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Managing multimedia and unstructured data in the oracle database

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Managing Multimedia and
Unstructured Data in the
Oracle Database

A revolutionary approach to understanding,
managing, and delivering digital objects, assets,
and all types of data

Marcelle Kratochvil

professional expertise distilled

P U B L I S H I N G
BIRMINGHAM - MUMBAI

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Managing Multimedia and Unstructured Data in the
Oracle Database
Copyright © 2013 Packt Publishing

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
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critical articles or reviews.
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However, Packt Publishing cannot guarantee the accuracy of this information.

First published: March 2013

Production Reference: 1110313

Published by Packt Publishing Ltd.
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ISBN 978-1-84968-692-1
www.packtpub.com

Cover Image by Artie Ng (artherng@yahoo.com.au)

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Credits
Author

Project Coordinator

Marcelle Kratochvil


Leena Purkait

Reviewers

Proofreaders

Gokhan Atil

Ting Baker

Ben van Eyle

Lindsey Thomas

Satishbabu Gunukula
Indexer

Tim Hall

Monica Ajmera Mehta

Pete Sharman

Graphics

Acquisition Editor
Rukhsana Khambatta

Aditi Gajjar
Sheetal Aute

Lead Technical Editor

Valentina D'silva

Arun Nadar
Production Coordinator
Aparna Bhagat

Technical Editors
Sharvari Baet
Kaustubh S. Mayekar
Ankita Meshram

Cover Work
Aparna Bhagat
Nitesh Thakur

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About the Author
Marcelle Kratochvil is an accomplished Oracle Database administrator and

developer. She is CTO of Piction and has designed and developed industry-leading
software for the management and selling of digital assets. She has also developed
an award-winning shipping and freight management system, designed and built a
booking system, a digital asset management system, a sport management system,
an e-commerce system, a social network engine, a reporting engine, and numerous
search engines. She has been an Oracle beta tester since the original introduction
of Oracle Multimedia. She is also a well known presenter at Oracle Conferences
and has produced numerous technical podcasts. In 2004 she was the Oracle PL/
SQL Developer of the year. Born in Australia, she lives in Canberra. She is actively
working as a database administrator supporting a large number of customer sites
internationally. She is also campaigning with Oracle to promote the use of storing
all data and any data in a database. In her spare time she plays field hockey and
does core research in artificial intelligence in database systems. She has a Bachelor of
Science Degree from the Australian National University and majored in computing
and mathematics.

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Acknowledgement
I would like to acknowledge my business partner and CEO of Piction, Erick Kendrick.
I have been working with him for over twelve years and he has been instrumental in
a lot of the designs as well as the implementation of the ideas presented in the book.
Without his unconditional support in all the good and bad times, the ability to get to
the stage of writing this book would not have been possible.
Special thanks go to all those in the Piction team: Jimmy Nguyen, Martin Channon,
Serkan Harar, Lusana Ali, and Adam LaPorta, who have done the tough work and
been able to embrace the vision and advance the concept of digital asset management
systems, bringing forth leadership in this new technology.
Thanks also go to Chris Muir, Richard Foote, and Tim Hall who have sparred with
me on a lot of the controversial issues that dealing with multimedia can raise. By
debating with them honestly, I have been pushed outside the box and into new
territory. In addition Steven Feuerstein has always expressed his support and helped
where he could regarding multimedia in the database. Also, I would like to thank
Victoria Lira and Lillian Buziak of the Oracle ACE Director program who over the
last five years have work tirelessly to help me promote the usage of multimedia
inside the Oracle Database.
Special mention goes to my mother, my sister, her husband, Andrew and children,
Jeremiah, Elisha, and Abigail, who have accepted me unconditionally, which also
gave me the strength and motivation to do the hard, long yards and put this book
together. I would like to recognize my brother Mark Kratochvil who worked with
Piction in the early days and is a keen and talented photographer. It is my hope that
his family will get to see this book.
I would like to acknowledge the reviewers who have been challenged by the unique
and varying content within the book. They are Ben Van Eyle, April Chin, Tim Hall,
Pete Sharman, and Tony Quinn.
And finally I would like to thank Liza Sherd who was there for me during the hard
times and who I know will be there for me when I need it the most.

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About the Reviewers
Gokhan Atil is an independent consultant who has been working in IT since 2000.

He worked as a Development and Production DBA, Trainer and Software Developer.
He has a strong background in Linux and Solaris systems. He's an Oracle Certified
Professional (OCP) for Oracle Database 10g and 11g, and has hands-on experience
with Oracle 11g/10g/9i/8i. He is an active member of the Oracle community and has
written and presented papers at various conferences. He's also a founding member
of the Turkish Oracle User Group (TROUG).
He was honored with the Oracle ACE Award in 2011. He has a blog in which he has
shared his experience with Oracle since 2008:
http://www.gokhanatil.com

Ben van Eyle is an independent consultant with 26 years of experience in the

IT industry with most of that time dealing with databases and database systems,
including Oracle, SQL Server and Ingres.
He has designed and built distributed database systems and high availability
systems, as well as worked on SAP systems and Oracle data warehouses, mostly
for government department.
Ben currently resides in Canberra.

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Satishbabu Gunukula has over 13 years of experience in the IT industry. He
has extensive experience in Oracle and SQLServer Database Technologies, and is
specialized in high availability solutions such as Oracle RAC, Data Guard, Grid
Control, and SQL Server Cluster. He has a master's degree in Computer Applications.
He has been honored with the prestigious Oracle ACE Award. He has experience
with a wide range of products, such as Essbase, Hyperion, Agile, SAP Basis, MySQL,
Linux, Windows, and Business Apps admin and he has implemented many business
critical systems for Fortune 500, 1000 companies.
He review articles for SELECT Journal – the publication of IOUG – and reviews
books for Packt Publishing. He is an active member in IOUG, Oracle RAC SIG,
UKOUG, and OOW and has published many articles and presentations. He shares
his knowledge on his websites:
http://www.oracleracexpert.com and http://www.sqlserver-expert.com.

Tim Hall is an Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) DBA/Developer, Oracle ACE
Director, OakTable Network member and was chosen as Oracle ACE of the Year
2006 by Oracle Magazine Editor's Choice Awards. He has been involved in DBA,
design, and development work with Oracle Databases since 1994.

Although focusing on database administration and PL/SQL development, he
has gained a wide knowledge of the Oracle software stack and has worked as a
consultant for several multinational companies on projects ranging from real-time
control systems to OLTP web applications.
Since the year 2000, he has published over 400 articles on his website
(www.oracle-base.com) covering a wide range of Oracle features.

Pete Sharman is a Principal Product Manager in the Enterprise Manager team at

Oracle. He has worked at Oracle for 18 years in a variety of roles both in Australia
and the USA, and has presented at a number of conferences, including Oracle Open
World, the Hotsos Symposium and RMOUG Training Days. He is also a member of
the OakTable Network.

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Table of Contents
Preface1
Chapter 1: What is Unstructured Data?
7
Digital data
9
Metadata13
Defining unstructured data
15
Terminology15
Image15
Digital file
16
Digital image
16
16
Digital object
Digital content
16
Digital asset
16
Digital material
17
Digital library
17

Analyzing the digital object
17
Digital object types
20
Core types
20
Subtypes21
Picture21
Audio22
Model22

Creating new base types

22

Document23
Video23
Multimedia (Rich Media)
23
Data
24
Simulation24
Genealogy24

Virtual digital object
Digital object delivery

25
25

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Table of Contents

Manipulating digital objects

26

Conversion
26
Transformation27
Extraction27
Compression27
Image comparison
27
Badly compressed
28
Thumbnail28
Transposition29
Searching30
Product group
30
Location30

Defining multimedia in the Oracle database
31
Photograph
31
Video31
Audio32
Document32
Text32
Artifact32
Additional multimedia types
32
Composite types
33
Container34
ZIP files
34
Metadata35
The NULL case
35
Why store unstructured data in a database?
35
Manageability37
Security37
Backup/recovery38
Integration38
Extensibility39
Flexibility39
Features39
Why not store the multimedia in the filesystem?
40
41
Why use Oracle multimedia and not a blob?
Addressing the concerns
41
Performance42
Database size
42
Complexity43
Summary
43
Exercises
44
Unstructured data conversion table
45
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Table of Contents

Chapter 2: Understanding Digital Objects

47

Definitions
47
Raw format
47
Compression47
48
Lossy data compression
Lossless data compression
49
Codec50
Container50
Understanding each image type
51
Photo51

Icon51
Color space
52
Little endian and big endian
55
Digital image storage formats
56
61
Vector graphics

Audio

62

Video

62

Documents

65

Bit rate
Encoding
Channels

62
62
62

Frame
Frame resolution

62
63

Terminology
Transformation

65
66

Digital object composition
The starting base – NULL object
The original image
Indexed digital object

67
67
68
68

Pyramid index
69
Derivatives70
Masters71
Components72
72
Version hierarchies
Relationships73

Unstructured data business cases

74

Sporting club
74
Charity74
Neighborhood watch
74
News74
Food75
Government
75

Summary
Exercises

75
75

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Table of Contents

Chapter 3: The Multimedia Warehouse
Comparing
The data warehouse

77
77
77

Data consistency
78
Dilapidated warehouse
82
Security83
Performance83
Information overload
84

Types of multimedia warehouses

84

Traditional84
Image bank
87
Data mart
88
Public
88
eSales89
Intelligence (security/defence)
89

Structures92
Collections93
Groups93
Categories94
Lightbox95
Relationships
96
Thesaurus97
Taxonomy98
Metadata standards
98
Digital images
99
IPTC99
EXIF100
XMP101

Audio102
ID3102

Relational104
CDWA Lite
The Dublin Core® metadata Initiative
Darwin Core
Media Art Notation System

104
105
107
107

Image tagging
108
Crowdsourcing108
Gaming techniques
109
Data types
110
Text111
Date112
Interval112

Time113
Season113
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Table of Contents

Circa113
Boolean115
Number
116
Metric and imperial

116

Accession number
117
Name120
Address121
Filename121
Spatial co-ordinate
122
123
Summary
Exercises
124

Chapter 4: Searching the Multimedia Warehouse

125

Multilingual data
125
Storing
126
Diacritic
126
Multiple languages
127
Translating128
Security128
Searching
134
Indexing performance
136
Metadata based
137
Image structure
137
Electronic commerce
137
False positives
138
Stop words

138

The living search
Data mining

139
142

Big O notation

142

Representing the results

142

Interface143
Visualize the results
143
Tag cloud
143
Infinite zoom
145
146
Complex social network
148
Tree map
Lightbox148
VRML and SVG
149
150
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)
HTML 5
151
152
Adobe Flash
Voice XML
152
Other devices
152

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Table of Contents

Search features

153

Summary groups
153
Workarea154
Non discriminatory search
154
Result notification
154
Restrict the results
154
Control the output
155
Audit search
155

Designing a search language

155

Search context
Set theory primer
Order of precedence
Specialized query terms
Stem search
Ranking
Mandatory and other terms
Word frequency
Autosuggest
Search engine scalability

156
157
157
160
161
162
163
163
165
165

Federated search
Fuzzy searching
Collaboration search
Summary
Exercises

167
167
169
169
170

Chapter 5: Loading Techniques

171

Loading methods
Finding the images
Pull method

171
172
174

Vertical parallelism
Horizontal parallelism

174
175

Push method
Cartridge method
Loading method
Metadata matches to digital object
Digital object matches to metadata
Mixed digital object and metadata
Digital object no metadata

175
176
176
176
177
177
177

Many masters
178
Derivatives178

Matching existing data to images
Filename encoding
Data cleansing

179
181
183

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Table of Contents

Loading decisions
Types of loading

184
185

Batch185
Hot folder
185
Integration API
186
Manual
186

Loading step-by-step
Error handling

186
187

Logical errors
Loading via a workflow

188
188

Summary
189
Exercises189

Chapter 6: Delivery Techniques

191

Securing an image
Protection from theft

191
191

Is it really theft?
192
Modification
194
Disruption195
Copying
196
196
Theft
Forgery197
Destruction197
Plagiarism197
Illegal access
198
Replace198
Accidental199
Harvesting199
Other199

Protection methods

200

Visible200
Preventive203
Bookmarking203
Reactive205
Auditable205
Self destruction
205
Accept
206
207
Legal proof

A look at different business situations

209

Copyright209
210
Greeting card
Music211

Electronic commerce

212

Not all browsers are the same
IP address country tracking

213
213

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Table of Contents

Order lifecycle
Payment methods
A comprehensive audit trail
Locking down the price
Post processing issue
What are you buying?

214
215
218
220
221
223

Price books

223

Understanding the business rules

228

Tax rule
Download rule
Pricing rule
User fees rule (pricing calculator)
Postage rule
Payment rule
Customer information rule
Customer trigger rule
Discount rule
Refund rule
Ticketing rule
Integrated stock management
Post-purchase workflow

229
230
231
232
232
236
236
237
237
238
239
239
240

Summary
Exercises

Chapter 7: Techniques for Creating a Multimedia Database
Tier architecture
Traditional no tier
Two tier
Three tier
Virtualized architecture
Mobile applications architecture
Basic database configuration concepts
ASM—Automated Storage Management
Block size

UNIFORM extent size and AUTOALLOCATE
Locally managed tablespace UNIFORM extent size
Temporary tablespace
UNDO tablespace
SYSTEM tablespace
Redo logs
Analysis

Oracle Securefile architecture
Enabling storage in row
CHUNK

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241

243
243
244
246
247
249
251
253
256
256

258
258
259
260
260
260
262

264
264
264


Table of Contents

Logging
Cache
Managing duplicate images
Retention
Lob compression
Encryption
Read-only tablespace
Where does Oracle Multimedia fit in?
Understanding the ORDSYS data types
Creating a table
How to query?
Multimedia methods
Creating a schema
Oracle HTTP servers
Configuring the Oracle embedded gateway
Configuring Apache
Basic diagnostics

264
265
265
266
266
266
266
267
268
269
270
270
271
271
272
275
277

Windows277
Unix279

HTTPD.CONF file
279
Virtual hosts
281
Apache rewrites
281
External locations and security
282
Oracle directory
282
Granting access to a directory
283
UTL_FILE283
UTL_TCP284

Java284
Discussing Raid, SSD, SANs, and NAS
285
Solid State Disk
285
Raid 0: stripe across both disks
Raid 1: mirror
Raid 0+1: stripe then mirror
Raid 1+0: mirrors then stripe
Raid 5: parity check
Raid 6: double parity check

286
286
287
287
287
288

NAS289
SAN289
Setting up Oracle XE to run Oracle Multimedia
290
Summary
291
Exercises291

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Table of Contents

Chapter 8: Tuning

Introduction to tuning
Tuning methodologies
Reactive versus proactive (for the novice administrator)
What is the role of the DBA?

293
293
296
298
301

History302

Tuning trend
Scalability
Scalability is bidirectional
Database breakpoints

305
306
307
309

Locking309
CPU limits
310
Memory limits
310
Hardware limits
310
Database limits
311
Database management
311
Backup/recovery311

Multimedia scalability

312

General considerations

314

Loading in parallel
Insert/delete performance
Extreme scalability

315
315
315

Dimension 1 – loading a large number of multimedia files
Dimension 2 – storing a large number of multimedia files
Dimension 3 – loading a very large multimedia file
Dimension 4 – retrieving a large number of multimedia files
Dimension 5 – database management

Object-oriented development

312
312
313
313
314

315

PC mentality
The three tier – ignore the database mentality
Our application should be able to run against any database

317
318
319

Basic tuning operations
319
Network320
HTTPS322
VPN323
Efficiency in sending
324
XML and web services
325
Back to three tier and scalability
328

Memory331
CPU332
I/O333
Parallelism335
Image loading
Horizontal versus vertical parallelism

336
336

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Table of Contents

Locking338
Database parameters
338
plsql_code_type338
optimizer_mode339
Hints340

Backups341
344
Oracle partitioning
Manual partitioning

345

Indexing

346

Photo347
Video348
Audio348
Documents349

Scalability using Oracle XE

349

Breaking the rules with XE
VM vSphere

351
352

Summary
Exercises

Chapter 9: Understanding the Limitations of Oracle Products
The basic requirements
Acting as more than a filesystem

Full backup/recovery
Long term archival
Data distribution and network balancing
High speed and scalable image loading and processing
Storage scalability to petabytes of data
Flexible image delivery
Security, auditing, and protection from user error (versioning)
Supporting for most image types
Litmus test

A comparison
Oracle products
Development

355
356

359
359
360

360
360
361
361
362
362
362
362
363

364
364
365

SQL Developer (v3.1)
365
367
SQL*Plus
367
PL/SQL
Supplied packages
367
PL/SQL Web Toolkit
369
369
SQL
Java370
XML371
Edition-Based Redefinition
371
Apex (Oracle Application Express)
371

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Table of Contents

Storage372

Tablespaces and datafiles
372
Storage parameters
373
Partitioning373
ASM374
DBFS Filesystem
374

Monitoring375
Enterprise Manager
Resource management

375
376

Database

376

Data types
376
Advanced compression
377
OLAP377
Indexes377
Embedded gateway
378
Data dictionary
378
Heterogeneous gateway
379

Tuning379
Automatic memory management
379
Optimizer380
Networking380

Backup/Recovery381

Total recall (flashback)
381
381
Redo logs and archives
Data guard
382
RMAN383
Utilities383
Streams384
384
Advanced replication

Options384
Multimedia384
Spatial385
Text
386
Semantics
386
Warehouse387
Data Mining
387

Security388
Encryption388
Data vault
388
Oracle label security
388

High availability

389

RAC389
Exadata390
ZFS390

Summary

391

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Table of Contents

Chapter 10: Working with the Operating System

393

Why shell out?
Unload and load digital objects
How to shell out

394
395
396

Challenges when shelling out

398

Java
396
Scheduler
396
Advanced queueing or pipes
398
UTL_TCP398
Synchronous or asynchronous?
399
Hidden Ctrl + M characters on Unix
400
Capturing output
400
Parameters401
Dynamic shell scripts
402
Windows program on processing, calls an actual window?
403
Filesystem limitations
403

Windows

405

Powershell versus DOS
407
LUN407

The variety of versions

408

The Windows Services interface
Windows 2012 and Windows 8
Windows 2008 R2 and Windows 7
Windows 2008 and Windows Vista
Windows 2003
Windows XP
Windows 2000

408
411
411
411
411
411
412

Unix
How Unix differs from Windows
The variety of versions

412
412
414

Linux415
Ubuntu Linux
415
Solaris415
IBM AIX
415
416
HP-UX

Summary
Exercises

416
417

Appendix A: The Circa Data Type

419

Appendix B: Multimedia Case Studies

431

Railroad diagram
EBNF Syntax
Museum A
Department B
Museum C

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429
431
432
433


Table of Contents

Museum D
Whole of government E
Department F
Museum H
Photo laboratory G

434
436
437
438
439

Appendix C: Proactive Database Tuning

441

Appendix D: Chapter References

453

Index

459

The environment and the DBA
Ensuring optimal performance
Cyclic maintenance
Database review
Forecasting
Securing the database
Data recovery
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10

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443
443
444
445
448
449
450
453
454
456
457
458
458
458


Preface
Digital data can be broken down into structured and unstructured data.
Unstructured data outweighs structured by 10 to 1. The most well known
unstructured data type is multimedia, which comprises digital images,
audio, video, and documents.
For a very long time the topic of unstructured data and managing it has been pushed
to the side lines and given the label of being just too hard to deal with. More time and
attention has been given to relational data, which has been analyzed, conceptualized,
and understood since it was first mathematically defined in the 1970s. Since then the
market has changed. New technologies have introduced new rules and requirements
for dealing with unstructured data. Structured data, which has been leading the
market as a subset called relational data, shows to have limitations. It cannot
encompass, correctly describe, and manage the large variety of multimedia types
appearing in the market. The move to adapt to new technologies that interface more
directly with people has shown that smart media is friendlier and easier to understand.
With the iPhone, iPad, Android, and equivalent smart devices now proliferating in
the market, the whole world has been given access to computers. Sidelined are the
complex, virus-prone PCs that a large number of people could never comprehend
or correctly use. The multimedia centric iPad is a device that most people can
learn in minutes and master in under an hour. The keyboard is nearly gone and
digital images, video, and audio give a richer, entertaining, and a more productive
environment to work in.
Structured data isn't gone. Its importance cannot be overlooked. It is just not the
dominant data structure anymore that we have been taught to believe. What is yet
to be realized when it comes to the future of computer human interfaces, is that its
existence is really there to support unstructured data. To give it extra meaning and
to enhance its use. The key factor to realize and what this book will show, is that
structured data is not the pinnacle of data management. It has an important role, but
its role is to provide a solid foundation and core base for which unstructured data
can work on.

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Preface

The aim of this book is to try and give a basic understanding to a lot of concepts
involving unstructured data. Particular focus is given to multimedia (smart
media or rich media). This is the most popular and well understood subtype of
unstructured data in the market place today. The book will cover key concepts
from first principles. Later chapters are designed for database administrators
though developers and storage architects can gain a good understanding on the key
concepts covered. An attempt has been made to future proof some chapters so that
as technology changes, the core concepts can be remolded and adapted to meet those
changes. Where areas are deemed immutable, they are highlighted so the reader can
be aware that these ideas can become dated or need to be reviewed to assess their
validity as technology changes.
This is the first of two books in the series. The first book is designed for technology
architects, managers, and database administrators. The second book will focus on
developers and storage architects. It will cover methods for building multimedia
databases and techniques for working with very large databases.
This book uses the Oracle 11g R2 database as the core database. Special sections are
devoted to adapting the concepts covered for the Oracle 11 XE release.
Some of the chapters draw citations from Wikipedia. These citations are additional to
the ones provided and are there for those who make extensive use of Wikipedia. In a
number of cases the citations given are to highlight that useful information is found
at the site rather than justifying a particular claim. As the topics covering multimedia
are very new and in some cases have only been released in the last one to two years,
the most accurate and up to date information on them can be found at the Wiki site.
The exercises found at the end of each chapter are purposely designed so that the
answers to them are not found in the book or on the Internet. The lessons and
techniques gained from reading the chapter will provide the necessary solution to
each exercise, but the reader will need to use their skill and experience to correctly
determine the answer. All exercises have valid answers but they are deliberately
not included. Answers will be provided in the second book. This book will cover
developer and programming topics, disk storage and techniques for integration of
multimedia using a variety of programming tools, including Java, PHP, C, C++, Perl,
Python, Ruby, PL/SQL and Visual Basic.

What this book covers
Chapter 1, What is Unstructured Data?, covers what a digital object is from first
principles. This chapter will provide the reader with new insights into the basics
of unstructured data.

[2]

www.it-ebooks.info


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