1. Organizations are best described as:
a. groups of buildings in which people are paid from the same budget.
b. groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose
c. Closed systems that operate without consideration of space, time, or people.
d. Any entity that can exist without the need to acquire knowledge.
e. physical structures with observable capital equipment
2. The main reason for studying organizational behavior is to:
a. Understand organizational events
b. Influence organizational events
c. Predict organizational events
d. All of the above
e. Only 'a' and 'c'
3. According to the text, which of these is NOT one of the emerging trends in organizational
a. Increasing globalization
b. Increasing command-and-control leadership
c. Increasing workforce diversity
d. The shift toward employability
e. Increasing tendency to use teams
4. Which of these statements is FALSE?
a. The trend toward globalization means that we need to consider cultural contingencies of OB
b. Increasing workplace diversity can potentially improve decision making and team performance on
c. Information technology challenges traditional business logic regarding how employees interact and
how organizations are configured.
d. An emerging trend in organizational behavior is the increasing emphasis on ethical values and
e. As telecommuting increases, corporate leaders need to put more emphasis on evaluating
employees for their face time.
5. Which of the following is a "secondary" category of diversity?
e. All of the above
6. Any job in which the individual does not have an explicit or implicit contract for longterm employment or the one in which minimum hours of work can vary in a non-systematic
way is called:
d. a network structure
e. contingent work
7. Cross functional teams that operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries
with members who communicate mainly through electronic technologies are referred to as:
a. network organization teams
b. virtual teams.
c. open systems
d. independent teams
e. knowledge management teams
8. Which of the following does NOT represent a belief that anchors organizational
a. OB should view organizations as open systems
b. OB should assume that employees are more effective in teams
c. OB should draw on knowledge from other disciplines
d. OB should rely on the scientific method to generate knowledge
e. OB topics can be studied from multiple levels of analysis
9. Network organizations are more common today because:
a. of increasing employability.
b. of increasing contingent work.
c. more firms are becoming closed systems.
d. organizations want to encourage telecommuting.
e. information technology makes it easier to connect organizations.
10. Which of the following is NOT a conceptual anchor in organizational behavior?
a. Employability anchor
b. Multidisciplinary anchor
c. Open systems anchor
d. Multiple levels of analysis anchor
e. Contingency anchor
11. Which of these phrases best reflects the contingency approach?
a. "Face time"
b. "Open system"
c. "The right thing to do"
d. "Emerging employment relationships"
e. "It depends"
12. Which of these is NOT a basic category of needs identified by Maslow?
13. The highest level need in ERG theory is:
14. Unlike Maslow's needs hierarchy, McClelland's learned needs theory:
a. does not discuss individual needs.
b. ignores the possibility that people have a need for social interaction.
c. takes the view that needs are not instinctive.
d. differs from Maslow's needs hierarchy theory in all of the above ways.
e. Maslow's and McClelland's theories do ot differ in any way.
15. Which of these theories suggest that growth and esteem needs represent the only source
a. Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory
b. Expectancy theory
c. Maslow's Needs Hierarchy theory
d. McClelland's Learned Needs theory
e. Alderfer's ERG theory
16. An organization wants to hire someone whose main task is to allocate scarce resources.
People in this job often experience conflict with others in the organization. The person hired
for this job should have a relatively:
a. High need for personalized power.
b. High need for affiliation
c. Low need for achievement
d. Low need for affiliation
e. Low need for socialized power.
17. Which of these is a process motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is
directed toward behaviours that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?
a. Equity theory
b. ERG theory
c. Expectancy theory
d. Motivator-hygiene theory
e. Goal setting theory
18. Expectancy theory includes which of the following elements?
a. P O
b. O/I < O/I
d. V O
e. E < R < G
19. Providing counselling and coaching to employees who lack self-confidence increases
which of these expectancies?
a. P O
b. E O
c. V O
d. O P
e. E P
20. Individualizing rewards enhances which expectancy theory component?
a. P E expectancy
b. Valences of outcomes
c. V O expectancy
d. E P expectancy
e. P O expectancy
21. Which of the following is NOT explicitly mentioned in equity theory?
b. Comparison other
e. Outcome/input ratio
22. According to equity theory:
a. our comparison other never exists in real life.
b. feelings of inequity can never be reduced after the feelings have been formed.
c. employees must set their own goals.
d. everyone has the same set of inputs and outcomes.
e. the importance of inputs and outcomes varies from one person to the next.
23. ____ goals improve work performance more than ____ goals.
a. Process-oriented; results-oriented
b. Specific; results-oriented
c. Challenging; specific
d. Results-oriented; process-oriented
e. Specific; challenging
24. People who believe that money is evil and should be squandered:
a. have a strong preference for gainsharing plans
b. have a strong need for status.
c. have a strong preference for competency-based rewards.
d. tend to define themselves in terms of their wealth.
e. Have a weak money ethic.
25. Which of the following is most likely to be a type of membership or seniority-based
a. Employee benefits
b. Pay increase resulting from a promotion.
c. Employee share ownership plan
26. Which of the following is a competency-based reward?
b. Pay increase resulting from a promotion.
c. Skill-based pay plan
d. Merit increase based on performance appraisal results.
e. Additional week of paid vacation after completing five years of service with the company.
27. Membership-based pay practices:
a. encourage poor performers to voluntarily leave the organization.
b. are difficult to apply in organizational settings
c. increase the probability that good performers are lured to other organizations.
d. directly motivate job performance
e. do all of the above.
28. Job evaluation systems try to maintain:
a. internal equity.
b. pay surveys.
d. performance-based rewards.
29. Which of these rewards is consistent with the emerging view that people are hired into
organizations, not specific jobs?
c. Job status-based
30. Which of these is not typically an individual performance-based reward?
d. Piece rate
e. Merit pay
31. Which of these is a team reward that motivates team members to reduce costs and
increase labour efficiency in their work process?
d. share options
32. Merit pay increases:
a. Are becoming less common in organizations.
b. Are similar to ESOPs
c. Have replaced job evaluation plans in most organizations.
d. Represent the most common form of competency-based reward.
e. Are all of the above.
33. Scientific management is most closely related to the process of:
b. Job evaluation.
c. Job specialization.
d. Constructive thought patterns
e. Job enrichment
34. General adaptation syndrome involves which of these stage sequences?
a. Alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion
b. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment
c. Adaptation, reduction, dissemination
d. Ambiguity, clarity, confusion
e. Resistance, ambiguity, depersonalization
35. During which stage of the general adaptation syndrome is it that a person's ability to
cope with the environmental demand rises above the normal state?
b. Alarm reaction
e. None of the above
36. Employees who face competing demands are experiencing:
a. A role-related stressor.
b. A physical environment stressor
c. An interpersonal stressor
d. Type B behaviour pattern
e. A temporary withdrawal strategy
37. Technostress refers to:
a. An interpersonal stressor caused by recent information technologies
b. The general adaptation syndrome observed through monitoring equipment.
c. a role-related stressor caused by recent information technologies.
d. Stress caused by information systems employees after an incident of workplace violence.
e. The technical process of avoiding job burnout
38. Situations in which a person's employment or job performance is conditional on
unwanted sexual relations refers to
a. hostile environment.
b. strain-based conflict.
c. role ambiguity.
e. role conflict.
39. Time-based conflict mainly refers to:
a. The challenge of performing a job that requires more skill and knowledge than you currently
b. The most common outcome of job burnout.
c. The conflict that people experience when they possess a Type B behaviour pattern.
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
40. When people who act logically and impersonally at work have difficulty switching to a
more compassionate role in their personal lives, they are experiencing which of these?
b. Interpersonal conflict
c. Role-behavior conflict
d. Time-based conflict
e. Strain-based conflict
41. Which of these is generally identified as a high stress occupation?
b. Telephone operator
e. Auto mechanic
42. People with a Type A behavior pattern tend to:
a. Have a relaxed approach to life.
b. Have a low concern about time limitations.
c. Contemplate issues carefully.
d. work at a steady pace.
e. easily lose their temper.
43. Which of these is a characteristic of a Type B behavior pattern?
a. Struggles to perform several tasks
b. Devoted to work
c. Talks rapidly
d. Low concern about time limitations
e. Interrupts others
44. Which of these are formal temporary teams that investigate a particular problem and
disband when a decision is made?
a. Quality circles
b. Self-directed work teams
c. Virtual teams
d. Task forces
e. Coalition groups
45. Which of these are usually temporary teams formed spontaneously to develop products
or solve complex problems.
a. Communities of practice
b. Management teams
d. Self-directed work teams
e. Quality circles
46. Which of these are cross-functional groups that operate across space, time, and
organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through electronic
b. Quality circles
c. Virtual teams
d. Management teams
e. Self-directed work teams
47. Virtual teams are increasingly necessary because of:
b. Social loafing
d. Production-based work
e. B and c only
48. Which of these is NOT an element in the organizational and team environment that
influence team effectiveness?
a. Reward systems
b. Physical space
c. Communication systems
d. Team cohesiveness
e. Organizational leadership
49. A homogeneous team is better than a heterogeneous team:
a. in situations where the team must reach the performing stage of team development quickly.
b. on complex projects and tasks requiring innovative solutions
c. When the team needs to gain support from a variety of diverse groups in the organization.
d. When the team requires a broad base of knowledge, experience, and perspectives.
e. Under all of these conditions.
50. Which stage of the team development model is marked by interpersonal conflict as
members compete for leadership and other roles in the team?
51. Forming, storming, and norming refer to:
a. The three elements of team effectiveness.
b. Three roles found in all organizational teams.
c. The three main causes of team cohesiveness.
d. The main stages of social loafing.
e. The first three stages of team development.
52. The informal rules and expectations that groups establish to regulate the behavior of
their members is called
53. The degree of attraction people feels toward the team and their motivation to remain
members is called:
a. Social loafing.
b. Team roles.
c. Task interdependence.
d. Team cohesiveness
e. Team composition
54. Which of these is true about organizational structure?
a. It refers to the division of labor.
b. It refers to the pattern of coordination
c. It refers to the pattern of workflow and formal power that directs organizational activity.
d. An organizational structure reflects its cultural and power relationships.
e. All of these.
55. Fundamental requirements of __________ are division of labor and coordination of
a. span of control
c. organizational structure
d. job specialization
e. concurrent engineering
56. Informal communication
a. is a coordinating mechanism in all organizations.
b. can be avoided in larger organizations by creating a liaison role.
c. does not work in non-routine and ambiguous situations.
d. creates standardization.
e. All of these.
57. Coordination through formal hierarchy is a(n) __________ coordinating mechanism.
e. a contemporary and optimal
58. Each of these are basic elements of organizational structure except
e. span of control.
59. Delayering organizational structures __________ costs and __________ decisionmaking.
a. cuts; centralizes
b. increases; centralizes
c. increases; minimizes
d. cuts; decentralizes
e. stabilizes; eliminates
60. A flat organizational structure creates a(n) __________ span of control.
61. As organizations grow, top management __________ decision-making.
62. __________ is the degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules,
procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms.
63. In a formalized structure, some work rules become so __________ that organizational
efficiency would decline if they were actually followed.
64. Organizational culture is the basic pattern of __________ governing how employees
handle problems and opportunities.
a. shared assumptions, goals, and attitudes
b. complimentary beliefs, targets, and attitudes
c. shared assumptions, values, and beliefs
d. complimentary artifacts, assumptions, and perceptions
e. None of these.
65. __________ are the shared mental models.
66. Assumptions are
a. stable, long-lasting beliefs of what is important.
b. definitions of wrong from right.
c. the deepest part of organizational culture.
d. definitions of good or bad.
e. shared perceptions of reality.
67. All of these are artifacts of organizational culture except
e. physical structures.
68. The culture content of an organization
a. follows a shared focus of other organizations of similar size.
b. is easily defined by all employees.
c. falls into a generally accepted specific classification.
d. None of the above.
e. A and c only.
69. Organizations are comprised of all of these except
b. a dominant culture.
c. counter cultures.
d. homogenous cultures.
e. All of these make up an organization's culture.
70. Organizational stories and legends
a. are always positive and attract a following.
b. are negative and deter any disobedience.
c. are more effective when they describe imaginative people and beliefs.
d. do not have management following since its they who create these for employees.
e. advise people what to do or what not to do.
71. Rituals are __________, and ceremonies are __________.
a. programmed routines; daily tasks
b. programmed routines, planned activities
c. daily tasks; programmed routines
d. planned activities; programmed routines
e. None of these.
72. Many experts believe organizational culture affects corporate performance because of
these important functions except
a. deeply embedded form of social control.
b. bonds people together.
c. provides direction through religious ceremonies.
d. assists in sense making and understanding.
e. All of these are important functions of organizational culture.
73. Companies with strong cultures have __________ performance.
a. Highly positive
b. Moderately negative
d. modestly positive
e. an inverse relationship with
74. Education is a secondary category of demographic diversity.
75. Replacing the job-for-life contract is a "new deal" called employability.
76. Telecommuting and virtual teams are discussed as characteristics of a changing work
77. ERG theory includes a frustration-regression process whereby those who are unable to
satisfy a higher need become frustrated and regress back to the next lower need level.
78. According to Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, improving motivators increases job
satisfaction and decreases job dissatisfaction.
79. Employees with a low need for achievement perform their work better when money is
used as a financial incentive.
80. People with a high need for personalized power want power to helps others and improve
the organization's success.