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Addison wesley CMMI distilled a practical introduction to integrated process improvement 3rd edition may 2008 ISBN 0321461088

CMMI®Distilled:APracticalIntroductiontoIntegrated
ProcessImprovement,ThirdEdition
byDennisM.Ahern;AaronClouse;RichardTurner
Publisher:AddisonWesleyProfessional
PubDate:May02,2008
PrintISBN-10:0-321-46108-8
PrintISBN-13:978-0-321-46108-7
eTextISBN-10:0-321-56427-8
eTextISBN-13:978-0-321-56427-6
Pages:288
TableofContents|Index

Overview
CMMI®(CapabilityMaturityModel®Integration)isanintegrated,
extensibleframeworkforimprovingprocesscapabilityandqualityacross
anorganization.Ithasbecomeacornerstoneintheimplementationof
continuousimprovementforbothindustryandgovernmentsaroundthe
world.Richinbothdetailandguidanceforawidesetoforganizational
domains,theCMMIProductSuitecontinuestoevolveandexpand.
UpdatedforCMMIVersion1.2,thisthirdeditionofCMMI®Distilled
againprovidesaconciseandreadableintroductiontothemodel,aswell

asstraightforward,no-nonsenseinformationonintegrated,continuous
processimprovement.Thebooknowalsoincludespracticaladviceon
howtouseCMMIintandemwithotherapproaches,includingSixSigma
andLean,aswellasnewandexpandedguidanceonpreparingfor,
managing,andusingappraisals.
Writtensothatreadersunfamiliarwithmodel-basedprocess
improvementwillunderstandhowtogetstartedwithCMMI,thebook
offersinsightsforthosemoreexperiencedaswell.Itcanhelpbattlescarredprocessimprovementveterans,andexperiencedsuppliersand
acquirersofbothsystemsandservices,performmoreeffectively.CMMI®
Distilledisespeciallyappropriateforexecutivesandmanagerswho
needtounderstandwhycontinuousimprovementisvaluable,whyCMMI


isatoolofchoice,andhowtomaximizethereturnontheireffortsand
investments.Engineersofallkinds(systems,hardware,software,and
quality,aswellasacquisitionpersonnelandserviceproviders)willfind
ideasonhowtoperformbetter.
Thethreeauthors,allinvolvedwithCMMIsinceitsinception,bringa
wealthofexperienceandknowledgetothisbook.Theyhighlightthe
pitfallsandshortcutsthatarealltoooftenlearnedbycostlyexperience,
andtheyprovideacontextforunderstandingwhytheuseofCMMI
continuestogrowaroundtheworld.


CMMI®Distilled:APracticalIntroductiontoIntegrated
ProcessImprovement,ThirdEdition
byDennisM.Ahern;AaronClouse;RichardTurner
Publisher:AddisonWesleyProfessional
PubDate:May02,2008
PrintISBN-10:0-321-46108-8
PrintISBN-13:978-0-321-46108-7
eTextISBN-10:0-321-56427-8
eTextISBN-13:978-0-321-56427-6
Pages:288
TableofContents|Index

Copyright
ListofFigures
Preface
PartI:IntegratedProcessImprovement
Chapter1.WhyIntegratedProcessImprovement?
Section1.1.BusinessObjectivesandProcessImprovement
Section1.2.TheEngineeringEnvironmentoftheTwenty-First
Century
Section1.3.EvolvingEngineeringApproaches
Section1.4.AProliferationofModelsandStandards
Section1.5.TheBenefitsofIntegratedProcessImprovement
Section1.6.Conclusions
Chapter2.ImplementingContinuousImprovement
Section2.1.DrivingBusinessPerformance
Section2.2.ElementsofContinuousImprovement
Section2.3.FiveKeysforContinuousImprovement
Section2.4.ManagementofContinuousImprovementActivities
Section2.5.EveryoneUnderstandsandParticipates
Section2.6.PearlsofWisdom
PartII:TheCMMIModels
Chapter3.TheCMMIConcept


Section3.1.AnOverviewofCMMI
Section3.2.CMMIObjectives
Section3.3.TheThreeSourceModels
Section3.4.CMMIProjectOrganization
Chapter4.CMMIContent
Section4.1.Constellations
Section4.2.ProcessAreas
Section4.3.ContentClassification
Section4.4.RequiredMaterials
Section4.5.ExpectedMaterials
Section4.6.InformativeMaterials
Section4.7.Additions
Section4.8.CMMIModelFoundation
Section4.9.DocumentMap
Chapter5.CMMIRepresentations
Section5.1.StagedModels
Section5.2.ContinuousModels
Section5.3.CMMIModelRepresentations
Section5.4.Conclusion
Chapter6.CMMIDimensionsforMeasuringImprovement
Section6.1.CapabilityDimension
Section6.2.MaturityDimension
Section6.3.GenericPracticesintheCapabilityDimension
Section6.4.GenericPracticesintheMaturityDimension
Section6.5.OrganizationalCapabilityEvolution
Chapter7.CMMIProcessAreas
Section7.1.FoundationProcessAreas
Section7.2.DevelopmentConstellation
Section7.3.AcquisitionConstellationProcessAreas
Section7.4.ServicesConstellationProcessAreas
Section7.5.RelationshipswithinCMMIComponents
PartIII:UsingCMMI
Chapter8.PickingaRepresentation


Section8.1.ReasonsforLikingStagedModels
Section8.2.ReasonsforLikingContinuousModels
Section8.3.ReasonsforChoosingaCMMIRepresentation
Chapter9.AppraisalswithCMMI
Section9.1.AppraisalRequirementsforCMMI
Section9.2.StandardCMMIAppraisalMethodforProcess
Improvement:ClassA
Section9.3.TheRoleofAppraisalsinContinuousImprovement
PartIV:TheFutureofCMMI
Chapter10.EvolvingCMMI
Section10.1.SimplifyingtheModel
Section10.2.ADomain-IndependentCMMIModel
Section10.3.CollectionofIssuesforBeyondVersion2.1
Section10.4.AFinalNoteonCMMIEvolution
Afterword
ThreeSelectionsfrom"AProcessImprovementSongbook"
Section1.CMMI(NorwegianWood)
Section2.TheTeamThat'sLevelOne(TheHouseoftheRising
Sun)
Section3.ICan'tHelpPeerReviewingYou(ICan'tHelpFallingin
LovewithYou)
AppendixA.SummaryofCMMIModels
CMMIModelFoundation
GenericGoalsandGenericPractices
DevelopmentConstellation
AcquisitionConstellation
ServicesConstellation
ServiceEstablishmentandDelivery
AppendixB.References
SEIFigureCreditList
Index


Copyright


TheSEISeriesinSoftwareEngineering
Manyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellersto
distinguishtheirproductsareclaimedastrademarks.Wherethose
designationsappearinthisbook,andthepublisherwasawareofa
trademarkclaim,thedesignationshavebeenprintedwithinitialcapital
lettersorinallcapitals.
CMM,CMMI,CapabilityMaturityModel,CapabilityMaturityModeling,
CarnegieMellon,CERT,andCERTCoordinationCenterareregisteredin
theU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfficebyCarnegieMellonUniversity.
ATAM;ArchitectureTradeoffAnalysisMethod;CMMIntegration;COTS
Usage-RiskEvaluation;CURE;EPIC;EvolutionaryProcessfor
IntegratingCOTSBasedSystems;FrameworkforSoftwareProductLine
Practice;IDEAL;InterimProfile;OAR;OCTAVE;OperationallyCritical
Threat,Asset,andVulnerabilityEvaluation;OptionsAnalysisfor
Reengineering;PersonalSoftwareProcess;PLTP;ProductLine
TechnicalProbe;PSP;SCAMPI;SCAMPILeadAppraiser;SCAMPILead
Assessor;SCE;SEI;SEPG;TeamSoftwareProcess;andTSPare
servicemarksofCarnegieMellonUniversity.
SpecialpermissiontoreproduceinthisbookportionsofCMU/SEI-2006TR-008,CMMIforDevelopment,Version1.2,Copyright2006by
CarnegieMellonUniversity,portionsofCMU/SEI-2007-TR-017,CMMIfor
Acquisition,Version1.2,Copyright2007byCarnegieMellonUniversity,
andselectedfiguresfromIntroductiontoCMMIVersion1.2,Copyright
2006byCarnegieMellonUniversity,isgrantedbytheSoftware
EngineeringInstitute.
SEIFigureCreditListappearsonpage249.
Theauthorsandpublisherhavetakencareinthepreparationofthis
book,butmakenoexpressedorimpliedwarrantyofanykindand


assumenoresponsibilityforerrorsoromissions.Noliabilityisassumed
forincidentalorconsequentialdamagesinconnectionwithorarisingout
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Thepublisheroffersexcellentdiscountsonthisbookwhenorderedin
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LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData
Ahern,DennisM.
CMMIdistilled:apracticalintroductiontointegratedprocess
improvement/
DennisM.Ahern,AaronClouse,RichardTurner.—3rded.
p.cm.
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.
ISBN978-0-321-46108-7(pbk.:alk.paper)
1.Capabilitymaturitymodel(Computersoftware)I.Clouse,Aaron.II.
Turner,
Richard,1954-III.Title.
QA76.758.A3972008
005.1068'5—dc222008008198
Copyright©2008PearsonEducation,Inc.
Allrightsreserved.PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.This
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Firstprinting,April2008


ListofFigures
Figure
2-1

Fivekeysforcontinuousimprovement

33

Figure
2-2

TheSixSigmaDMAICmethod

40

Figure
3-1

TheCMMIconcept

59

Figure
3-2

CurrentCMMIprojectorganization

67

Figure
4-1

Documentmapforthemodel

82

Figure
5-1

Capabilitylevelprofile(simple)

86

Figure
5-2

Targetprofile2

93

Figure
5-3

Targetprofile3

93

Figure
5-4

Targetprofile4

94

Figure
5-5

Targetprofile5

95

Figure
6-1

Capabilitydimension

99

Figure
6-2

Buildingcapability

101

Figure
6-3

Stagedmaturitylevels

103

Figure
6-4

Maturitylevelstructure

104

Figure

ProcessManagementprocessarearelationships

119


7-1
Figure
7-2

OrganizationalProcessDefinitioncontext
diagram

120

Figure
7-3

OrganizationalProcessFocuscontextdiagram

122

Figure
7-4

OrganizationalProcessPerformancecontext
diagram

124

Figure
7-5

OrganizationalInnovationandDeployment
contextdiagram

125

Figure
7-6

OrganizationalTrainingcontextdiagram

127

Figure
7-7

ProjectManagementprocessarearelationships

128

Figure
7-8

ProjectPlanningcontextdiagram

129

Figure
7-9

ProjectMonitoringandControlcontextdiagram 130

Figure
7-10

IntegratedProjectManagement(withoutIPPD)
contextdiagram

Figure
7-11

IntegratedProjectManagementforIPPDcontext 132
diagram

Figure
7-12

QuantitativeProjectManagementcontext
diagram

133

Figure
7-13

RiskManagementcontextdiagram

135

Figure
7-14

RequirementsManagementcontextdiagram

136

Figure
7-15

ConfigurationManagementcontextdiagram

138

Figure
7-16

ProcessandProductQualityAssurancecontext
diagram

139

131


Figure
7-17

MeasurementandAnalysiscontextdiagram

140

Figure
7-18

DecisionAnalysisandResolutioncontext
diagram

141

Figure
7-19

CausalAnalysisandResolutioncontextdiagram 143

Figure
7-20

RequirementsDevelopmentcontextdiagram

145

Figure
7-21

TechnicalSolutioncontextdiagram

147

Figure
7-22

ProductIntegrationcontextdiagram

148

Figure
7-23

Verificationcontextdiagram

150

Figure
7-24

Validationcontextdiagram

151

Figure
7-25

SupplierAgreementManagementcontext
diagram

152

Figure
7-26

AgreementManagementcontextdiagram

155

Figure
7-27

AcquisitionRequirementsDevelopmentcontext 156
diagram

Figure
7-28

AcquisitionTechnicalManagementcontext
diagram

157

Figure
7-29

AcquisitionValidationcontextdiagram

158

Figure
7-30

AcquisitionVerificationcontextdiagram

158

Figure
7-31

SolicitationandSupplierAgreement
Developmentcontextdiagram

160


Preface
CMMIDistilledwasoriginallyconceivedasawaytointroducetheCMMI
ProductSuiteandmodel-basedcontinuousprocessimprovementtoa
wideaudience.Ourgoalwastoofferasuccinct,no-nonsense,minimaljargon,wittilywritten,practicalguidethatwaslessthanhalftheweightof
the"official"CMMIbook.Wewantedtodescribetheoriginsofthemodel
andgivethereaderssomeinsightintohowthe200-plusCMMIauthors
worked(andfought)toproduceit.Thefirsteditionhadagooddealof
"why"information,aimedatfolkswhohadusedoneofthethreesource
modelsandwhowantedtounderstandhowCMMIdifferedfromearlier
models.Ofcourse,italsohadthe"what"and"how"informationabout
CMMIVersion1.0.
Thesecondeditioncoincided(roughly)withthereleaseofCMMIVersion
1.1,soitincludedsignificantchangestotheoriginal"what"and"how"
sections.AtthatpointCMMIwasnolongernewandpeoplewere
beginningtomoveawayfromthesourcemodels,soweremovedsome
ofthe"why"material.ToreflectthebroaderreachofCMMIandtheneed
tosupportpractitionersinacquiringsponsorsfortheirimprovement
initiatives,thesecondeditionaddedmaterialaimedatmanagersrather
thanpractitioners.
CMMIcontentandusagecontinuetoevolve,sonowwehavecreateda
thirdedition,buildingonthelegacyofthefirsttwo.CMMIbeganasatool
formanagingimprovementsinengineeringdevelopmentorganizations,
withafocusonsystemsandsoftware.InCMMIVersion1.2,thisattention
toengineeringhasbeenstrengthenedbyincludingexplicithardwarerelatedinformation.Moreintriguing,however,aretwonewmembersof
theCMMIProductSuite:onefortheacquirerofsystemsinsteadofthe
developer,andtheotherforserviceprovidersinsteadofproductbuilders.
Withthesetwoadditions,thepotentialscopeofapplicationforCMMI
withinanorganizationalenterprisehasbroadenedsignificantly.Atthe
sametime,CMMIisfindinguseoutsidethetraditionalengineeringfield.
Forexample,ithasbeenadoptedbyenterprisesasvariedasmedical
facilitiesseekingtoimprovetheirpatientcareandgovernmententities
tryingtobuildandimprovetheirinfrastructure.
WehadthreeprimaryreasonsforwritingthethirdeditionofCMMI


Distilled.
1. WewantedtoupdatethebooktoincludechangestotheCMMI
architecture,content,andpresentation,aswellastheongoing
domainextensionstothemodel.Thefull,updatedmodelcontentfor
version1.2iscoveredinthesamewayasinourpreviouseditions.
WeusethegraphicsfromtheCMMItrainingmaterialanddescribe
themodelcomponentsclearlyandsimply.
2. Wewantedtofurtherreducetheamountofhistoricalinformation
relatingtotheoriginsofCMMI.Forthosewhomaybeinterested,
thismaterialiswellcoveredinthepreviouseditionsofthisbook.
3. Wewantedtoupdateandexpanduponthepracticaladviceweoffer
forthoseusingthemodel.Inthisedition,wemorefullyaddress
CMMIusageintandemwithSixSigma,leanengineering,andother
continuousimprovementapproaches.Wealsodiscusssomeofthe
changestotheappraisalmethods;specifically,weprovideadditional
guidanceonpreparingforandmanagingappraisals,andonusing
theappraisalresultsasapowerfulinputtoimprovementactivities.
Thosewhohavereadthepreviouseditionsofthisbookwillnotbe
surprisedtofindthatwehaveincludedyetanotherliteraryoffering(three
songs)addressingCMMIandtheworldofcontinuousimprovement.In
fact,forthoseofyouwhomayhavemissedthefirsttwoeditions,the
earlier"literarygems"canbefoundonthePearsonWebsiteat
informit.com/awundereither"literarygems"or"superfluousmaterial"—
forsomereason,theeditorswerestilldiscussingthisasofpublication.
Andso,inrecognitionoftheexplosivegrowthofCMMIasaprocess
improvementtoolofchoicearoundtheworld,andhavingincorporated
themostrecentdevelopmentsintheevolutionofthemodelsuite,weare
pleasedandexcitedtopresentthisthirdeditionofCMMIDistilled.We
hopethatitwillcontinuetohelpourreadersunderstandtheCMMI
ProductSuiteanduseitwiselyfortheircontinuousimprovement
initiatives.
Asalways,wecouldn'thaveputthisthirdeditiontogetherwithoutthe
support,wisdom,andpatienceofourwonderfulwives.Pam,Debbi,and
Jo—westillloveyouthebestofall!


Dennis,Aaron,andRich
April2008


PartI:IntegratedProcessImprovement
TheTowerofBabelGustaveDore(1832–1883)
©2007JupiterImagesCorporation

InthebiblicalstoryoftheTowerofBabel,Godcausedaconstruction
projecttofailbyinterruptingcommunicationthroughthecreationof
multiplelanguages.Inthemodernstoryofprocessimprovement,we
havecreatedmultiplelanguagestoservevariousorganizational
disciplinesthroughdivergentprocessimprovementmodelsand


methods.AswiththeTowerofBabelstory,thisdiversityposesa
threattocommunication.CapabilityMaturityModelIntegration
(CMMI)andintegratedprocessimprovementingeneralstriveto
reversethissituationbyprovidingasinglelanguagethroughwhich
multipledisciplinescanshareprocessimprovementactivitiesanda
unifiedfocusonprocessimprovementobjectives.

PartIContents
Chapter1.WhyIntegratedProcessImprovement?
Inwhichthereaderisintroducedtotheconceptof,rationalefor,
andbenefitsderivedfromintegratedprocessimprovement.
Chapter2.ImplementingContinuousImprovement
Inwhichtheauthorstakeawide-ranginglookatthetoolsand
methodsavailabletosupportacultureofcontinuous
improvementthatmayhelpreadersmeettheirbusiness
objectives.


Chapter1.WhyIntegratedProcess
Improvement?
Itisnotnecessarytochange.Survivalisnotmandatory.
—W.EdwardsDeming(1900–1993)
Thecomplexityofpracticehasalwaysdwarfedthesimplicityof
theory.
—RobertBritcher,TheLimitsofSoftware(1999)
Giventhatyouarereading(oratleastbrowsingthrough)thisbook,either
youareinterestedincontinuousprocessimprovementandCapability
MaturityModelIntegration(CMMI),oryouhavebeentoldtoget
interestedinit.Perhapsyourmanagementchainoramajorcustomer
hasindicatedthatyourorganizationshouldbeatleastCMMI"level3."
Youthink:"ShouldIreallybeinterested?Willitmakeiteasierformeto
domyjob?Whatislevel3?WhatisCMMI?"Thisbookwillhelpyou
answerthesequestions.
Chapter1reviewsthebusinesscontextforanyimprovementinitiative,
explainingwhythatmanagerorcustomermaybeencouragingyouto
undertakesuchaninitiative.Tounderstandtherationaleforchange,it's
importanttolookatsomeshortcomingsoftraditionalprocess
improvementwhenfacedwiththeengineeringparadigmofthetwentyfirstcentury.Theengineeringworldhaschangedinatleastthree
significantareassincetheintroductionofmodel-basedprocess
improvement.
First,theenvironmentwithinwhichengineeringisperformedhasbecome
increasinglycomplex.Effortsarelarger,involvemorepeople,cross
corporateandinternationalboundaries,aredistributedfarandwide,and
mustadheretocontinuallycompressingimplementationschedulessoas
tomeetcustomerneedsandheightenedexpectations.
Second,thewayinwhichengineeringworkisperformedhasevolved.
Cross-disciplineteams,concurrentengineering,integrationof
commercialoff-the-shelf(COTS)andopen-sourcesoftwareratherthan
traditionalsoftwaredevelopment,agileandevolutionarydevelopment


approaches,highlyautomatedprocesses,andmultinationalstandards
arealltrendsthathaveaffectedengineeringpractice.Thesechanges,in
turn,haveinspiredmodificationsintheroleoftheengineeringmanager.
Third,thecontinuingproliferationofprocessimprovementmodels,
methods,andstandardshasincreasedthechallengeofdefiningand
managingprocessimprovementactivities.Organizationshaveadopted
multipleapproachestocontinuousimprovementtoaddresstheircritical
processes.
Allofthesetrendshighlighttheneedtointegrateprocessimprovement
efforts.Themyriaddisciplinesandprocessesinvolvedincontemporary
engineeringarecloselyintertwined.Unfortunately,theoverheadand
confusionresultingfromtheapplicationofmultiplemodelsandmethods
aretoocostlyintermsofbusinessexpensesandresourceallocation.As
aconsequence,ameansofaddressingprocessimprovementacrossa
numberofdisciplineswithinasingleframeworkisneeded.Thischapter
discusseshowchangesintheengineeringworldhaveinfluencedthe
effectivenessoftraditionalprocessimprovementstrategiesandexplores
howorganizationscanbenefitfromapplyinganintegratedapproachto
reachtheirbusinessobjectives.



Model-BasedProcessImprovement
Model-basedprocessimprovementinvolvestheuseofa
structuredframeworktoguidetheimprovementofan
organization'sprocesses.Processimprovementgrewoutofthe
qualitymanagementworkofDeming,[1]Crosby,[2]andJuran[3]
andisaimedatincreasingthecapabilityofworkprocesses.
Essentially,processcapabilityistheinherentabilityofaprocess
toproduceplannedresults.Asthecapabilityofaprocess
increases,itbecomespredictableandmeasurable,andthemost
significantcausesofpoorqualityandproductivityarecontrolled
oreliminated.Bysteadilyimprovingitsprocesscapability,the
organization"matures."Maturityimprovementrequiresstrong
managementsupportandaconsistentlong-termfocus.In
addition,itnecessitatesfundamentalchangesintheway
managersandpractitionersperformtheirjobs.
Oneframeworkforachievingthisfocushasbeentheuseofa
capabilitymodel.Modelsprovideacommonsetofprocess
requirementsthatcapturesuccessfulpracticesandpractical
knowledgeinaformatthatcanbeusedasaguideinsetting
priorities.Byusingamodel,organizationscanmodifyorcreate
processesbyincorporatingpracticesthathavebeenprovento
increaseprocesscapability.Theymayalsoemploymodelsto
conductanappraisalofprocesscapabilityfortwopurposes:to
establishabaselineforimprovementandtomeasureprogress
asimprovementactivitiesproceed.
Generally,model-basedprocessimprovementbeginswith
managementcommitmentandanappraisaloftheorganization's
existingprocesses.Thefindingsfromthisappraisal,inturn,feed
actionplans.Whentheseplanshavebeencompleted,further
appraisalsareperformedandthecyclecontinues.Thegoalisfor
theorganizationtomaturesothatitcontinuouslymonitorsand
improvesitsprocesses,consistentlyproduceshigh-quality
products,isagilewithinitsmarketplace,andadjustsquicklyto
customerneeds.Foradiscussionofbothmodel-basedand
otherimprovementtechniques,seetheCMMISurvivalGuideby


GarciaandTurner.[4]

[1]Deming,W.Edwards.OutoftheCrisis.Cambridge,MA:MITCenterforAdvanced

Engineering,1986.
[2]Crosby,P.B.QualityIsFree.NewYork:McGraw-Hill,1979.
[3]

Juran,J.M.JuranonPlanningforQuality.NewYork:MacMillan,1988.

[4]Garcia,Suzanne,andRichardTurner.CMMISurvivalGuide:JustEnoughProcess

Improvement,Boston:Addison-Wesley,2007.

1.1.BusinessObjectivesandProcess
Improvement
First,let'stalkaboutyourorganizationandhowyouoryourmanagement
mightlikeittoperform.Organizationsgenerallyhavemanydifferent
businessobjectives:
Producequalityproductsorservices
Createvalueforthestockholders
Beanemployerofchoice
Enhancecustomersatisfaction
Increasemarketshare
Implementcostsavingsandsuccessfulpractices
Gainindustry-widerecognitionforexcellence
Toachieveastrongcompetitiveedgeinarapidlymovingmarketplace,
youmightliketoaggressivelytakeadvantageofopportunitiesandavoid
simplyreactingtochange.Youmightalsoliketoimproveyourabilityto
predictcostsandrevenues,findwaystoraiseproductivity,and
implementmeanstolowerexpenses.Thesemeasurescouldhelpyouto
anticipateproblems,anddevelopwaystoaddressthemearly.


Tomeetanyoftheseobjectives,youmusthaveaclearunderstandingof
whatittakestoproduceyourproductsorservices.Toimprove,youneed
tounderstandthevariabilityintheprocessesthatyoufollow,sothat
whenyouadjustthem,you'llknowwhethertheadjustmentis
advantageous.Inshort,you'llwanttomanageyourbusinessusing
accuratedataaboutbothproductsandprocesses.
Butwait:Howdoyouknowthatyourdataisreasonableoraccurate?
Canyoucompareinformationbetweenprojects?Generally,therehasto
besomeconsistencyintheworkyoudoifyouaretomakevalid
comparisons.Youwanttobeabletomeasureyoursuccessandmake
surethattheprocessesyoufollowaddvaluetotheproductsandservices
thatyouprovide.Ofcourse,thatimpliesastandardwayofdoingthings
andabaselineagainstwhichtomeasureyoursubsequentefforts.
Nowwearegettingdowntothenitty-gritty:Doesyourorganizationhave
experiencewithwritingandfollowingaprocess,andcanitsupportthe
developmentofcommon,standardprocesses?Canyoudeterminethe
bestwaystogoaboutaparticulartask?Establishingstandardprocesses
thatareappropriateandsuccessfulforyourworkplaceandbusinessis
fundamentalforprocesscontrolandimprovement.Unfortunately,itmay
notbewithinthescopeofyourpositiondescriptionsortraining.Andwhat
aboutthattraining?
Withoutgoodprojectmanagementandfundamentaltechnicalskills,
projectscannotoperateeffectivelyenoughtospendanytimeon
improvement.Basicactivitiessuchasplanningandtrackingneedtobe
understoodandencouraged.Versioncontrolandriskmanagementare
essentialdisciplinesthatneedtobeaddressed.Inaddition,managing
requirementssothatyoudelivervaluetoyourcustomerisakeybusiness
objective.
Asyoucanseefromtheprecedingdiscussion,gettingtothepointwhere
yourorganizationenjoysacompetitiveedgerequiresanumberof
incrementalimprovements.That'swhereprocessimprovementcanreally
help.Processimprovementactivitiesfocusonimprovingprocess
capability,organizationalmaturity,processefficiency,andprocesscontrol
soastohelpyouadvancetheorganizationandaccomplishitsobjectives.
Theycanprovideyouwithguidanceonhowtodocumentand
standardizeprocesses,increaseyourworkeffectiveness,limitrework,


measuretheperformanceoftheorganization,andusethedatato
managethebusiness.
Ofcourse,thereisacostassociatedwithprocessimprovement.
Experienceshowsthatitcantakebetween2percentand10percentof
normalengineeringefforttosupportasignificantprocessimprovement
initiative.Atthesametime,experiencealsoconfirmsthatprocess
improvementbringsasignificantlypositivereturnoninvestment(ROI)
andimprovementinkeybusinessindicators.Considerthese
representativeexamplesofCMMIsuccesses:
DBSystemsGmbHreportedthatitscostsdropped48percentfrom
abaselinepriortoSW-CMMmaturitylevel2astheorganization
movedtowardCMMImaturitylevel3.[5]
[5]Richter,Alfred,"QualityforITDevelopmentandITServiceOperations:CMMIand

ITILinaCommonQualityApproach."London:ESEPG,June16,2004.

AstheorganizationmovedfromSW-CMMmaturitylevel3toCMMI
maturitylevel5,IBMAustraliaApplicationManagementServices
sawitson-timedeliveryincreaseby10percent,itson-budget
deliveryimproveby41percent,customersatisfactionriseby33
percent,andapplicationdevelopmentproductivityimproveby76
percent,resultinginacumulativecostssavingsofAU$412millionto
thecompany'sclient.[6]
[6]Nichols,Robyn,andColinConnaughton,SoftwareProcessImprovementJourney:

IBMAustraliaApplicationManagementServices.AReportfromtheWinnerofthe
2004SoftwareProcessAchievementAward(CMU/SEI-2005-TR-002).Pittsburgh,PA:
SoftwareEngineeringInstitute,CarnegieMellonUniversity,2005.

NorthropGrummanITDefenseEnterpriseSolutions,aCMMI
maturitylevel5organizationwhoseengineershadundergone
PersonalSoftwareProcess(PSP)training,reducedidentifieddefects
from6.6to2.1perKLOCoverthreecausalanalysisandresolution
cycles.[7]
[7]Hollenbach,Craig,"QuantitativelyMeasuredProcessImprovementsatNorthrop

GrummanIT."Denver,CO:CMMIUserGroupandConference,November2003.

Reuters'schedulevariancedecreasedfromapproximately25


percentto15percentastheorganizationmovedfromCMMmaturity
level3toCMMImaturitylevel5.[8]
[8]Iredale,Paul,"The'InternalOffshore'ExperienceatReuters."Adelaide,Australia:

AustralianSEPG,September27–29,2004.

Astheseexamplesdemonstrate,processimprovementpromises
significantbenefitsfororganizations.Intheremainderofthischapter,we
showhowintegratingprocessimprovementacrossseveraldisciplines
canincreasethosebenefits.



ProcessImprovementandGolf
Ifyouhaven'tgotahandleonwhatprocessimprovementisand
howitcanhelpyourbusiness,here'sanonbusinesswaytothink
aboutit.Theprocessyouusetoproduceaproductorservice
maybelikenedtoagolfswing,inthatitisacomplexsequence
ofcloselycoupledactivitiesthatareperformedinanintegrated
mannertoachieveaspecificpurpose.Ofcourse,asweallknow,
improvingyourgolfswingisnotaneasytask.Neitheris
improvingyourbusinessprocesses.
First,it'simpossibletoaddressallfacetsofyourgolfswingat
once.Youneedtobreakitintopiecessoyoucanconcentrateon
makingadjustmentsthatareunderyourcontrol.Someofthose
pieces,suchasyourgripandyourstance(nottomentionthe
clublength,theflexibilityoftheshaft,thematerialintheclub
head,andsoon),arefundamentalsthathavetobeinplace
beforethereliabilityofanyoftheotherpiecescanbe
considered.Inotherwords,youhavetotakecareofthembefore
youcanmakesignificantprogressinotherareas.
Second,youcan'teasilytakeacriticallookatyourowngolf
swing.Youneedanobjectiveeye(thegolfprofessionalora
videocamera)thatcanhelpevaluatewhatisrightandwhatisn't.
Ofcourse,youalsoneedsomemeasuresofcorrectnesstouse
asaguideinmakingthesedeterminations.
Third,asyouimprovethecomponentsoftheswing(suchas
grip,stance,lengthofbackswing,andtempo),theybeginto
mergeintoamoreintegratedwholethatyoucanbeginto
"groove"intopredictableconsistency.Andonceyoufindthe
swingthat'scomfortablewithyour7iron,itthenneedstobe
applied(withappropriateadjustment)totheotherclubsinyour
bag.
Finally,it'sonlyafteryouhaveachievedconsistencyinyour
swingthatyoucanbegintomodifyitforthesituationathand
andreallyaddressthestrategicpartsofgolf—clubselection,
shotplacement,drawsandfades,andothernuancesthatmost


ofusseeonlyontelevision.
Inmanyrespects,organizationalprocessimprovementworksin
muchthesamewayasimprovingyourgolfswing.Modelsand
othercontinuousimprovementtechniquescanhelpyoubreak
yourprocessintopieces,showyouthefundamentals,andhelp
youdecidewhichaspectstoworkonfirst.Processimprovement
champions,groups,andconsultantscanhelpyouevaluateyour
currentprocessesandmeasureyourimprovement.The
standardprocessesthatyouemploycanprovideyouwith
standarddata,whichthenbecomesthebasisforyourprojectsto
"groove"theiractivitiessothatapplyingthemtonewareasand
thinkingstrategicallybecomenormalwaystowork.
Andbytheway,improvingyourorganizationmaybeeasierthan
improvingyourgolfswingbecauseyouhavealotoftalentthat
canworksynergistically,andtheydon'thavetodoitonlyon
weekends.Goget'em,Tiger.


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