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OReilly linux cookbook nov 2004 ISBN 0596006403

LinuxCookbook

ByCarlaSchroder
Tableof

Contents Publisher :O'Reilly
• Index
PubDate :November2004
ISBN :0-596-00640-3
• Reviews
Pages :580
Reader




Reviews
• Errata
• Academic
Cooking
with


Linux,
Part2
Cooking
with

Linux,
Part1



Linuxinformationcanbefoundscatteredinmanpages,texinfo
files,andsourcecodecomments,butthebestsourceisthe
expertswhohavebuiltupaworkingknowledgeofmanaging
Linuxsystems.TheLinuxCookbook'stestedtechniquesdistill
yearsofhard-wonexperienceintopracticalcut-and-paste
solutionstoeverydayLinuxdilemmas.Usejustonerecipefrom
thiscollectionofreal-worldsolutions,andthehoursoftedious
trial-and-errorsavedwillmorethanpayforthecostofthebook.
It'smorethanatime-saver;it'sasanitysaver.





Tableof

Contents
• Index
• Reviews
Reader

Reviews
• Errata
• Academic
Cooking
with

Linux,
Part2
Cooking
with

Linux,
Part1

LinuxCookbook
ByCarlaSchroder

Publisher :O'Reilly
PubDate :November2004
ISBN :0-596-00640-3
Pages :580


Copyright

Dedication

Preface
RecipeAudience

RecipeWhatIsIncluded/Omitted




RecipePlatforms




RecipeDownloadsandFeedback

RecipeConventions
RecipeCommentsandQuestions





RecipeAcknowledgments

Chapter1.FindingDocumentation
Section1.1.Introduction




Recipe1.2.UnderstandingmanPages




Recipe1.4.FindingLostmanPages




Recipe1.6.ConfiguringYourmanpath




Recipe1.8.PrintingmanPages




Recipe1.10.PrintingSelectedmanorinfoPages

Recipe1.3.FindingAppropriatemanPages
Recipe1.5.ReadingmanPagesWithoutamanViewer
Recipe1.7.UsinginfoPages
Recipe1.9.PrintinginfoPages
Recipe1.11.FindingAlloftheDocumentationforaProgram


Chapter2.InstallingandManagingSoftwareonRPM-BasedSystems
Section2.1.Introduction

Recipe2.2.InstallingRPMs




Recipe2.3.UpgradingRPMs




Recipe2.5.CollectingInformationonInstalledRPMs




Recipe2.7.FindingRecentlyInstalledRPMs




Recipe2.9.TrackingSource-BuiltLibrariesonanRPM-BasedSystem




Recipe2.11.InstallingSourceRPMs



Recipe2.13.InstallingYum




Recipe2.14.ConfiguringYum




Recipe2.16.RemovingPackageswithYum

Recipe2.4.RemovingRPMs
Recipe2.6.CollectingInformationfromRPMsThatAreNotInstalled
Recipe2.8.RebuildingtheRPMDatabase
Recipe2.10.FixingRPMInstallationProblems
Recipe2.12.CustomizingBuildOptionsinaSourceRPM

Recipe2.15.InstallingandUpgradingPackageswithYum
Recipe2.17.GettingInformationonInstalledPackageswithYum

Recipe2.18.MaintainingYum


Chapter3.InstallingandManagingSoftwareonDebian-BasedSystems
Section3.1.Introduction




Recipe3.2.GettingSoftwareforaDebianSystem




Recipe3.4.InstallingPackagesonDebian-BasedSystems



Recipe3.6.InstallingfromSourcesonaDebianSystem

Recipe3.3.InstallingDebianPackagesfromCD-ROM
Recipe3.5.RemovingPackagesfromaDebianSystem




Recipe3.7.UpgradingPackagesonDebian




Recipe3.8.UpgradingaDebianSystem




Recipe3.10.RunningaMixedDebianSystem




Recipe3.12.MaintainingtheDebianPackageCache




Recipe3.14.BuildingaLocalDebianRepository

Recipe3.9.UpgradingtoaNewerDebianRelease
Recipe3.11.FindingOutWhatIsInstalledonaDebianSystem
Recipe3.13.ResolvingDebianDependencyConflicts
Recipe3.15.SelectingPackageMirrorsforapt-proxy.conf

Recipe3.16.AddingYourExistingPackageCachetoapt-proxy.conf


Chapter4.InstallingProgramsfromSourceCode
Section4.1.Introduction




Recipe4.2.PreparingYourSystemforCompilingProgramsfromSources




Recipe4.4.InstallingProgramsfromSourceCode

Recipe4.3.GeneratingaListofFilesfromaSourceInstallforEasyUninstalls
Recipe4.5.UsingCheckInstalltoCreatePackagesfromSources


Chapter5.DiscoveringHardwarefromOutsidetheBox
Section5.1.Introduction

Recipe5.2.DetectingHardwarewithlspci




Recipe5.3.UsingdmesgtoCollectHardwareInformation




Recipe5.5.ViewingDrivePartitionswithfdisk

Recipe5.4.GettingLiveHardwareSnapshotswith/proc
Recipe5.6.CalculatingHardDriveCapacity


Chapter6.EditingTextFileswithJOEandVim
Section6.1.Introduction

Recipe6.2.FindingJOECommands




Recipe6.3.CustomizingJOE




Recipe6.5.CopyingBetweenTwoFilesinJOE




Recipe6.7.SelectingTextVerticallyinJOE




Recipe6.9.LearningVimQuickly




Recipe6.11.MappingCommandstoKeystrokes




Recipe6.13.NavigatingQuicklyinVimwithMarks



Recipe6.15.SettingYourDefaultEditor

Recipe6.4.OrganizingJOE'sPreferencesinaSeparateFile
Recipe6.6.SearchingandReplacinginJOE
Recipe6.8.FindingandOpeningFilesinJOE
Recipe6.10.CreatingAutotextwithVim'sAbbreviations
Recipe6.12.CustomizingVim
Recipe6.14.PickingUpWhereYouLeftOff:UsingVim'sSessions



Recipe6.16.DiscoveringVim'sCompile-TimeOptions

Chapter7.StartingandStoppingLinux



Section7.1.Introduction




Recipe7.3.ChangingtheDefaultRunlevel




Recipe7.5.ManagingDebian'sRunlevels




Recipe7.7.ManagingRedHat'sRunlevels




Recipe7.9.ManuallyStartingandStoppingServices




Recipe7.11.DisablingorLimitingAccesstoCtrl-Alt-Delete

Recipe7.2.ChangingRunlevelsAfterBootup
Recipe7.4.StartingandStoppingX
Recipe7.6.CreatingBothTextandGraphicalLoginRunlevelsonDebian
Recipe7.8.ManuallyConfiguringStartupServices
Recipe7.10.ShuttingDownorRebootingLinux
Recipe7.12.ShuttingDownAutomatically


Chapter8.ManagingUsersandGroups
Section8.1.Introduction

Recipe8.2.SortingHumanUsersfromSystemUsers




Recipe8.3.FindingaUser'sUIDandGID




Recipe8.5.AddingUserswithadduser




Recipe8.7.DeletingaUser




Recipe8.9.DisablingAccounts




Recipe8.11.AddingGroupswithgroupadd




Recipe8.13.CreatingaSystemUser




Recipe8.15.AddingandDeletingGroupMembers




Recipe8.17.AddingNewUsersinBatches




Recipe8.19.AddingBatchesofUserstoGroups




Recipe8.21.GrantingLimitedRootlyPowerswithsudo

Recipe8.4.AddingUserswithuseradd
Recipe8.6.ModifyingUserAccounts
Recipe8.8.KillingUserProcessestheEasy,FunWay
Recipe8.10.ManagingPasswords
Recipe8.12.DeletingGroupswithgroupdel
Recipe8.14.CreatingSystemGroupswithaddgroup
Recipe8.16.CheckingPasswordFileIntegrity
Recipe8.18.ChangingMassesofPasswords
Recipe8.20.UsingsutoBeRootTemporarily
Recipe8.22.UsingDiskQuotas


Chapter9.ManagingFilesandPartitions
Section9.1.Introduction





Recipe9.2.SettingFileandDirectoryPermissionswithchmod'sNumericNotation



Recipe9.3.DoingBatchOperationswithchmod



Recipe9.4.SettingFileandDirectoryPermissionswithchmod'sSymbolic
Notation
Recipe9.5.SettingFileOwnershipwithchown




Recipe9.6.DoingBatchOperationswithchown




Recipe9.7.SettingUpaSharedDirectorywithsetgidandtheStickyBit




Recipe9.9.MountingandUnmountingRemovableDisks




Recipe9.11.MountingandUnmountingFilesystemsonHardDrives




Recipe9.13.CreatingFilesandDirectories




Recipe9.15.Copying,Moving,andRenamingFilesandDirectories

Recipe9.8.SettingPermissionsDefaultswithumask
Recipe9.10.ConfiguringFilesystemMountswith/etc/fstab
Recipe9.12.FindingDeviceNamesformountandfstab
Recipe9.14.DeletingFilesandDirectories
Recipe9.16.CreatingLinuxDiskPartitionswithfdisk

Recipe9.17.CreatingaFilesystemonaNewPartition


Chapter10.Patching,Customizing,andUpgradingKernels
Section10.1.Introduction




Recipe10.2.AddingNewFeaturestothe2.4Kernel




Recipe10.4.UpgradingtotheLatestStableVersionofthe2.4Kernel




Recipe10.6.AddingNewFeaturestothe2.6Kernel




Recipe10.8.PatchingaKernel




Recipe10.10.CreatinganinitrdImage

Recipe10.3.SlimmingaStock2.4Kernel
Recipe10.5.Buildingthe2.6Kernel
Recipe10.7.AddingaNewLoadableKernelModule
Recipe10.9.RemovingaKernelPatch
Recipe10.11.CreatingaBootDiskonDebian

Recipe10.12.CreatingaBootDiskonRedHat


Chapter11.CDandDVDRecording
Section11.1.Introduction




Recipe11.2.FindingtheSCSIAddressforCDandDVDWriters




Recipe11.4.MakingaDataCDforGeneralDistribution




Recipe11.6.CopyingaCDorDVD




Recipe11.8.RecordingaMultisessionDataCD

Recipe11.3.EnablingSCSIEmulationforIDE/AtapiCDandDVDWriters
Recipe11.5.BuildingFileTreesonaDataCD
Recipe11.7.ErasingaCD-RW
Recipe11.9.CreatingaBootableCD






Recipe11.10.SpanningaLargeFileoverSeveralCDs
Recipe11.11.RecordingDataDVDs

Recipe11.12.RecordinganAudioCDforStandardCDPlayers


Chapter12.ManagingtheBootloaderandMulti-Booting
Section12.1.Introduction




Recipe12.2.MigratingfromLILOtoGRUB




Recipe12.4.InstallingGRUBwithgrub-install




Recipe12.6.AddingMoreLinuxestoaMultibootSystem




Recipe12.8.ConfiguringtheBootPartition




Recipe12.10.Customizingmenu.lst




Recipe12.12.AddingWindowsNT/2000/XPtoaMultibootSystem




Recipe12.14.ProtectingSystemFileswithaGRUBPassword




Recipe12.16.CreatingaGRUBSplashImage




Recipe12.18.MultibootingLinuxeswithLILO




Recipe12.20.CreatingaLILOBootDiskette

Recipe12.3.InstallingGRUBWithoutaFloppyDisk
Recipe12.5.PreparingaSystemforMultibootingLinux
Recipe12.7.DiscoveringBootParametersfromtheGRUBCommandShell
Recipe12.9.CreatingtheGRUBBootMenu
Recipe12.11.AddingWindows95/98/MEtoaLinuxSystem
Recipe12.13.RestoringGRUBtotheMBRwithaKnoppixCD
Recipe12.15.LockingOutUsersfromIndividualGRUBMenuEntries
Recipe12.17.BootingLinuxwithLILO
Recipe12.19.MultibootingWindowsandLinuxwithLILO
Recipe12.21.Password-ProtectingLILO

Recipe12.22.BackingUptheMBR


Chapter13.SystemRescueandRecoverywithKnoppix
Section13.1.Introduction




Recipe13.2.BootingKnoppix




Recipe13.4.SavingYourKnoppixConfigurationonaUSBMemoryStick




Recipe13.6.CopyingFilestoAnotherLinuxPC




Recipe13.8.CopyingFilestoaCD-R/RW




Recipe13.10.InstallingSoftwarefromKnoppix

Recipe13.3.CreatingaKnoppixBootDiskette
Recipe13.5.CreatingaPersistent,EncryptedKnoppixHomeDirectory
Recipe13.7.CopyingFilestoaSambaShare
Recipe13.9.EditingConfigurationFilesfromKnoppix
Recipe13.11.RepairingaLostRootPassword




Recipe13.12.InstallingKnoppixtoaHardDisk

Recipe13.13.Virus-ScanningWindowsPCswithKnoppix


Chapter14.PrintingwithCUPS



Section14.1.Introduction




Recipe14.3.ServingLinuxClients




Recipe14.5.ServingWindowsClientsWithoutSamba




Recipe14.7.BuildingaDedicatedCUPSPrinterServer




Recipe14.9.RestrictingUsersfromPrintersandClasses

Recipe14.2.InstallingaPrinteronaStandaloneLinuxPC
Recipe14.4.SharingaPrinterWithoutUsingNameResolution
Recipe14.6.SharingPrintersonaMixedLANwithSamba
Recipe14.8.DistributedPrintingwithClasses
Recipe14.10.Troubleshooting


Chapter15.ConfiguringVideoandManagingXWindows
Section15.1.Introduction

Recipe15.2.UsingBothXWindowsandConsoles




Recipe15.3.InstallingaNewVideoAdapter




Recipe15.5.Enabling3DHardwareAccelerationwithXFree86/DRI




Recipe15.7.ConfiguringaMultiheadDisplay




Recipe15.9.SettingaDefaultServerLayout




Recipe15.11.ChangingYourLoginDisplayManager

Recipe15.4.EditingXF86Config
Recipe15.6.Troubleshooting3DAccelerationProblems
Recipe15.8.ChoosingDifferentServerLayoutsatStartup
Recipe15.10.Configuringstartx
Recipe15.12.RunningDifferentWindowManagersSimultaneouslywithXnest


Chapter16.BackupandRecovery
Section16.1.Introduction

Recipe16.2.UsingrsyncforLocalFileTransfersandSynchronization




Recipe16.3.MakingSecureTransferswithrsyncandssh




Recipe16.5.SecuringrsyncModules




Recipe16.7.LaunchingthersyncDaemonatStartup




Recipe16.9.AutomatingrsyncoversshBackups




Recipe16.11.CustomizingFilepathsinrsync

Recipe16.4.BuildinganrsyncBackupServer
Recipe16.6.BuildinganAnonymousPublicrsyncServer
Recipe16.8.Fine-TuningFileSelection
Recipe16.10.Limitingrsync'sBandwidthRequirements
Recipe16.12.InstallingrsynconWindowsClients




Recipe16.13.CreatingaMessageoftheDayforrsync



Recipe16.14.CreatingaBootableSystemRestoreCDwithMondoRescue



Recipe16.15.VerifyingtheMondoBackup




Recipe16.16.CreatingaBootableSystemRestoreDVDwithMondoRescue




Recipe16.18.Usingthemindi-kernelfora"Sane"Backup

Recipe16.17.UsingMondoRescuetoCloneLinuxSystems
Recipe16.19.RestoringaSystemfromaMondoRescueDisk

Recipe16.20.RestoringSelectedFilesfromaMondoDisk


Chapter17.RemoteAccess
Section17.1.Introduction




Recipe17.2.SettingUpOpenSSHtheFirstTime




Recipe17.4.AuthenticatingViaPublicKeys




Recipe17.6.PasswordlessLoginswithssh-agent




Recipe17.8.PasswordlessLoginsforcronJobs




Recipe17.10.CustomizingtheBashPromptforssh




Recipe17.12.ConnectingfromaWindowsPC

Recipe17.3.GeneratingNewHostKeys
Recipe17.5.UsingMultipleKeyPairs
Recipe17.7.BetterPasswordlessLoginswithkeychain
Recipe17.9.ShuttingDownssh-agentAutomaticallyatLogout
Recipe17.11.TunnelingXoverSSH
Recipe17.13.SettingFilePermissionsonsshFiles


Chapter18.VersionControl
Section18.1.Introduction

Recipe18.2.BuildingaSimpleLocalRCSRepository



Recipe18.3.RetrievingOlderFileRevisionsfromRCS




Recipe18.4.ComparingFileVersionsinRCS




Recipe18.6.UsingCVSforaSingle-UserLocalRepository




Recipe18.8.DeletingFilesfromaCVSRepository




Recipe18.10.SharingaSingleRepositoryBetweenSeveralGroups




Recipe18.12.UpdatingYourWorkingFilesinCVS




Recipe18.14.BuildinganAnonymousRead-OnlyCVSRepositorywithPserver

Recipe18.5.ManagingSystemConfigurationFileswithRCS
Recipe18.7.AddingNewFilestoaCVSRepository
Recipe18.9.CreatingaSharedCVSRepository
Recipe18.11.AccessingaRemoteCVSRepository
Recipe18.13.RetrievingSpecificOlderRevisionsfromCVS
Recipe18.15.MirroringaCVSRepository




Recipe18.16.StoringBinaryFilesinCVS




Recipe18.17.CreatingReleaseSnapshotswithTags




Recipe18.19.CustomizingYourCVSEnvironment

Recipe18.18.CreatingStableandDevelopmentBranchesforaProject
Recipe18.20.CalculatingStorageSizeforaCVSRepository


Chapter19.KeepingTimewithNTP
Section19.1.Introduction

Recipe19.2.BuildingaLocalTimeServer




Recipe19.3.ConnectingtoaLocalTimeServer



Recipe19.5.DecidingWhichNTPPoolstoUse




Recipe19.6.ConnectingtoaTimeServerfromanIntermittentConnection

Recipe19.4.AddingAccessControls

Recipe19.7.SettingUpMultipleLocalTimeServers

Recipe19.8.UsingNTPKeysforAuthentication


Chapter20.BuildingaPostfixMailServer
Section20.1.Introduction




Recipe20.2.BuildingaPOP3MailServer




Recipe20.4.TestingtheSMTP/POP3MailServer




Recipe20.6.ReceivingInternetMail




Recipe20.8.InstallingCyrus-SASLonDebian




Recipe20.10.Usingsmtp-authtoAuthenticatePostfixtoAnotherServer




Recipe20.12.BuildinganIMAPMailServer




Recipe20.14.SharingIMAPFolders




Recipe20.16.CreatingaMailListwithcouriermlm




Recipe20.18.SquirrelingAroundwithWebmail

Recipe20.3.BuildingaPOP3MailServeronDebian
Recipe20.5.SendingInternetMail
Recipe20.7.InstallingCyrus-SASLforSMTPAuthorization
Recipe20.9.SettingUpsmtp-authtoAuthenticateUsers
Recipe20.11.ConfiguringaFullyQualifiedDomainName
Recipe20.13.ConnectingYourUsers
Recipe20.15.UsingPostfix'sVirtualMailboxDomains
Recipe20.17.AdministeringacouriermlmList
Recipe20.19.TableofSMTPResponseCodesandSMTPCommands


Chapter21.ManagingSpamandMalware
Section21.1.Introduction

Recipe21.2.BasicChecklist:PreparingtoBuildSpamMalwareDefenses




Recipe21.3.SafelyTestingNewUBEControlsinPostfix
Recipe21.4.BasicUBEConfigurationsforPostfix




Recipe21.5.CreatingWhitelists




Recipe21.6.UsingDNSBlackholeLists




Recipe21.8.SettingUpClamAnti-VirusonaPostfixServer

Recipe21.7.RejectingMessageswithAttachments
Recipe21.9.SettingUpSpamAssassinonPostfixwithAmavisd-new

Recipe21.10.SettingUpSpamAssassinWithoutAmavisd-new


Chapter22.RunninganApacheWebServer
Section22.1.Introduction




Recipe22.2.InstallingApache2.0fromSources




Recipe22.4.SettingApacheFilePermissionsandOwnership




Recipe22.6.SettingUpaSimplePublicWebServer




Recipe22.8.GivingUsersIndividualWebDirectories




Recipe22.10.HostingMultipleDomainswithApache




Recipe22.12.KeepingLANWebSitesOfftheInternet




Recipe22.14.Usingrobots.txttoControlWebCrawlers




Recipe22.16.MakingCustomErrorPages




Recipe22.18.MakingFull-LengthDirectoryIndexes




Recipe22.20.UsingFavicons

Recipe22.3.AddingNewModulesAfterInstallation
Recipe22.5.AccessingtheApacheUser'sManualLocally
Recipe22.7.RedirectingURLstoaNewDirectory
Recipe22.9.StartingApacheatBoot
Recipe22.11.UsingIndividualLogFilesforVirtualHosts
Recipe22.13.Password-ProtectingIndividualDirectories
Recipe22.15.BlockingObnoxiousVisitors
Recipe22.17.CustomizingApache'sDefaultErrorPages
Recipe22.19.UsingContentNegotiationtoDeliverPagesinDifferentLanguages
Recipe22.21.ViewingApacheAccessLogswithWebalizer


Chapter23.FileandPrinterSharing,andDomainAuthenticationwithSamba
Section23.1.Introduction

Recipe23.2.BuildingaSimpleAnonymousSambaFileServerforWindows




Recipe23.3.BuildingaWindows/LinuxPeerNetwork




Recipe23.5.AddingAuthenticationtoaSambaServer




Recipe23.7.ManagingSambaLoginsfromWindows95/98/ME



Recipe23.9.ControllingShareAccesswithAccessControlLists

Recipe23.4.EnablingFileSharingonWindowsPCs
Recipe23.6.Batch-ConvertingSystemUserstoSambaUsers
Recipe23.8.DealingwithWindowsEncryptedPasswordConfusion




Recipe23.10.CreatingPublicSharesforUsers




Recipe23.11.AccessingUsers'HomeDirectoriesinSamba




Recipe23.13.ConnectingWindows95/98/MEtoaSambaDomain



Recipe23.15.ConnectingWindowsXPClientstoaSambaDomain




Recipe23.16.EnablingRoamingProfiles



Recipe23.18.ConnectingLinuxClientstoSambaWorkgroupswithCommandLineTools
Recipe23.19.ConnectingLinuxClientstoaSambaDomainwithGUILAN
Browsers
Recipe23.20.ConnectingLinuxClientstoaSambaDomainwithCommand-Line
Tools
Recipe23.21.KeepingSambaandLinuxPasswordsinSync








Recipe23.12.BuildingaPrimaryDomainControllerwithSamba
Recipe23.14.ConnectingWindowsNT/2000ClientstoaSambaDomain

Recipe23.17.ConnectingLinuxClientstoaSambaFileServerorPeerNetwork

Recipe23.22.SharingLinuxPrinterswithWindows
Recipe23.23.SharingWindowsPrinterswithLinux
Recipe23.24.RunningWindowsApplicationsonLinuxwithCrossOverOffice


Chapter24.ManagingNameResolution
Section24.1.Introduction

Recipe24.2.EnablingLocalNameResolutionwithhostsFiles




Recipe24.3.SettingUpaDHCPServer




Recipe24.5.AddingStaticHoststodhcp




Recipe24.7.Installingdjbdns



Recipe24.9.RunningaLocalCachingNameServerwithdjbdns



Recipe24.10.ConfiguringLinuxandWindowsClientstoUseYourCachingDNS
Server
Recipe24.11.BuildingaPublicDNSServerwithtinydns




Recipe24.4.ConfiguringdhcpClients
Recipe24.6.RunningaPublicDNSServer
Recipe24.8.Movingtinydns'sanddnscache'sLogfiles

Recipe24.12.BuildingaPrivatetinydnsServer




Recipe24.13.EnablingSimpleLoadBalancingwithtinydns




Recipe24.15.RunningaLocalCachingNameServerwithBIND




Recipe24.17.CheckingSyntax




Recipe24.19.BuildingaBINDSecondaryServer

Recipe24.14.SynchronizingwithaSecondtinydnsServer
Recipe24.16.RunningaPrivateBINDDNSServer
Recipe24.18.ConfiguringaPublicBINDDNSServer
Recipe24.20.SimpleLoadBalancingwithBIND




Recipe24.21.TestingYourtinydnsServer

Recipe24.22.TestingandQueryingDNSServerswithdiganddnstrace


AppendixA.FindingLinuxDocumentation
RecipeA.1.LinuxDocumentationontheWeb

RecipeA.2.BooksandMagazines


AppendixB.OnlineReferences
RecipeB.1.HardwareWebSites







RecipeB.2.Usenet
AppendixC.MicrosoftFileTypes
AppendixD.InitScriptforCVSD
Colophon
Index


Copyright©2005O'ReillyMedia,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.
PublishedbyO'ReillyMedia,Inc.,1005GravensteinHighway
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NutshellHandbook,theNutshellHandbooklogo,andthe
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TheLinuxseriesdesignations,LinuxCookbook,imagesofthe
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Manyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellersto
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thosedesignationsappearinthisbook,andO'ReillyMedia,Inc.
wasawareofatrademarkclaim,thedesignationshavebeen
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Whileeveryprecautionhasbeentakeninthepreparationofthis
book,thepublisherandauthorassumenoresponsibilityfor
errorsoromissions,orfordamagesresultingfromtheuseof
theinformationcontainedherein.


Dedication
ToDawnMarie.
Duringthewritingofthisbook,shetilledthefields,trainedthe
horses,cookedthemeals,cleanedtheditches,andgraciously
fendedoffgenerousneighborsbearinglargezucchinis.No
authorcouldaskformore.Thankyoufor14greatyears;may
wehavemanymore.


Preface
So:you'rearelativelynewLinuxuser.You'vegotLinux
installed,you'vemanagedtologin,dosomewebbrowsing,
sendandreceiveemail,andnowwhat?Althoughyoucanhandle
someofthebasics,youfeellikeyou'reflyingblind:youknow
you'vegotlotsofreallypowerfulstuffatyourfingertips,orat
leastsoyourLinuxgurufriendtoldyou,buthowdoyoumakeit
dotricks?What'sthere,andhowdoesitwork?What'sthisthing
calledgrepthatthey'realwaystalkingabout?Howdoyou
Samba?Andwhere'sthe#$%^documentation?
TheLinux-Unixworldisabundantlydocumented.No,really!You
canalwaysfindananswer,ifyouknowwheretolook.The
problem,ofcourse,isknowingwheretolook.Thereareman
pages,infopages,READMEs,HTMLmanuals,andthecode
itself.Youdon'thavetobeaprogrammertounearthusefulbits
insourcecode,becausethecommentsoftentellyouwhatyou
needtoknow.
Therearethousandsuponthousandsofonlinecommunities,
one(ormore)surroundingnearlyeverybitofsoftwareinthe
Linuxuniverse.Nearlyeveryprogram,nomatterhowsmall,
hasitsownusermailinglist.EveryLinuxdistributionhasits
ownmailinglistsanduserforums.Thereareforumsandlists
andUsenetgroupsforeverycomputingsubjectunderthesun.
Andofcoursetherearebooksandmagazinesofevery
description.SotherealproblemwithLinuxdocumentationis
notthelackofit,butfindingthebitsyouneedwithouthaving
toembarkonalengthy,heroicquest.


Audience
Thisbookisaimedatfolkswhowanttoknowwhatbuttonto
push.Understandingtheunderlyingtheoryisuseful,butifyou
can'tmakethedarnthingwork,notveryhelpful.Soit'slighton
theoryandheavyonhow-to-make-this-go,withdetailed,stepby-stepinstructions.I'veincludedmanyreferencestoadditional
resources.
ReadersshouldhaveabitofLinuxexperience.Youdon'tneed
tobeaguru,butyoushouldhavesomefamiliaritywiththe
basicsofbootingupandshuttingdown,startingapplications,
Websurfing,andpokingaroundthefilesystem.Youshould
knowhowtofindandusethecommandline,aswellasworkin
agraphicalenvironment.YoushouldunderstandthatLinuxisa
truemulti-usersystem,andthatyouuseanordinary
unprivilegeduseraccountasmuchaspossible,andthatyou
onlyinvokerootwhenyoureallyneedto.
ThisbookassumesthatyouareinchargeofaPCorLAN,and
canacquirerootlypowerswhentheoccasioncallsforthem.You
mightbeapoweruserwhowantscompletecontrolofyour
Linuxbox,orahomeuserwhowantstorunapersonalwebor
mailserver,orsetupasmallLAN.PerhapsyouareaWindows
systemadmininstratorwhohassuddenlybeenorderedto"do
Linux,"andyouneedtoknowhowtosetupLinuxserversfor
Windowsclients.MaybeyouwanttoaddLinuxserverstoan
existingnetwork.YoumightneedtointegrateLinuxand
WindowsdesktopusersonaLAN.
OryouhavenoneedforWindowsatall,andjustwanttolearn
Linuxsystemadministration.


WhatIsIncluded/Omitted
Giventhattherearethousandsofsoftwarepackagestochoose
from,almostallofwhichdosomethinguseful,itwasaforegone
conclusionthatIcouldn'tcovereverything.Orevenmostof
everything.Idecidedwhattoinclude,andwhattoleaveout,
basedonmyopinionofwhatafundamentalLinuxskillset
shouldinclude.(Youmayhavedifferentideas.)Iincluded
programsthatIconsidertobethebest-of-breed,suchdjbdns,
GRUB,Apache2,vim,andPostfix.AndIdidn'tneglectold
standbyslikeLILOandBIND.
You'llfindsomeexcellent,innovativescriptsfor:
Addingusersinbatches
Changingpasswordsinbatches
Findingalltheinstalleddocumentationforaprogram
FindingorphanedlibrariesonRPM-basedsystems,and
addingthemtotheRPMdatabase
Idecidednottoincludeproductivityanddesktopapplications,
likeOpenOffice,KMail,Firefox,Konqueror,theGimp,GnuCash,
andsoforth.Thisbookisaboutbuildinginfrastructure.Once
youmasterthefundamentalsofrunningandmaintaininga
Linuxsystem,itwilltakeyouanywhereyouwanttogo.


Platforms
TherearemoreLinuxdistributionsthancanbecounted;there
areliterallythousandsofdistributions,manyofwhichare
peculiartoacompany,acampus,orevenacircleoffriendswho
liketorolltheirown.However,theworldofdistributionsbreaks
(notverycleanly)intotwolargecamps:RPM-basedsystems,
representedinthisbookbyRedHatandFedora,andapt-based
systems,representedbyDebian.Debian-baseddistributionsare
spreadinglikeweeds,suchasKnoppix,Xandros,Libranet,
Unbuntu,andLinspire.
Evenifyouareusingadistributionthatdoesnotfallintooneof
thesetwocategories,suchasSlackwareorGentoo,the
fundamentalsareprettymuchthesame.Thekernelisthe
same;theprogramsandutilitiesavailablearethesame;the
windowmanagersarethesame;theonlysubstantialdifference
isthewayyouinstallsoftware.
That'snottosaytherearen'totherdifferencesbetweenLinux
distributions.AchronicbugaboowithLinuxisdifferingfile
locationsondifferentdistributions.Getusedtoit;it'snotgoing
togoaway.Thisbookprovidesseveralexcellentmethodsfor
findingoutwhereyourparticulardistributionputsconfiguration
files,executables,andprogramdocumentation.


Conventions
Thefollowingtypographicalconventionsareusedinthisbook:

Italic
Usedforfilenamesandpathnames,hostnames,domain
names,commands,URLs,andemailaddresses.Italicisalso
usedfornewtermswheretheyaredefined.

Constantwidth
Usedforcodeexamplesandfragments.

Constantwidthbold
Usedforuserinput.

Constantwidthitalic
Usedtoindicatetextthatisreplaceable.

Indicatesatip,suggestion,orgeneralnote.


Indicatesawarningorcaution.

Oneparticularlyimportantconventioninthisbookinvolvesthe
useofcommandlineprompts.Ican'tsayittoooften:don'tget
intothehabitofsu'ingtorootwheneveryouhavetodo
anythingremotelyadministrative.Evenworse,don'tsay"It's
mymachine,Icandoanythingasroot."Userootprivileges
onlywhenyoureallyneedthem.You'llbesaferthatway;you'll
havesomeprotectionagainstyourownmistakes,andagainst
attacksmadebyoutsiders.
Toshowyouwhenyouneedrootprivileges,commands
requiringrootprivilegesareprecededbytherootprompt,#.
Commandsthatdon'trequirerootprivilegesareprecededby
thedefaultbashshellprompt,$.
Don'tbeconfusedtherearemanyfilelistingsinthebook,andin
manyofthesefiles,commentsareprecededby#.Yes,itcan
beconfusing,butyou'llgetusedtoit.


DownloadsandFeedback
Doubtlessthisbook,despitetheheroiceffortsofmeandthe
fabulousO'Reillyteam,containsflaws,errors,andomissions.
Pleaseemailyourfeedbackandsuggestionsto
cookbook@bratgrrl.com,sowecanmakethesecondedition
evenbetter.Besuretovisithttp://tuxcomputing.comfor
errata,updates,andtodownloadthescriptsandconfiguration
filesusedinthebook.
ThisbookwasauthoredentirelyinOpenOfficeWriter,on
LibranetDebian2.8.


CommentsandQuestions
Pleaseaddresscommentsandquestionsconcerningthisbookto
thepublisher:
O'ReillyMedia,Inc.
1005GravensteinHighwayNorth
Sebastopol,CA95472
(800)998-9938(intheUnitedStatesorCanada)
(707)829-0515(internationalorlocal)
(707)829-0104(fax)
Thereisawebpageforthisbook,whichlistserrata,examples,
andanyadditionalinformation.Youcanaccessthispageat:
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/linuxckbk/
Tocommentonorasktechnicalquestionsaboutthisbook,send
emailto:
bookquestions@oreilly.com
Formoreinformationaboutbooks,conferences,software,
ResourceCenters,andtheO'ReillyNetwork,seetheO'Reilly
websiteat:
http://www.oreilly.com


Acknowledgments
ThankyoutoaceO'ReillyeditorMichaelLoukides,whosegood
taste,eagleeditorialeye,patientendurance,andimplacable
insistencemadethisamuchbetterbook.
ThankyoutoacetechnicalreviewerJennVesperman,andher
attentiontodetail.Sillycomputersarecompletelyliteral,and
mustbefedpreciseinputthanksJenn!
ManythankstoAkkanaPeck,JennVesperman,PaulHeinlein,
andPeterSamuelson,whosecontributionsappearinthisbook.
HeartfeltthankstothegangatLinuxchix,includingJenn
Vesperman(benevolentdictatorofLinuxchix),Dancer
Vesperman,Danamania(thecameradoesnotlie),Colby,
Evilpig,AlmutBehrens,Andrew(MandrakeGuru),Hamster,
Piglet,ValHenson(uppityrabblerouser),H.PeterAnvin(kernel
guruandrabbitrouser),RikRose,DevdasBhagat,DavidNorth
(forcomicrelief),TelsaGwynne,MariaBlackmore,Meredydd
Luff,KaiMacTane,andErinnClark(formoreuppityrabblerousing).Linuxchixrawks!
I'msureImissedsomefolkswhopatientlyenduredmyendless
pestering.Tellmewhoyouare,andI'llfixitinthesecond
edition.


Chapter1.FindingDocumentation
Section1.1.Introduction
Recipe1.2.UnderstandingmanPages
Recipe1.3.FindingAppropriatemanPages
Recipe1.4.FindingLostmanPages
Recipe1.5.ReadingmanPagesWithoutamanViewer
Recipe1.6.ConfiguringYourmanpath
Recipe1.7.UsinginfoPages
Recipe1.8.PrintingmanPages
Recipe1.9.PrintinginfoPages
Recipe1.10.PrintingSelectedmanorinfoPages
Recipe1.11.FindingAlloftheDocumentationfora
Program


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