitations

Section1.3.DistributedComputingandClusters





Section1.5.MyBiases
Chapter2.ClusterPlanning




Section2.1.DesignSteps




Section2.3.ArchitectureandClusterSoftware




Section2.5.CD-ROM-BasedClusters

Section2.2.DeterminingYourCluster'sMission
Section2.4.ClusterKits
Section2.6.Benchmarks




Chapter3.ClusterHardware




Section3.2.Environment




Section3.1.DesignDecisions
Chapter4.LinuxforClusters
Section4.1.InstallingLinux
Section4.2.ConfiguringServices

Section4.3.ClusterSecurity


PartII:GettingStartedQuickly
Chapter5.openMosix




Section5.1.WhatIsopenMosix?




Section5.3.SelectinganInstallationApproach




Section5.5.UsingopenMosix




Section5.7.IsopenMosixRightforYou?

Section5.2.HowopenMosixWorks
Section5.4.InstallingaPrecompiledKernel
Section5.6.RecompilingtheKernel
Chapter6.OSCAR




Section6.1.WhyOSCAR?




Section6.3.InstallingOSCAR




Section6.5.Usingswitcher






Section6.2.What'sinOSCAR
Section6.4.SecurityandOSCAR
Section6.6.UsingLAM/MPIwithOSCAR
Chapter7.Rocks
Section7.1.InstallingRocks
Section7.2.ManagingRocks
Section7.3.UsingMPICHwithRocks


PartIII:BuildingCustomClusters
Chapter8.CloningSystems

Section8.1.ConfiguringSystems



Section8.2.AutomatingInstallations




Section8.3.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers




Chapter9.ProgrammingSoftware




Section9.2.SelectingaLibrary




Section9.4.MPICH




Section9.6.NotesforOSCARUsers












Section9.1.ProgrammingLanguages
Section9.3.LAM/MPI
Section9.5.OtherProgrammingSoftware
Section9.7.NotesforRocksUsers
Chapter10.ManagementSoftware
Section10.1.C3
Section10.2.Ganglia
Section10.3.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers
Chapter11.SchedulingSoftware
Section11.1.OpenPBS
Section11.2.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers
Chapter12.ParallelFilesystems
Section12.1.PVFS
Section12.2.UsingPVFS

Section12.3.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers


PartIV:ClusterProgramming
Chapter13.GettingStartedwithMPI




Section13.1.MPI




Section13.3.AnMPISolution




Section13.5.BroadcastCommunications

Section13.2.ASimpleProblem
Section13.4.I/OwithMPI
Chapter14.AdditionalMPIFeatures




Section14.1.MoreonPoint-to-PointCommunication




Section14.3.ManagingCommunicators

Section14.2.MoreonCollectiveCommunication
Section14.4.PackagingData




Chapter15.DesigningParallelPrograms




Section15.2.ProblemDecomposition




Section15.4.OtherConsiderations



Section15.1.Overview
Section15.3.MappingTaskstoProcessors
Chapter16.DebuggingParallelPrograms
Section16.1.DebuggingandParallelPrograms




Section16.2.AvoidingProblems




Section16.3.ProgrammingTools




Section16.5.Tracingwithprintf




Section16.7.UsinggdbanddddwithMPI




Section16.4.RereadingCode
Section16.6.SymbolicDebuggers
Section16.8.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers
Chapter17.ProfilingParallelPrograms
Section17.1.WhyProfile?




Section17.2.WritingandOptimizingCode




Section17.4.TimingCCodeSegments




Section17.6.MPE

Section17.3.TimingCompletePrograms
Section17.5.Profilers
Section17.7.CustomizedMPELogging

Section17.8.NotesforOSCARandRocksUsers


PartV:Appendix
AppendixA.References






SectionA.1.Books
SectionA.2.URLs
Colophon
Index


Copyright©2005O'ReillyMedia,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.
PublishedbyO'ReillyMedia,Inc.,1005GravensteinHighway
North,Sebastopol,CA95472.
O'Reillybooksmaybepurchasedforeducational,business,or
salespromotionaluse.Onlineeditionsarealsoavailablefor
mosttitles(http://safari.oreilly.com).Formoreinformation,
contactourcorporate/institutionalsalesdepartment:(800)
998-9938orcorporate@oreilly.com.
NutshellHandbook,theNutshellHandbooklogo,andthe
O'ReillylogoareregisteredtrademarksofO'ReillyMedia,Inc.
TheLinuxseriesdesignations,HighPerformanceLinuxClusters
withOSCAR,Rocks,openMosix,andMPI,imagesofthe
AmericanWest,andrelatedtradedressaretrademarksof
O'ReillyMedia,Inc.
Manyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellersto
distinguishtheirproductsareclaimedastrademarks.Where
thosedesignationsappearinthisbook,andO'ReillyMedia,Inc.
wasawareofatrademarkclaim,thedesignationshavebeen
printedincapsorinitialcaps.
Whileeveryprecautionhasbeentakeninthepreparationofthis
book,thepublisherandauthorassumenoresponsibilityfor
errorsoromissions,orfordamagesresultingfromtheuseof
theinformationcontainedherein.


Preface
Clustersbuiltfromopensourcesoftware,particularlybasedon
theGNU/Linuxoperatingsystem,areincreasinglypopular.Their
successisnothardtoexplainbecausetheycancheaplysolve
anever-wideningrangeofnumber-crunchingapplications.A
wealthofopensourceorfreesoftwarehasemergedtomakeit
easytosetup,administer,andprogramtheseclusters.Each
individualpackageisaccompaniedbydocumentation,
sometimesveryrichandthorough.Butknowingwheretostart
andhowtogetthedifferentpiecesworkingprovesdauntingfor
manyprogrammersandadministrators.
Thisbookisanoverviewoftheissuesthatnewcluster
administratorshavetodealwithinmakingclustersmeettheir
needs,rangingfromtheinitialhardwareandsoftwarechoices
throughlong-termconsiderationssuchasperformance.
Thisbookisnotasubstituteforthedocumentationthat
accompaniesthesoftwarethatitdescribes.Youshould
downloadandreadthedocumentationforthesoftware.Mostof
thedocumentationavailableonlineisquitegood;someistruly
excellent.
Inwritingthisbook,Ihaveevaluatedalargenumberof
programsandselectedforinclusionthesoftwareIbelieveisthe
mostusefulforsomeonenewtoclustering.Whilewriting
descriptionsofthatsoftware,Iculledthroughthousandsof
pagesofdocumentationtofashionamanageableintroduction.
Thisbookbringstogethertheinformationyou'llneedtoget
started.Afterreadingit,youshouldhaveaclearideaofwhatis
possible,whatisavailable,andwheretogotogetit.Whilethis
bookdoesn'tstandalone,itshouldreducetheamountofwork
you'llneedtodo.IhavetriedtowritethesortofbookIwould
havewantedwhenIgotstartedwithclusters.


Thesoftwaredescribedinthisbookisfreelyavailable,open
sourcesoftware.Allofthesoftwareisavailableforusewith
Linux;however,muchofitshouldworknicelyonother
platformsaswell.Allofthesoftwarehasbeeninstalledand
testedasdescribedinthisbook.However,thebehavioror
suitabilityofthesoftwaredescribedinthisbookcannotbe
guaranteed.Whilethematerialinthisbookispresentedingood
faith,neithertheauthornorO'ReillyMedia,Inc.makesany
explicitorimpliedwarrantyastothebehaviororsuitabilityof
thissoftware.Westronglyurgeyoutoevaluatethesoftware
andinformationprovidedinthisbookasappropriateforyour
owncircumstances.
Oneofthemoreimportantdevelopmentsintheshortlifeof
highperformanceclustershasbeenthecreationofcluster
installationkitssuchasOSCARandRocks.Withsoftware
packageslikethese,itispossibletoinstalleverythingyouneed
andveryquicklyhaveafullyfunctionalcluster.Forthisreason,
OSCARandRocksplayacentralroleinthisbook.
OSCARandRocksarecomposedofanumberofdifferent
independentpackages,aswellascustomizationsavailableonly
witheachkit.Afullyfunctionalclusterwillhaveanumberof
softwarepackageseachaddressingadifferentneed,suchas
programming,management,andscheduling.OSCARandRocks
useabest-in-categoryapproach,selectingthebestavailable
softwareforeachtypeofcluster-relatedtask.Inadditiontothe
coresoftware,othercompatiblepackagesareavailableaswell.
Consequently,youwilloftenhaveseveralproductstochoose
fromforanygivenneed.
MostofthesoftwareincludedinOSCARorRocksissignificantin
itsownright.Suchsoftwareisoftennontrivialtoinstalland
takestimetolearntousetoitsfullpotential.WhilebothOSCAR
andRocksautomatetheinstallationprocess,thereisstillalot
tolearntoeffectivelyuseeitherkit.InstallingOSCARorRocks
isonlythebeginning.


Aftersomebasicbackgroundinformation,thisbookdescribes
theinstallationofOSCARandthenRocks.Theremainderofthe
bookdescribesingreaterdetailmuchofthesoftwarefoundin
thesepackages.Ineachcase,Idescribetheinstallation,
configuration,anduseofthesoftwareapartfromOSCARor
Rocks.Thisshouldprovidethereaderwiththeinformationhe
willneedtocustomizethesoftwareorevenbuildacustom
clusterbypassingOSCARorRockscompletely,ifdesired.
IhavealsoincludedachapteronopenMosixinthisbook,which
mayseemanoddchoicetosome.Butthereareseveral
compellingreasonsforincludingthisinformation.First,not
everyoneneedsaworld-classhigh-performancecluster.Ifyou
haveseveralmachinesandwouldliketousethemtogether,but
don'twanttheheadachesthatcancomewithafullcluster,
openMosixisworthinvestigating.Second,openMosixisanice
additiontosomemoretraditionalclusters.IncludingopenMosix
alsoprovidesanopportunitytoreviewrecompilingtheLinux
kernelandanalternativekernelthatcanbeusedto
demonstrateOSCAR'skernel_picker.Finally,IthinkopenMosix
isareallynicepieceofsoftware.Inasense,itrepresentsthe
future,oratleastonepossiblefuture,forclusters.
Ihavedescribedindetail(toomuch,somemightsay)exactly
howIhaveinstalledthesoftware.Unquestionably,bythetime
youread,thissomeoftheinformationwillbedated.Ihave
decidednottofollowthepracticeofmanyauthorsinsuch
situations,andofferjustvaguegeneralities.Ifeelthatreaders
benefitfromseeingthespecificsortsofproblemsthatappearin
specificinstallationsandhowtothinkabouttheirsolutions.


Audience
Thisbookisanintroductiontobuildinghigh-performance
clusters.Itiswrittenforthebiologist,chemist,orphysicistwho
hasjustacquiredtwodozenrecycledcomputersandis
wonderinghowshemightcombinethemtoperformthat
calculationthathasalwaystakentoolongtocompleteonher
desktopmachine.Itiswrittenforthecomputersciencestudent
whoneedshelpgettingstartedbuildinghisfirstcluster.Itisnot
meanttobeanexhaustivetreatmentofclusters,butrather
attemptstointroducethebasicsneededtobuildandbegin
usingacluster.
Inwritingthisbook,Ihaveassumedthatthereaderisfamiliar
withthebasicsofsettingupandadministeringaLinuxsystem.
Atanumberofplacesinthisbook,Iprovideaveryquick
overviewofsomeoftheissues.Thesesectionsaremeantasa
review,notanexhaustiveintroduction.Ifyouneedhelpinthis
area,severalexcellentbooksareavailableandarelistedinthe
Appendixofthisbook.
Whenintroducingatopicasextensiveasclusters,itis
impossibletodiscusseveryrelevanttopicindetailwithout
losingfocusandproducinganunmanageablebook.Thus,I
havehadtomakeanumberofharddecisionsaboutwhatto
include.Therearemanytopicsthat,whileofnointeresttomost
readers,arenonethelessimportanttosome.Whenfacedwith
suchtopics,Ihavetriedtobrieflydescribealternativesand
providepointerstoadditionalmaterial.Forexample,while
computationalgridsareoutsidethescopeofthisbook,Ihave
triedtoprovidepointersforthoseofyouwhowishtoknow
moreaboutgrids.
Forthechaptersdealingwithprogramming,Ihaveassumeda
basicknowledgeofC.Forhigh-performancecomputing,
FORTRANandCarestillthemostcommonchoices.ForLinux-


basedsystems,Cseemedamorereasonablechoice.
IhavelimitedtheprogrammingexamplestoMPIsinceIbelieve
thisisthemostappropriateparallellibraryforbeginners.Ihave
madeaparticularefforttokeeptheprogrammingexamplesas
simpleaspossible.Thereareanumberofexcellentbookson
MPIprogramming.Unfortunately,theavailablebooksonMPIall
tendtousefairlycomplexproblemsasexamples.Consequently,
itisalltooeasytogetlostinthedetailsofanexampleand
missthepoint.Whileyoumaybecomeannoyedwithmy
simplisticexamples,Ihopethatyouwon'tmissthepoint.You
canalwaysturntotheseotherbooksformorecomplex,realworldexamples.
Withanyintroductorybook,therearethingsthatmustbe
omittedtokeepthebookmanageable.Thisproblemisfurther
compoundedbythetimeconstraintsofpublication.Ididnot
includeachapterondisklesssystemsbecauseIbelievethe
complexitiesintroducedbyusingdisklesssystemsarebest
avoidedbypeoplenewtoclusters.Becausecovering
computationalgridswouldhaveconsiderablylengthenedthis
book,theyarenotincluded.Theresimplywasn'ttimeorspace
tocoversomeveryworthwhilesoftware,mostnotablyPVMand
Condor.Thesewereharddecisions.


Organization
Thisbookiscomposedof17chapters,dividedintofourparts.
Thefirstpartaddressesbackgroundmaterial;thesecondpart
dealswithgettingaclusterrunningquickly;thethirdpartgoes
intomoredepthdescribinghowacustomclustercanbebuilt;
andthefourthpartintroducesclusterprogramming.
Dependingonyourbackgroundandgoals,differentpartsofthis
bookarelikelytobeofinterest.Ihavetriedtoprovide
informationhereandatthebeginningofeachsectionthat
shouldhelpyouinselectingthosepartsofgreatestinterest.You
shouldnotneedtoreadtheentirebookforittobeuseful.

PartI,AnIntroductiontoClusters
Chapter1,isageneralintroductiontohigh-performance
computingfromtheperspectiveofclusters.Itintroduces
basicterminologyandprovidesadescriptionofvarious
high-performancetechnologies.Itgivesabroadoverviewof
thedifferentclusterarchitecturesanddiscussessomeofthe
inherentlimitationsofclusters.
Chapter2,beginswithadiscussionofhowtodetermine
whatyouwantyourclustertodo.Itthengivesaquick
overviewofthedifferenttypesofsoftwareyoumayneedin
yourcluster.
Chapter3,isadiscussionofthehardwarethatgoesintoa
cluster,includingboththeindividualcomputersandnetwork
equipment.
Chapter4,beginswithabriefdiscussionofLinuxin
general.Thebulkofthechaptercoversthebasicsof


installingandconfiguringLinux.Thischapterassumesyou
arecomfortableusingLinuxbutmayneedaquickreviewof
someadministrativetasks.

PartII,GettingStartedQuickly
Chapter5,describestheinstallation,configuration,anduse
ofopenMosix.ItalsoreviewshowtorecompileaLinux
kernel.
Chapter6,describesinstallingandsettingupOSCAR.It
alsocoversafewofthebasicsofusingOSCAR.
Chapter7,describesinstallingRocks.Italsocoversafewof
thebasicsofusingRocks.

PartIII,BuildingCustomClusters
Chapter8,describestoolsyoucanusetoreplicatethe
softwareinstalledononemachineontoothers.Thus,once
youhavedecidedhowtoinstallandconfigurethesoftware
onanindividualnodeinyourcluster,thischapterwillshow
youhowtoduplicatethatinstallationonanumberof
machinesquicklyandefficiently.
Chapter9,firstdescribesprogrammingsoftwarethatyou
maywanttoconsider.Next,itdescribestheinstallationand
configurationofthesoftware,alongwithadditionalutilities
you'llneedifyouplantowritetheapplicationprograms
thatwillrunonyourcluster.
Chapter10,describestoolsyoucanusetomanageyour
cluster.Onceyouhaveaworkingcluster,youface
numerousadministrativetasks,nottheleastofwhichis
insuringthatthemachinesinyourclusterarerunning


properlyandconfiguredidentically.Thetoolsinthischapter
canmakelifemucheasier.
Chapter11,describesOpenPBS,opensourcescheduling
software.Forheavilyloadedclusters,you'llneedsoftware
toallocateresources,schedulejobs,andenforcepriorities.
OpenPBSisonesolution.
Chapter12,describessettingupandconfiguringtheParallel
VirtualFileSystem(PVFS)software,ahigh-performance
parallelfilesystemforclusters.

PartIV,ClusterProgramming
Chapter13,isatutorialonhowtousetheMPIlibrary.It
coversthebasics.ThereisalotmoretoMPIthanwhatis
describedinthisbook,butthat'satopicforanotherbookor
two.Thematerialinthischapterwillgetyoustarted.
Chapter14,describessomeofthemoreadvancedfeatures
ofMPI.Theintentisnottomakeyouproficientwithanyof
thesefeaturesbutsimplytoletyouknowthattheyexist
andhowtheymightbeuseful.
Chapter15,describessometechniquestobreakaprogram
intopiecesthatcanberuninparallel.Thereisnosilver
bulletforparallelprogramming,butthereareseveral
helpfulwaystogetstarted.Thechapterisaquickoverview.
Chapter16,firstreviewsthetechniquesusedtodebug
serialprogramsandthenshowshowthemoretraditional
approachescanbeextendedandusedtodebugparallel
programs.Italsodiscussesafewproblemsthatareunique
toparallelprograms.
Chapter17,looksattechniquesandtoolsthatcanbeused
toprofileparallelprograms.Ifyouwanttoimprovethe


performanceofaparallelprogram,thefirststepistofind
outwheretheprogramisspendingitstime.Thischapter
showsyouhowtogetstarted.

PartV,Appendix
TheAppendixincludessourceinformationand
documentationforthesoftwarediscussedinthebook.It
alsoincludespointerstootherusefulinformationabout
clusters.


Conventions
Thisbookusesthefollowingtypographicalconventions:

Italics
Usedforprogramnames,filenames,systemnames,email
addresses,andURLs,andforemphasizingnewterms.

Constantwidth
Usedinexamplesshowingprograms,outputfrom
programs,thecontentsoffiles,orliteralinformation.

Constant-widthitalics
Usedforgeneralsyntaxanditemsthatshouldbereplaced
inexpressions.

Indicatesatip,suggestion,orgeneralnote.

Indicatesawarningorcaution.


HowtoContactUs
Inasense,anybookisaworkinprogress.Ifyouhave
comments,suggestions,orcorrections,Iwouldappreciate
hearingfromyou.Youcancontactmethrough
booktech@oreilly.com.
Wehavetestedandverifiedtheinformationinthisbooktothe
bestofourability,butyoumayfindthatfeatureshavechanged
(oreventhatwehavemademistakes!).Pleaseletusknow
aboutanyerrorsyoufind,aswellasyoursuggestionsforfuture
editions,bywritingto:
O'Reilly&Media,Inc.
1005GravensteinHighwayNorth
Sebastopol,CA95472
1-800-998-9938(intheU.S.orCanada)
1-707-829-0515(internationalorlocal)
1-707-829-0104(fax)
Youcansendusmessageselectronically.Tobeputonthe
mailinglistortorequestacatalog,sendemailto:
info@oreilly.com
Toasktechnicalquestionsortocommentonthebook,send
emailto:
bookquestions@oreilly.com
Wehaveawebsiteforthebook,wherewe'lllistexamples,
errata,andanyplansforfutureeditions.Youcanaccessthis
pageat:
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/highperlinuxc/
Formoreinformationaboutthisbookandothers,seethe


O'Reillywebsite:
http://www.oreilly.com


UsingCodeExamples
Thecodedevelopedinthisbookisavailablefordownloadfor
freefromtheO'Reillywebsiteforthisbook
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/highperlinuxc.(Beforeinstalling,
takealookatreadme.txtinthedownload).
Thisbookisheretohelpyougetyourjobdone.Ingeneral,you
canusethecodeinthisbookinyourprogramsand
documentation.Youdon'tneedtocontactusforpermission
unlessyou'rereproducingasignificantportionofthecode.For
example,writingaprogramthatusesseveralchunksofcode
fromthisbookdoesn'trequirepermission.Sellingor
distributingaCD-ROMofexamplesfromO'Reillybooksdoes
requirepermission.Answeringaquestionbycitingthisbook
andquotingexamplecodedoesn'trequirepermission.
Incorporatingasignificantamountofexamplecodefromthis
bookintoyourproduct'sdocumentationdoesrequire
permission.
Weappreciate,butdon'trequire,attribution.Anattribution
usuallyincludesthetitle,author,publisher,andISBN.For
example:"HighPerformanceLinuxCluserswithOSCAR,Rocks,
openMosix,andMPI,byJosephSloan.Copyright2005O'Reilly,
0-596-00570-9."
Ifyoufeelyouruseofcodeexamplesfallsoutsidefairuseor
thepermissiongivenhere,feelfreetocontactusat
permissions@oreilly.com.


Acknowledgments
Whilethecoverofthisbookdisplaysonlymyname,itisthe
workofanumberofpeople.Firstandforemost,creditgoesto
thepeoplewhocreatedthesoftwaredescribedinthisbook.The
qualityofthissoftwareistrulyremarkable.Anyonebuildinga
clusterowesaconsiderabledebttothesedevelopers.
ThisbookwouldnotexistifnotforthestudentsIhaveworked
withbothatLanderUniversityandWoffordCollege.BrianBell's
interestfirstledmetoinvestigateclusters.MichaelBaker,
JonathanDeBusk,RicayeHarris,TilishaHaywood,Robert
Merting,andRobertVeaseyallsufferedthroughcoursesusing
clusters.IcanonlyhopetheylearnedasmuchfrommeasI
learnedfromthem.
Thanksalsogoestothecomputersciencedepartmentandto
thestaffofinformationtechnologyatWoffordCollegein
particular,toAngelaShifletforfindingthefundsandtoDave
Whisnantforfindingthecomputersusedtobuildtheclusters
usedinwritingthisbook.MartinAigner,JoeBurnet,Watts
Hudgens,JimSawyers,andScottSperka,amongothers,
providedsupportbeyondthecallofduty.Woffordisagreat
placetoworkandtowriteabook.ThankstoPresidentBernie
Dunlap,DeanDanMaultsby,andthefacultyandstafffor
makingWoffordoneofthetopliberalartscollegesinthe
nation.
Iwasveryfortunatetohaveanumberoftechnicalreviewers
forthisbook,includingpeopleintimatelyinvolvedwiththe
creationofthesoftwaredescribedhere,aswellasgeneral
reviewers.ThanksgoestoKrisBuytaert,aseniorconsultant
withX-TendandauthoroftheopenMosixHOWTO,forreviewing
thechapteronopenMosix.Kris'scloseinvolvementwiththe
openMosixprojecthelpedprovideaperspectivenotonlyon
openMosixasitistoday,butalsoonthefutureofthe


openMosixproject.
ThomasNaughtonandStephenL.Scott,bothfromOakRidge
NationalLaboratoryandmembersoftheOSCARworkgroup,
reviewedthebook.Theyprovidednotonlymanyuseful
corrections,buthelpfulinsightintoclustersoftwareaswell,
particularlyOSCAR.
EdmundJ.Sutcliffe,aconsultantwithThoughtfulSolutions,
attemptedtobalancemysometimesmyopicapproachto
clusters,arguingforamuchbroaderperspectiveonclusters.
Severaltopicswereaddedordiscussedingreaterdetailathis
insistence.Hadtimeallowed,morewouldhavebeenadded.
JohnMcKowenTaylor,Jr.,ofCadenceDesignSystem,Inc.,also
reviewedthebook.Inadditiontocorrectingmanyerrors,he
providedmanykindwordsandencouragementthatIgreatly
appreciated.
RobertBruceThompson,authoroftwoexcellentbooksonPC
hardware,correctedanumberofleaksinthehardwarechapter.
Unfortunately,developersforRocksdeclinedaninvitationto
reviewthematerial,citingthepressuresofputtingtogethera
newrelease.
Whilethereviewersunfailinglypointedoutmynumerouserrors
andmisconceptions,itdidn'tfollowthatIunderstood
everythingtheysaidorfaithfullyamendedthismanuscript.The
blameforanyerrorsthatremainrestssquarelyonmy
shoulders.
Iconsidermyselffortunatetobeabletoworkwiththepeoplein
theO'Reillyorganization.ThisisthesecondbookIhavewritten
withthemandbothhavegoneremarkablysmoothly.Ifyouare
thinkingofwritingatechnicalbook,Istronglyurgeyouto
considerO'Reilly.Unlikesomeotherpublishers,youwillbe
workingwithtechnicallyastutepeoplefromthebeginning.
ParticularthanksgoestoAndyOram,thetechnicaleditorfor


thisbook.Andywasconstantlylookingforwaystoimprovethis
book.Producinganybookrequiresansmallarmyofpeople,
mostofwhomarehiddeninthebackgroundandneverreceive
properrecognition.Adebtofgratitudeisowedtomanyothers
workingatO'Reilly.
Thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthesupport
andpatienceofmyfamily.Thankyou.


PartI:AnIntroductiontoClusters
Thefirstsectionofthisbookisageneralintroductionto
clusters.Itislargelybackgroundmaterial.Readers
alreadyfamiliarwithclustersmaywanttoquicklyskim
thismaterialandthenmoveontosubsequentchapters.
Thissectionisdividedintofourchapters.


Chapter1.ClusterArchitecture
Computingspeedisn'tjustaconvenience.Fastercomputers
allowustosolvelargerproblems,andtofindsolutionsmore
quickly,withgreateraccuracy,andatalowercost.Allthisadds
uptoacompetitiveadvantage.Inthesciences,thismaymean
thedifferencebetweenbeingthefirsttopublishandnot
publishing.Inindustry,itmaydeterminewho'sfirsttothe
patentoffice.
Traditionalhigh-performanceclustershaveprovedtheirworthin
avarietyofusesfrompredictingtheweathertoindustrial
design,frommoleculardynamicstoastronomicalmodeling.
High-performancecomputing(HPC)hascreatedanew
approachtosciencemodelingisnowaviableandrespected
alternativetothemoretraditionalexperientialandtheoretical
approaches.
Clustersarealsoplayingagreaterroleinbusiness.High
performanceisakeyissueindataminingorinimage
rendering.Advancesinclusteringtechnologyhaveledtohighavailabilityandload-balancingclusters.Clusteringisnowused
formission-criticalapplicationssuchaswebandFTPservers.
Forexample,Googleusesanever-growingclustercomposedof
tensofthousandsofcomputers.


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×