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SAP implementation unleashed

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George W. Anderson
Charles D. Nilson, Jr.
Tim Rhodes

SAP
Implementation
UNLEASHED
A Business and Technical Roadmap to Deploying SAP

800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

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SAP Implementation Unleashed: A Business and Technical Roadmap
to Deploying SAP
Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is
assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every
precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author
assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for
damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
ISBN-13: 978-0-672-33004-9
ISBN-10: 0-672-33004-0

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Anderson, George W.
SAP implementation unleashed : a business and technical roadmap to deploying SAP
/ George W. Anderson, Charles D. Nilson, Jr., Tim Rhodes.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-672-33004-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. SAP ERP. 2. Integrated software
3. Business—Data processing. I. Nilson, Charles D. II. Rhodes, Tim. III. Title.
QA76.76.I57.A65 2009
004'.36—dc22
2009013560
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing May 2009

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Contents at a Glance
Introduction....................................................................................................1
Part I:

Setting the Stage

1

What It Means to Implement SAP................................................................13

2

SAP Projects: Characteristics and Themes ....................................................29

3

Business Vision..............................................................................................57

4

ERP Solution Vision ......................................................................................69

5

Financial Impact: Total Cost of Ownership .................................................93

6

Managing Knowledge and the Knowledge Repository ..............................121

Part II:

Getting Started

7

Project Management Checkpoint 1: Groundwork.....................................133

8

Building the SAP Project Management Office............................................153

9

SAP Project Management............................................................................169

10

No Implementation Is an Island: Partners Required .................................185

11

Building the SAP Project Team ...................................................................205

12

Staffing World-Class SAP Project Leadership .............................................227

13

Staffing the SAP Business Teams.................................................................257

14

Staffing the SAP Technical Support Organization......................................269

15

High Availability Considerations and Solutions ........................................291

16

Disaster Recovery Considerations and Solutions .......................................317

17

Availability and Recoverability: Organizational Factors ............................341

18

Introduction to SAP Platform Sizing ..........................................................363

19

Conducting the SAP Platform Sizing Process .............................................385

20

Training SAP Staff .......................................................................................407

21

Developing the SAP Data Center................................................................433

Part III:

SAP Realization/Functional Development

22

Project Management Checkpoint 2: Revisiting Key Artifacts . ..................467

23

Preparing for SAP Component Installations . ............................................479

24

Installing SAP NetWeaver Components . ...................................................509

25

Installing SAP Business Suite Components . ..............................................527

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26

Functional Development ............................................................................545

27

Functional Configuration Change Control. ..............................................565

28

Functional, Integration, and Regression Testing. ......................................577

29

Advanced Concepts: Unlocking SAP with SOA and Web Services ............595

Part IV:

Planning for Go-Live

30

Project Management Checkpoint 3: Project Team Retention....................611

31

SAP Infrastructure Operational Considerations .........................................625

32

SAP Infrastructure and Platform Testing ....................................................641

33

SAP Load and Stress Testing........................................................................657

34

Technical Change Control..........................................................................687

35

SAP Systems and Operations Management. ..............................................717

36

Preparing for SAP Go-Live ..........................................................................745

Part V:

Appendixes

A

Case Study Answers ....................................................................................775

B

SAP Acronyms .................................................................................795 Index .
.....................................................................................................................821

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Table of Contents
Introduction
Part I:
1

1

Setting the Stage
What It Means to Implement SAP

13

Welcome to SAP Implementation . ..............................................................13
The Changing Business and IT Landscape..........................................14
One-Stop SAP Shopping . ....................................................................14
An Unbiased View . .............................................................................15
Why Implement SAP: Enabling Innovation . ..............................................15
Our Take on “Best Practices” ...............................................................17
Common Practices. .............................................................................17
The Four Priorities of an SAP Implementation...................................17
A Primer on SAP AG and SAP . .....................................................................18
A History Lesson ..................................................................................19
SAP Business Suite Components: The Big Picture ..............................20
How to Speak SAP: Terms and Terminology .......................................21
SAP NetWeaver: Enabling Business Solutions .....................................22
SAP Component Naming Conventions ..............................................23
Roadmaps to SAP Implementation. .............................................................23
Business Roadmap ...............................................................................23
Technology Roadmap ..........................................................................24
Project Management Roadmap ...........................................................25
Summary .......................................................................................................26
Case Study: Getting on the Same Page ........................................................26
2

SAP Projects: Characteristics and Themes

29

What Does an SAP Implementation Look Like? ..........................................29
SAP Implementation: It’s All About the Business ........................................30
Tactical Reasons for Implementing SAP . .....................................................32
Strategic Reasons for Implementing SAP. ....................................................33
Application Integration .......................................................................33
Improved Operational Reporting ........................................................33
Improved Strategic Reporting..............................................................34
Flexible Business Process Support .......................................................34
How SAP Has Benefited Customers in the Real World ................................35

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vi

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Project Management Considerations . .........................................................36
Promoting Buy-in Throughout the Company ....................................37
Determining Realistic Service Levels. .................................................37
Estimating ROI Early in the Game. ....................................................38
The Importance of a Methodology . ...................................................39
Pinning Down the Initial Implementation Budget ............................41
Establishing the General Structure and Roles of the Steering
Committee.........................................................................................42
Pushing Business Unit Buy-in .............................................................44
Identifying Major Milestones ..............................................................45
Architecture Considerations . .......................................................................47
SAP Enterprise Architecture Framework..............................................47
SAP NetWeaver Platform . ...................................................................47
Technical Considerations and Constraints . ................................................49
The SAP System Landscape .................................................................49
Giving Attention to Change Control..................................................51
Establishing the SAP Support Organization........................................52
Less Than Successful SAP Implementations . ...............................................52
Summary . .....................................................................................................54
Case Study: Assessing a Project’s Chances for Success.................................55
3

57

Business Vision

Addressing Strategic Business Needs . ..........................................................58
Key Business Drivers ............................................................................60
Must Haves and More..........................................................................60
Understanding Organizational Change Strategies . .....................................61
Lewin’s Unfreeze/Refreeze Change Model ..........................................61
Burke-Litwin Organization Change and Performance Model ............62
Orlikowski and Hofman’s Improvisational Change Model for ERP ...63
Addressing Operational Strategy: Guiding Principles . ................................64
Access Strategy .....................................................................................65
Capacity or Applications On Demand Strategy..................................65
Data Services Strategy ..........................................................................66
Information Technology Location Strategy ........................................66
Tackling Technology Strategy .......................................................................66
Summary . .....................................................................................................67
Case Study: A Business Vision Discussion....................................................67
4

ERP Solution Vision

69

What Is an ERP Solution Vision? .................................................................69
Business Impact. ...........................................................................................71
Technology Perspectives . .............................................................................72

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Contents

vii

SAP Component and Other Considerations . ..............................................74
SAP System Landscape Requirements .................................................74
Business Application Tenets . ..............................................................75
Marrying Solutions to Computing Platform Standards . .............................76
SAP System Landscape Dimensions and Characteristics .............................77
Simplifying Your SAP System Landscape ............................................78
High Availability and the SAP System Landscape ..............................79
Disaster Recovery Considerations . .....................................................80
Addressing Training Requirements . ...................................................80
The Performance-Driven System Landscape . .....................................81
Driving Scalability into Your System Landscape . ..............................82
The TCO-Driven System Landscape. ..................................................84
Infrastructure Security Considerations. ..............................................85
Manageability Considerations. ...........................................................85
The System Landscape and Accessibility . ..........................................86
ERP Solution Vision and IT Outsourcing . ...................................................87
Prerequisites of IT Outsourcing ...........................................................87
Potential Benefits of Outsourcing SAP Infrastructure.........................88
Shortcomings of Outsourcing in the Real World................................89
Analyzing Outsourcing Versus Doing It Yourself................................90
Hosting Providers for SAP....................................................................91
Summary .......................................................................................................92
Case Study: Developing Your ERP Solution Vision ......................................92
5

Financial Impact: Total Cost of Ownership

93

Analyzing Total Cost of Ownership .............................................................94
How Solution Vision Drives TCO. ...............................................................96
The Impact of High Availability Requirements ..................................97
Disaster Recovery Requirements That Drive TCO ..............................98
Performance Requirements and TCO. ..............................................101
How Scalability Impacts Total Cost. .................................................102
Other SAP Solution Vision Drivers. ..................................................103
Lowering TCO Through the SAP Technology Stack . ................................103
Standardization and Total Cost of Ownership .................................104
Server Considerations . ......................................................................105
Disk Subsystem Hardware Dimensions . ...........................................106
Operating System TCO . ....................................................................107
Relational Database TCO. .................................................................108
SAP Application Layer Costs . ...........................................................109
Upgrading the Technology Stack . ....................................................112
Other SAP Technology Stack TCO Considerations ...........................112

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viii

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Lowering TCO Through People and Processes. .........................................113
Attracting and Retaining Support Staff .............................................114
Maintenance Costs . ..........................................................................115
Financing Options . ...........................................................................115
Operations and Systems Management Costs ....................................116
TCO Risk Factors. ..............................................................................117
Summary .....................................................................................................118
Case Study: TCO and Risk Factors..............................................................118
6

Managing Knowledge and the Knowledge Repository

121

Establishing an Initial Knowledge Management Footprint .......................121
Capturing Knowledge: The Knowledge Repository . .................................122
Planning/Project Management Knowledge.......................................123
Staffing Knowledge. ..........................................................................123
Business Vision, Requirements, and Functionality Knowledge........123
Solution Vision and Application/Business Scenario Knowledge ......124
SAP System Landscape Knowledge. ..................................................124
Installation and Configuration Knowledge . ....................................124
Knowledge Repository and Management Tools . .......................................125
Using SAP KM and the SAP Knowledge Warehouse .........................125
Using SAP Content Server for Enterprise Knowledge
Management....................................................................................126
Using Third-Party KM Software Applications ...................................126
Using Popular Collaboration Tools ...................................................127
Using Other Legacy KM Approaches ................................................127
Transferring Knowledge Throughout the Project.......................................127
Summary . ...................................................................................................128
Case Study: KM Business Case Fundamentals............................................129
Part II:
7

Getting Started
Project Management Checkpoint 1: Groundwork

133

Project Management Considerations .........................................................133
Project Management Basics . ......................................................................134
Project Management Key Themes .....................................................134
Project Management Process Groups ................................................136
Project Environment . .......................................................................137
Interpersonal Skills and Business Management Expertise ................139
Initiating Phase: Program Preparation . .....................................................140
Choosing the Project Initiator or Sponsor........................................140
Developing a Project Charter ............................................................140

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Contents

ix

Developing a Preliminary Scope Statement......................................141
Developing a Preliminary Project Budget . .......................................142
Planning Phase: Business Blueprint. ..........................................................142
Developing the Project Management Plan .......................................143
Addressing Scope Definition and Documentation ...........................144
Creating the Project Schedule . .........................................................144
Establishing Project Standards . ........................................................144
Validating the Project Budget. ..........................................................145
Creating a Communications Plan. ...................................................145
Creating the Training Plan . ..............................................................145
Creating the Data Migration Plan. ...................................................145
Creating the RICEF Plan. ..................................................................145
Executing Phase: Realization and Final Preparation . ................................146
Managing Deliverables ......................................................................146
Reviewing Requested Changes ..........................................................146
Implementing Change Requests .......................................................147
Performing Corrective and Preventative Actions .............................147
Updating the Risk Management Plan ...............................................147
Gathering Work Performance Information.......................................147
Issue Management Systems ...............................................................147
Monitoring and Controlling Phase . ..........................................................148
Scope Verification and Scope Control ..............................................149
Schedule and Cost Control . .............................................................149
Quality Management. .......................................................................149
Performance Reporting. ....................................................................150
Stakeholder Management. ................................................................150
Communication . ..............................................................................150
Change Management and Control . .................................................151
Closing Phase: Project Closure . .................................................................151
Summary . ...................................................................................................152
Case Study: Project Management Initial Checkpoint ................................152
8

Building the SAP Project Management Office

153

Project Management Office Considerations ..............................................153
Project Management Office Fundamentals . ..............................................154
Creating the PMO..............................................................................154
Program Management Elements .......................................................155
Role of the PMO Within the Organization . ..............................................158
Establishing a PMO Organizational Structure ..................................158
SAP PMO Project Portfolio Projects. .................................................161

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x

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Developing a PMO Charter ...............................................................161
Measuring PMO Effectiveness ...........................................................161
Staffing the PMO . ......................................................................................162
PMO Roles..........................................................................................162
Assembling the PMO Team ...............................................................163
Linking the PMO to the Organization..............................................163
SAP PMO Systems and Tools . ....................................................................164
Program Management Tools..............................................................164
Program Management Templates and Accelerators ..........................165
SAP Solution Manager . .....................................................................165
Summary .....................................................................................................166
Case Study: Structuring the PMO ...............................................................166
9

SAP Project Management

169

The Five Phases of SAP Project Management.............................................169
Managing the Business Implementation. ..................................................170
Managing Scope.................................................................................171
Managing Business Expectations ......................................................171
Managing the Technical Implementation..................................................172
The SAP Project Plan. .................................................................................172
Project Preparation Phase ..................................................................172
Business Blueprint Phase ...................................................................176
Realization Phase . .............................................................................178
Final Preparation Phase . ...................................................................180
Go-Live and Support Phase ...............................................................181
Mapping SAP Project Phases to PMI Process Groups........................181
Developing Project Management Discipline..............................................181
Leveraging Lessons Learned. ......................................................................183
Summary . ...................................................................................................183
Case Study: Planning for an SAP Upgrade .................................................184
10

No Implementation Is an Island: Partners Required

185

Overview of Prospective SAP Partners . ......................................................185
SAP Business and Application Partners .............................................186
SAP Technical Partners . ....................................................................188
SAP Project Management Partners . ..................................................188
Finding the Right Partner. ................................................................188
Other Partners and Vendors . ............................................................190
Leveling the Playing Field: The RFI . ..........................................................190
Developing a Request for Information .............................................191
An Alternative to the RFI: Iterative Sizing ........................................192
Selecting the Best-Fit Partners: The RFP .....................................................193

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Contents

xi

Partner Selection Criteria............................................................................194
Here Come the Consultants! ......................................................................195
Quality of Deliverables ......................................................................196
Delivery Timeline . ............................................................................196
Naming Conventions ........................................................................197
Documentation Requirements and Standards ..................................197
The Kickoff Meeting ..........................................................................197
Balancing Partners with Internal Resources . .............................................198
Training Your Own Staff: Intellectual Capital Versus
Inexperience ....................................................................................199
Hiring Consultants: Quality Versus Budget ......................................200
Consultants Versus Internal Resources in the Real World................201
Summary .....................................................................................................202
Case Study: Building the Partner Team ......................................................203
11

Building the SAP Project Team

205

Steps for Project Team Success....................................................................205
Addressing Organizational Size and Agility ...............................................206
Creating an Effective Team Structure .........................................................207
Adopting a Change Model ................................................................207
Addressing Project Team Design and Structural Evolution ..............208
Facing Virtually Managed Project Team Challenges.........................209
Enabling ERP Effectiveness Through Process Orientation................210
Maximizing ERP Effectiveness in the Wake of Change ....................210
Maximizing Effectiveness by Managing Cultural Change ...............211
Empowering Team Members to Convert Vision into Reality . ..................211
Project Team Leadership Implications . ............................................212
The Communication Plan: Networking for Success and Survival....212
Improving Organizational Decision Making Through Knowledge ..214
Staffing Key Project Positions and Subteams . ...........................................214
The Role of the PMO .........................................................................215
The Program Manager Role . .............................................................215
Project Executive Champion .............................................................216
Building the Project Board . ..............................................................216
Building the Customer Board............................................................217
The Breadth and Depth of the Business Team..................................217
The SAP Technical Support Organization .........................................218
An ERP Virtual Team Change Model..........................................................219
Real-World Organizational Examples . .......................................................221
Summary . ...................................................................................................224
Case Study: Project Team Roles and Structures..........................................225

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xii

SAP Implementation Unleashed

12

Staffing World-Class SAP Project Leadership

227

Attributes of Effective Leaders ....................................................................227
An Introduction to Leadership Theory ......................................................228
Authoritarian Leadership...................................................................229
Servant Leadership.............................................................................231
Transactional Leadership ...................................................................232
Contingency Leadership....................................................................233
Transformational Leadership.............................................................234
Leadership Styles in the Real World of SAP . .............................................235
Modeling Ethical Leadership.............................................................236
Managing Diversity and Cultural Differences ..................................237
Leadership and Achieving Business Goals . ...............................................238
Leadership and Motivation ...............................................................238
Leadership and Character. ................................................................238
Understanding the Organization’s Leadership Needs................................239
Developing Project and Personal Leadership Plans . .................................240
Leadership Plans: Vision and Mission...............................................240
Building an Effective Personal Leadership Plan................................241
Implementing a Personal Leadership Plan .......................................242
Evaluating Leadership Styles: The Multifactor Leadership
Questionnaire ...........................................................................................243
Real-World SAP Implementation Leadership: PM1 Versus PM2. ..............244
Background Data on SapIT................................................................244
Hiring and Transitioning PM1 ..........................................................245
Introducing PM2. ..............................................................................246
How Culture and Diversity Impacted SapIT .....................................247
Leadership Development Failures .....................................................247
Transformational Strengths and Weaknesses....................................248
Transactional and Laissez-Faire Strengths and Weaknesses..............249
Strengths and Weaknesses Relative to Outcome Factors ..................250
Modeling Transformational Leadership Within SapIT .....................250
Assisting SapIT in Achieving Its Business Goals and Objectives ......251
Conflict Resolution and Other Organizational Considerations .......252
Additional Strengths and Vulnerabilities ..........................................253
SapIT Outcome and Summary ..........................................................253
Summary .....................................................................................................254
Case Study: ERP Program Management Needed ........................................254

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Contents

13

Staffing the SAP Business Teams

xiii

257

Best Practices for Building the SAP Business Teams. .................................257
Find Your Visionaries.........................................................................258
Find Your Talent . ..............................................................................258
Business Team Roles....................................................................................259
Executive Level ..................................................................................259
Management Level ............................................................................259
Subject Matter Experts.......................................................................260
SAP Business Team Staffing ........................................................................261
Organizing Your SAP Business Teams .........................................................262
Integrating for Success.......................................................................262
Organizing for Decision Making .......................................................263
Maintaining Balance. ........................................................................264
Staffing Observations and Lessons Learned . .............................................264
Obtaining Top-Down Buy-In.............................................................264
Providing Clear Job Definitions . ......................................................265
Communicating Regularly with the Business Team .........................265
Establishing Work Time Expectations...............................................265
Reviewing Business Team Realities....................................................266
Summary .....................................................................................................267
Case Study: Building the Best SAP Business Team .....................................267
14

Staffing the SAP Technical Support Organization

269

Introduction to Staffing the SAP TSO ........................................................269
Jobs and Tasks of the SAP TSO . .................................................................271
Senior SAP Basis Specialist .................................................................271
Operating System Specialist for SAP .................................................272
SAP Front-End Deployment Specialist ..............................................272
SAP Data Specialist . ..........................................................................273
Traditional Approaches to Staffing the SAP TSO .......................................273
The Rapid Deployment Approach to Staffingan SAP TSO.........................275
Best Practices for the Rapid Deployment Approach .........................275
Steps of the Rapid Deployment Approach. ......................................277
Key Interview Techniques and Approaches . ....................................282
Bringing New SAP TSO Staff On Board . ....................................................285
Internal Transfers...............................................................................286
External Consultants and Contractors..............................................286
External Employee New Hires ...........................................................288
The New Hire’s First Week.................................................................289
Summary .....................................................................................................290
Case Study: Addressing a Key SAP TSO Gap ..............................................290

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xiv

SAP Implementation Unleashed

15

High Availability Considerations and Solutions

291

Introduction to Availability. ......................................................................292
Availability, Reliability, and Fault Tolerance .....................................294
Causes of Downtime. ........................................................................295
Similarities Between HA and DR .......................................................296
Differences Between HA and DR .......................................................297
Determining HA Requirements—The “Nines of Availability”..........298
Single Points of Failure ...............................................................................299
SAP Data Center Infrastructure SPOFs........................................................300
Power Considerations........................................................................300
Network Infrastructure . ....................................................................301
Rack Infrastructure in the Real World...............................................303
The Ultimate SPOF—The SAP Data Center.......................................304
Server and Operating System SPOFs. .........................................................305
Maximizing HA Through Backup and Recovery Systems.................306
Increasing HA Through Clustering . .................................................306
Database SPOFs . .........................................................................................307
Standby Database and Log Replication Solutions ............................308
Oracle Standby Database . .................................................................308
Oracle Advanced Replication . ..........................................................309
Oracle Real Application Clusters . .....................................................309
Oracle Failsafe with Microsoft Windows Cluster Services ................310
Oracle Streams . .................................................................................310
Microsoft SQL Server Clustering . .....................................................310
Microsoft SQL Server Replication. ....................................................311
SAP Application SPOFs. ..............................................................................311
Clustering SAP Components in General...........................................312
SAP Enqueue Replication Server. ......................................................313
Specific SAP Components’ SPOFs. ....................................................313
Functional and Application-Layer SPOFs. ........................................315
Summary .....................................................................................................316
Case Study: Assessing SAP High Availability..............................................316
16

Disaster Recovery Considerations and Solutions

317

Recovering from Minor DR Issues ..............................................................317
Recovering from More Severe DR Issues ....................................................319
Recovering from Major Disasters. ..............................................................321
Data Center Strategies for Dealing with Disasters .....................................322
Dual Data Centers and Virtualization...............................................323
Traditional DR Hosting Facilities and Other Approaches.................324

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Contents

xv

Disaster Recovery Best Practices . ...............................................................325
SPOFs Beyond the SAP Technology Stack .........................................327
The Disaster Recovery Crash Kit .......................................................328
Testing the Disaster Recovery Process ........................................................330
Tactical Methods of Increasing Disaster Recoverability .............................332
Strategic Methods of Increasing Disaster Recoverability ...........................333
Sample Failure Scenarios: Evaluating Your Firm’s Recoverability ..............334
Avoiding High Availability Pitfalls in the Real World ...............................336
Summary . ...................................................................................................339
Case Study: Addressing DR Gaps. ..............................................................339
17

Availability and Recoverability: Organizational Factors

341

Organizational Decisions Affecting Availability ........................................342
Organizational Design and Backup Considerations ..................................344
Support and Project Teams................................................................345
Communication Strategy . ................................................................346
Career Development and Training....................................................347
Staffing and Shared Services..............................................................348
People SPOFs: Lessons Learned .........................................................349
The Disaster Recovery Organization . ........................................................350
Where Process and People SPOFs Intersect ................................................351
Knowledge Management Process and People SPOFs ........................352
Change/Release Management Process and People SPOFs.................353
Systems Management Processes and People SPOFs ..........................354
Capacity Planning Process and People SPOFs. .................................355
Load Testing Process and People SPOFs . ..........................................356
High Availability Failover/Failback Processes and People SPOFs . ...357
Backup/Recovery Processes and People SPOFs. ................................358
Server and SAN Build/Deployment Processes and People SPOFs .....359
Real-World People-Related Availability Best Practices................................360
Summary . ...................................................................................................361
Case Study: The Impact of People and Process on DR . ............................362
18

Introduction to SAP Platform Sizing

363

The SAP Sizing Process................................................................................363
SAP Sizing Terminology . ............................................................................365
Users...................................................................................................366
Introduction to SAPS .........................................................................367
Tiers....................................................................................................368
Scale-Up and Scale-Out Configurations ............................................369
High Availability, Reliability, and Fault Tolerance............................370
Heterogeneous Configurations..........................................................371

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xvi

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Sizing the Installation. ...............................................................................372
SAP QuickSizer ...................................................................................372
Limitations of the QuickSizer Approach...........................................373
The Questionnaire .............................................................................374
Obtaining Vendor SAP Sizing Questionnaires. ..........................................375
Using SAPS Values .............................................................................376
CPU, Memory, Disk I/O, and Networking Performance...................377
Operating Systems . ...........................................................................377
Database Versions . ............................................................................378
Fostering Apples-to-Apples Sizings....................................................378
Production System Sizing Rules of Thumb ................................................379
Understanding Different Sizing Methodologies. .......................................380
New Instance Sizing ..........................................................................381
Post-Go-Live Resizing . ......................................................................381
Predictive Modeling for Precision Sizing ..........................................382
Summary .....................................................................................................383
Case Study: Resizing at a Subsidiary...........................................................383
19

Conducting the SAP Platform Sizing Process

385

Analyzing System Requirements ................................................................385
The Requirements Document and Supplementing with SAP QuickSizer..386
The Requirements and Sizing Review Team. ..............................................387
Management, SAP Architecture, and Functional Needs ...................387
Third-Party Software . ........................................................................388
Database and SAP Basis Administration . .........................................388
Data Center and Systems Administration. .......................................389
Help Desk Factors . ............................................................................390
Team Factors and Representation. ....................................................390
RFPs, Vendor Questionnaires, and More . ..................................................390
Sending Out Requests for Proposal ...................................................391
The Vendor Questionnaire . ..............................................................391
Presizing Conference Call. ................................................................392
The Vendor-Driven Sizing Approach ................................................393
The Sizing Proposal Review Process . .........................................................395
Conducting a Detailed Sizing Review ...............................................396
Verifying SAP Support for Architected Solutions..............................396
Verifying the Risk of the Proposed Solution.....................................397
Verifying SAP Production References ................................................397
Revising Total Cost of Ownership Numbers .....................................398
Selecting Core SAP Technology Stack Partners .................................398
Evaluating Specialized Technology Stack Vendors ...........................399

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Contents

xvii

Holding SAP Infrastructure Planning Workshops . ....................................399
Day One: Setting the Big Picture.......................................................400
Day Two: Building a Timeline. .........................................................401
Day Three: Assigning Resources . ......................................................403
Summary .....................................................................................................404
Case Study: Sizing for SAP Upgrade and Consolidation............................404
20

Training SAP Staff

407

Introduction to SAP Training . ...................................................................407
Who Needs Training? ........................................................................408
Timing Is Everything .........................................................................411
Training and the Role of the SAP System Landscape. ...............................412
Leveraging the Technical Sandbox....................................................413
Using the Development and Business Sandbox Systems .................414
Wringing All the Value Out of a Training System ............................415
Training to Support Your Unique SAP Technology Stack .................415
Approaches to SAP Training . .....................................................................416
Formal Classes and Courseware ........................................................417
Onsite Training Workshops...............................................................419
Creating and Delivering Custom Training Curriculum....................420
SAP Knowledge Warehouse ...............................................................421
Using SAP NetWeaver for Enterprise Knowledge Management .......422
Other Computer-Based and Online Training ...................................423
SAP TechEd and Similar Venues ........................................................423
Creating “Cookbooks” from Product Documentation and User
Manuals ...........................................................................................424
Feedback Loops: Improving the Value of Training ....................................427
Functional and Development Consultants.......................................427
SAP Technical Consultants . ..............................................................427
Other SAP Infrastructure Roles. ........................................................428
SAP Operations/Help Desk . ..............................................................429
Additional SAP Support Specialists . .................................................429
Certification Programs. .....................................................................429
Summary .....................................................................................................430
Case Study: Training Technical Staff ..........................................................430
21

Developing the SAP Data Center

433

Introducing the SAP Data Center . .............................................................433
First Things First—Standardization . ..........................................................435
Data Center Physical Requirements ...........................................................437
Power Requirements ..........................................................................438
Cooling and Other Environmental Controls....................................442

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xviii

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Rack Planning for Data Center Resources . ................................................443
Rack Layout and Design Considerations . ........................................443
Optimizing Rack Real Estate. ............................................................445
Rack Mounting and Related Best Practices . .....................................446
Cabling and Cable Management. .....................................................447
Network Infrastructure for SAP. .................................................................448
Firewalls, Ports, and Other Network Concerns. ...............................449
Network Fault Tolerance. ..................................................................450
Server Preparation . .....................................................................................452
Optimum SAP Server Configuration Best Practices . ........................452
SAP Server Configurations in the Real World. .................................455
Blades . ...............................................................................................455
General Storage Considerations . ...............................................................456
Special Considerations for Storage Area Networks . .........................456
SAP/SAN Best Practices and Observations.........................................457
Leveraging Storage Virtualization . ...................................................458
Options in the Virtual Array . ...........................................................459
On the Road to Implementation. ..............................................................460
Testing the System in the Technical Sandbox . ................................460
Managing the Development System . ...............................................461
The Green Data Center...............................................................................461
Summary . ...................................................................................................462
Case Study: Data Center Facilities ..............................................................463
Part III:
22

SAP Realization/Functional Development
Project Management Checkpoint 2: Revisiting Key Artifacts

467

Revising Your TCO Analyses.......................................................................467
Revising Your Solution Implementation Plan of Record ...........................470
Revisiting Your Staffing Plan . ....................................................................470
Amending Your SAP Implementation Budget............................................471
Ramping Up and Resourcing the SAP Help Desk.......................................472
Staffing the SAP Help Desk................................................................473
Addressing Real-World Call Fluctuations. ........................................474
Training the SAP Help Desk ..............................................................474
Preparing the SAP Help Desk ............................................................475
Managing End-User Perceptions .......................................................476
Exploiting Cost Management Opportunities . ...........................................476
Employing Standard Activity Assessment Processes .........................476
Leveraging Lessons Learned . ............................................................477
Summary .....................................................................................................477
Case Study: Avoiding Project Shelfware .....................................................478

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Contents

23

Preparing for SAP Component Installations

xix

479

Planning for SAP Infrastructure. ................................................................480
Developing a Master Plan with SAP’s Master Guides .......................481
Installation Guides and SAP Notes....................................................483
Planning for System Variants . ..........................................................484
Considering Heterogeneous Landscapes . .........................................485
Standalone Engines . .........................................................................486
Unicode or Non-Unicode . ................................................................486
Building Your SAP Infrastructure. ..............................................................487
The Network Planning Process..........................................................487
Storage Area Network Planning . ......................................................488
Windows File System Preparation .....................................................490
Linux with HP Serviceguard Preparation ..........................................490
Network File System Preparation . ....................................................491
Choosing a Server Naming Convention ...........................................493
Installing and Configuring the Operating System. ...................................493
Operating System: 32-Bit or 64-Bit?..................................................494
System Drive . ....................................................................................495
Windows OS Configuration Guidelines............................................496
Creating OS Users and Groups. ........................................................498
Installing the Database Software . ..............................................................499
Microsoft SQL Server .........................................................................500
Oracle Database . ...............................................................................501
Additional Installation Requirements . ......................................................501
SAP Solution Manager Key ................................................................502
Java Runtime Environment. .............................................................502
Managing CD/DVD SAP Media ..................................................................503
Prerequisite Checklists . ..............................................................................504
Checklist for Windows ......................................................................504
Checklist for Solution Manager on Linux ........................................505
SAPinst—The SAP System Landscape Installer. .........................................505
Running SAPinst ................................................................................506
Navigating SAPinst . ..........................................................................506
Summary .....................................................................................................507
Case Study: Installation Preparation ..........................................................507
24

Installing SAP NetWeaver Components

509

NetWeaver Overview ..................................................................................509
Application Platform .........................................................................510
Installable Software Units..................................................................512
Open Integration Platform ................................................................512
Installing NetWeaver ..................................................................................512

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xx

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Example IT Scenario—Business Planning and Analytical Services ............514
Installing the ABAP Application Server. ....................................................515
Installing the Java Application Server . ......................................................517
Installing Application Server ABAP+Java. ..................................................519
Installing SAP NetWeaver Portal. ...............................................................520
Installing SAP Business Warehouse . ..........................................................521
Installing SAP Process Integration . ............................................................522
Finalizing Other NetWeaver Post-Installation Tasks . ................................522
Accessing the Application Server ABAP ............................................522
Accessing the Application Server Java. .............................................523
Accessing NetWeaver Portal (Usage Type EPC and EP) ....................523
Setting Environment Variable CPIC_MAX_CONV ...........................523
Performing Post-Installation Steps for Usage Type PI.......................523
Performing Post-Installation Steps for Usage Type EP......................524
Running the Configuration Wizard (AS Java, BI Java, and PI).........524
Establishing SAP Printing . ................................................................524
Summary .....................................................................................................525
Case Study: Implementing a Sandbox .......................................................526
25

Installing SAP Business Suite Components

527

SAP Business Suite Installation . .................................................................527
SAP SRM Deployment Options and Installation ..............................529
SAP CRM Software Components. .....................................................529
SAP SCM Software Components . .....................................................530
Installing Other Components and Products . ............................................531
SAP Product Lifecycle Management..................................................531
cProject Suite . ...................................................................................531
Standalone Engine Options. .............................................................532
Installing the SAP ERP Core Component...................................................532
Performing an Oracle-for-SAP Installation . ...............................................537
Addressing General SAP Post-Installation Tasks. .......................................538
Summary . ...................................................................................................543
Case Study: Installing SAP ERP 6.0. ...........................................................543
26

Functional Development

545

An Overview of Functional Development .................................................545
SAP Components and Modules . ................................................................546
Common SAP ERP Modules ..............................................................546
Other SAP ERP Modules . ..................................................................547
Translating Business Vision into Business Processes ..................................548
Converting Business Processes into SAP Functionality. ............................550

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Contents

xxi

Functional Development Tools and Approaches . .....................................553
SAP Configuration .............................................................................553
SAP Customization ............................................................................554
Organizing for Development......................................................................558
Development Best Practices ........................................................................560
Functional Development Lessons Learned.................................................561
Summary . ...................................................................................................563
Case Study: Starting the Realization Phase ................................................563
27

Functional Configuration Change Control

565

Goals of Functional Configuration Change Control .................................565
Change Control Tools. ...............................................................................566
Change Control Management Tools .................................................566
Electronic Signature Tools . ...............................................................567
SAP Enhancement Tools . ..................................................................567
Document Management Tools . ........................................................568
Issue Management—SAP Notes and the Knowledge Repository ......568
SAP GoingLive Check Tool. ..............................................................568
Data Loading Tools .....................................................................................569
General Scripting and Testing Tools..................................................569
WinShuttle . .......................................................................................569
The Change Control Board.........................................................................571
The SAP Change Control Manager’s Role .........................................572
SAP Application Layer—Transport Strategies and More ...................573
The Process or Workflow of Implementing Change ..................................574
Summary . ...................................................................................................576
Case Study: Meeting with the SAP CCM. ..................................................576
28

Functional, Integration, and Regression Testing

577

Introduction to CATT, eCATT, and LSMW.................................................578
Three Types of Business Process Testing.....................................................580
Timing Business Process Testing........................................................581
The Critical Nature of Functional Testing ........................................582
The Real Value in Integration Testing...............................................583
The Impact of Regression Testing .....................................................584
Functional Versus Stress Testing and Recovery Testing ....................585
Approaching Business Process Testing . .....................................................585
Third-Party Tools and Other Resources.............................................586
SAP eCATT Differentiators. ...............................................................587
Additional People Considerations. ...................................................588
Process Overview, Constraints, and Issues........................................589
Other Areas of Impact . .....................................................................590

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xxii

SAP Implementation Unleashed

Executing Business Process Testing . ..........................................................590
Using the Test Workbench ................................................................591
Tracking Data During Test Execution ...............................................591
Post-Execution Tasks. ........................................................................592
Compressing the Testing Phase in the Real World ...........................592
Using Testing to Support SLAs in the Real World ............................593
The Weakest Link: Having Too Few Resources .................................593
Summary .....................................................................................................594
Case Study: Building an SAP Test Tool Portfolio........................................594
29

Advanced Concepts: Unlocking SAP with SOA and Web Services

595

What Is SOA? ..............................................................................................595
The Opportunities and Challenges of SOA ................................................597
Opportunities and Benefits of SOA ...................................................597
Challenges for SOA Realization. .......................................................598
SOA Technology..........................................................................................599
Application Server and .NET CLR .....................................................600
Enterprise Service Bus . ......................................................................600
Service Registry and Repository . ......................................................600
Unlocking SAP Functionality......................................................................601
Application Connectivity Using BAPI and a Web Service ................601
Process Integration Using SAP NetWeaver . ......................................601
SAP eSOA, ESR, and the ESC . ...........................................................603
Ensuring Success with an SOA Center of Excellence . ...............................604
SOA COE Prescription for Success.....................................................604
Details of the SOA COE Roadmap ....................................................605
Real-World SOA Case Study: HP .................................................................605
Final Thoughts on SOA for SAP..................................................................607
Summary . ...................................................................................................607
Case Study: Introducing SOA at HiTech, Inc. ............................................607
Part IV:
30

Planning for Go-Live
Project Management Checkpoint 3: Project Team Retention

611

Setting the Foundation: Leadership and Behaviors . .................................611
Intellectual Stimulation.....................................................................612
Inspirational Motivation ...................................................................612
Individualized Consideration............................................................613
Understanding Support Staff Personalities. ...............................................613
Project Workers: Motivated to Achieve.............................................614
Steady-State Workers: Keeping Things Running...............................614

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Contents

xxiii

Keys for Retaining Employees . ..................................................................615
Understanding Team Motivation ......................................................616
Offering Competitive Pay. ................................................................616
Communicating Regularly and Meaningfully ..................................617
Recognizing and Praising Team Members.........................................618
Providing Performance and Other Incentive Bonuses......................619
Supplying Training and Career Path Opportunities .........................620
Compensation Alternatives in the Real World ..........................................621
Summary . ...................................................................................................623
Case Study: Retaining Key Team Members ................................................624
31

SAP Infrastructure Operational Considerations

625

Printing and Faxing Considerations. .........................................................626
Printing Strategy ................................................................................626
The Adobe Factor. .............................................................................628
Faxing Options ..................................................................................629
SAP Security and Authorizations Management . .......................................631
Managing Users .................................................................................632
Managing Roles .................................................................................633
Identity Management ........................................................................635
Archive Considerations in the Real World. ...............................................635
Archiving Technology .......................................................................635
Archiving Strategy . ...........................................................................636
Additional Operational Considerations Prior to Go-Live . ........................637
Using SAP System Copy ....................................................................637
Managing Client Data . .....................................................................638
Summary .....................................................................................................639
Case Study: Operational Management .......................................................639
32

SAP Infrastructure and Platform Testing

641

The Goals of Infrastructure Testing ............................................................641
System-Level Stress Testing and Pretuning.................................................643
Server Hardware and OS Testing . ..............................................................644
MCS CPU Benchmark........................................................................644
N-Bench . ...........................................................................................644
CPUBENCH. ......................................................................................645
Disk Subsystem and Database Testing. ......................................................646
SQLIO.................................................................................................647
Iometer. .............................................................................................649
NTIOGEN ...........................................................................................649

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xxiv

SAP Implementation Unleashed

IOzone................................................................................................649
Windows Utilities ..............................................................................650
Network Infrastructure Testing...................................................................651
SAP Failover and Other HA/DR Infrastructure Testing ..............................652
Additional Disk Subsystem Testing ...................................................652
Microsoft Cluster Testing. .................................................................652
Testing Tools in Action—Server Comparison.............................................654
Summary . ...................................................................................................655
Case Study: Infrastructure Testing . ............................................................655
33

SAP Load and Stress Testing

657

Key SAP Stress-Testing Considerations . .....................................................657
Analyzing Online Users and Batch Processes ...................................658
Understanding It’s All About the Data! . ..........................................659
Updating Your Project Plan . .............................................................660
Differentiating Between Load, Volume, Stress, and Smoke Testing ..........663
Testing SAP Components: Basic Methods . ................................................664
Using the SAP Standard Application Benchmark .............................665
Where SAP eCATT Fits In . ................................................................665
Using SE38 for Cross-Application Stress Testing...............................666
Real-World Preparation and Script Development . ....................................666
Stress Test Client Infrastructure.........................................................668
Creating Administrative and Other Utility Scripts ...........................668
Logging In and Ramping Up.............................................................669
Collecting Statistics . .........................................................................670
Logging Out—Gracefully Ending Your Test Session .........................671
Additional Scripting Tips and Tricks .................................................672
Stress Test Execution During Test Week . ...................................................675
Final Preparations Before Test Week Commences ............................676
Leveraging Your Testing Tools . .........................................................676
Monitoring the Stress Test via SAP Transaction Codes.....................676
Using Test Output for Continuous Improvement ............................677
Additional Stress-Testing Goals . ................................................................678
Playing “What If” ..............................................................................679
Testing the Failover Process...............................................................679
Ramping Up to Excessive Loads........................................................680
Extracting the Last Drop of Value Out of Testing......................................681
Other Stress-Testing Lessons Learned in the Real World ...........................682
Summary . ...................................................................................................684
Case Study: Developing a Stress Test Plan. ................................................684

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