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Broadband bible, desktop edition

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Broadband Bible
Desktop Edition

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Broadband Bible
Desktop Edition
James E. Gaskin

Wiley Publishing, Inc.

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Broadband Bible, Desktop Edition
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
www.wiley.com
C

Copyright 2004 by James Gaskin
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
eISBN: 0-7645-7743-3
Manufactured in the United States of America
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XX/XX/XX/XX/XX
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gaskin, James E.
Broadband bible / James E. Gaskin.– Desktop ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
eISBN 0-7645-774 3-3
1. Broadband communication systems. 2. Internet service providers. 3. Digital subsriber
lines. 4. Modems. 5. Artificial satellites in telecommunication. I. Title.
TK5103.4.G37 2004
621.382–dc22
2004011593
Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo and related trade dress are trademarks or
registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and
other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product
or vendor mentioned in this book.
is a trade mark of Wiley Publishing, Inc.

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About the Author
In 1985, James E. Gaskin decided he’d rather sell computers and networks than
try to buy them for his father’s company. So he started selling and installing
Novell networks to small- and medium-sized businesses in the Dallas area. By
1988, James was on his own as an independent networking consultant to such
clients as the Internal Revenue Service, First Gibraltar Bank, and Solomon
Associates.
In 1989, James started contributing to Unix Today! magazine, and he continues to
cover technology for major technology publications (such as Network World)
today. His first book, Integrating Unix and NetWare Networks, was published by
Novell Press in 1993, and he has continued writing books, articles, and jokes
about technology and real life ever since.
His 14 (now 15) books include a best-selling series of five NetWare books for
Sybex, and others on Internet technology, technology business management,
and humor. James presented a series of NetWare and Internet technology
tutorials for Networld+InterOp from 1994 through 1997. Media appearances
include technology expert commentary for KRLD News Radio, Dallas, TX, and
WGBH 89.7, National Public Radio, Boston.
An objective voice for the technology consumer, James writes a weekly column
called Small Business Technology for Network World. He also presents topics such
as The Hilarious Pain of Data Security to groups under the umbrella of
GaskinGuides to Technology. Although unaffiliated with any vendor, James is
biased toward cost-effective and intelligent technology products for small- and
medium-sized businesses.

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Credits
Acquisitions Editor
Katie Mohr

Vice President and Publisher
Joseph B. Wikert

Development Editors
Sydney Jones
Jodi Jensen

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Mary Bednarek

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Technical Editor
Nadeem Muhammed
Copy Editor
Techbooks
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield
Vice President & Executive
Group Publisher
Richard Swadley

Project Coordinator
Ryan Steffen
Permissions Editor
Laura Moss
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Kit Malone
Cover Illustration
Anthony Bunyan
Interior Design
Lissa Auciello-Brogan
Layout, Proofreading and Indexing
TECHBOOKS

Vice President and Executive
Publisher
Bob Ipsen

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As always, this and everything else is for Wendy, Alex, and Laura.

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Preface

S

peed kills boredom on the Web. Broadband makes Web sites that were
dull yesterday snap and dance today. Now that every person in the United
States and Canada has at least one option for broadband service, there’s no
reason you can’t enjoy a Web more interactive (and intelligent) than any TV
show on the market.
Connecting your home or small business to a broadband service provider costs
less today than ever. The tools you need are easily available, often as close as a
CompUSA or Target or even Radio Shack. Why waste time waiting on the Web?
Why not whip through the Web, grab what you want, and get on with your life?

Nothing in this book is beyond a typical home computer user’s ability to
purchase, install, or enjoy. If you have a computer, you can benefit from
broadband service. If you have two computers, you benefit twice as much. If you
have an office at home that you might want to connect to your business,
everything you need is in here.
Jump in. Explore the Internet in ways you couldn’t before. Download videos and
music that you never considered in the past because of their file sizes. Finally,
turn your computer into something more fun than an automated Solitaire game.
Do all this easily, inexpensively, and without needing to cut a hole in your wall
for wires or worry about security. Follow the directions in here, and you will
connect effortlessly, protect your data in a variety of ways, and stop wondering
if your computer was working for you or against you. With broadband access
and the information in here, you computer will become your transport to more
information and entertainment than ever before.

Who Should Read This Book?
If you have a computer in your home and are curious about broadband, this book
will help you. If you have more than one computer at home and need to connect
them, this book will save you time, money, and a fair amount of aggravation.
If you have a small office in your home, this book provides the data security
information that will protect your most important asset, your information.
If you have a small business, this book will show you the right tools for
connecting your computers with network appliances to provide storage,
security, and real-time backup support. You will also build a foundation for your
business on solid network design principles along with important security
considerations that will help today and in the future.

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x Preface

What Hardware and Software
Do You Need?
If your computer has a network adapter or can support one of some kind, you
can use it for broadband networking. A few utilities demand Windows of some
flavor (98 or above and sometimes 2000/XP), but after installation any
network-able computer can play on the broadband.
Vendors provide the client software, and the operating systems for client
computers have the rest of the necessary software. If you like graphics, audio, or
video intensive applications, the faster your computer the better.

How This Book Is Organized
Because at least four different ways to receive broadband service at your home
or business are covered in this book, I don’t expect you to read it all straight
through. You’re welcome to, of course, but I certainly understand if you want to
head to the chapters discussing the areas that most excite you.
Broadband comes in a variety of flavors, so first I explain all those flavors so you
can see which may suit you the best. Then I go into some detail about how to
share that broadband Internet access throughout your home or office.
If you’re a home user with a computer or two who wants to figure out whether
there’s a difference between cable and DSL for your needs, you will get most of
your information in the first half of the book. If your needs include a small
business network, there’s some information for you concerning ways to improve
your network and increase your data security.

Part I: Determining which broadband
is right for you
Part I starts out explaining why broadband access is worth the little bit of money
it costs over dialup Internet access. Then you learn about the various kinds of
broadband services available. Chapter 2 covers how broadband works in
general, and Chapters 3, 4, and 5 cover the mainstream broadband options (cable
or DSL from a telephone company), then the alternative broadband providers
(wireless and satellite). Chapter 6 lists all the pros and cons for each type so you
can answer the questions and learn what you really want for your connection.

Part II: Practicing safe broadband
The Internet is no longer innocent. There was a time when you could leave your
metaphorical doors unlocked, but that day is long past.

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Preface

xi

Chapter 7 explains how bad people get bad things into your computers, and how
you can stop them. Chapters 8 and 9 talk about how your broadband service is
connected to your home, condo, office, or apartment.

Part III: Moving from stand-alone PCs
to a network
Chapter 10 discusses servers and various network devices that help organize
your network and protect your data. Chapters 11, 12, and 13 explain desktop
networking, then TCP/IP (the protocol of the Internet) and router, then backup
and disaster recovery. If you have more than one computer, these chapters will
save you time, money, and grief.

Part IV: Linking your network devices
Chapters 14 and 15 jump in the world of connections, as you learn to tie your
computers together in new ways. Want wires? Fine. Want no wires? That’s fine too.
Chapters 16 and 17 introduce you to the world of wireless security and those
who wish to deprive you of same. Keeping your wireless network private takes
some planning, but it can be done.

Part V: Troubleshooting
Computers are balky, ornery devices at times. Things will not always go smoothly.
But with the information in Chapters 18 and 19, you will learn how to deal with
your broadband service provider when they have problems, and how to deal with
your own network when the problems are on your side of the cable or DSL modem.

Appendix A
This section includes the collected Quick Hits Web site listings for music, video,
games, support, and broadband speed tests. If you wonder if broadband is
worth it, go to some of these sites and see if you get bored waiting for your
browser screen to update. If so, get broadband.

Appendix B
Full of reference sites, this appendix provides more general technical, support,
and security listings than the entertainment-heavy Appendix A. Many of these
sites provided in-depth background and information for chapters in the book.

Appendix C
This appendix is the glossary. Acronyms are explained, and network terms from
all chapters are defined.

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xii Preface

Navigating This Book
Various icons are scattered throughout Broadband Bible, Desktop Edition for
your assistance. Each chapter begins with an overview of its information and
ends with a quick summary.
Icons appear in the text to indicate important or especially helpful items. Here’s
a list of the icons and their functions:
Tech Bits

Little factoids that illustrate the point under discussion but don’t apply
directly to understanding the topic.

Notes offer additional advice or point out details to help you better
understand the current topic.
This icon indicates other chapters in the book where you can find more
information on a particular topic.
Cautions provide critical and often overlooked information that will
help you avoid disasters.

These notes refer you to Web sites that provide updated information or
discussions of topics that go beyond the scope of this book.

The Companion Web Site
The official Web site for this book is on the Wiley site at www.wiley.com/
compbooks/gaskin. This site includes official updates, errata, and notice about
new book versions. Feel free to check out other Web sites for complementary
books to this one—I’m sure the other authors won’t mind.
Plenty of how-to projects and information about home and small business
networking that didn’t fit into this book are at www.GaskinGuides.com. Some
deeper digging into broadband topics can be found at www.BroadbandBible.com
as well.

Further Information
I have a weekly column called “Small Business Technology” for Network World
magazine that runs on the NWFusion.com Web site at: www.nwfusion.com/net
.worker/columnists/gaskin.html

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Preface

xiii

You can also e-mail me at
james@GaskinGuides.com

I can’t promise instantaneous turnaround, but I answer all my mail. I may even
send you a joke.

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Acknowledgments

M

any companies provided equipment for me to use and abuse during the
writing of this book. Let me list some of the vendors and people who
have been the most helpful and supportive:
✦ Linksys is now owned by Cisco but has always been represented by the
wonderful Karen Sohl. Karen has been doing marketing and
communications and running interference for me over the past several
years. Karen is the communications professional I wish all others would
emulate.
✦ Netgear, ably supported by Ken Hagihara and Lisa Quinn of Integrity
Public Relations.
✦ Gary Doan and all the other smart and helpful folks at IntraDyn, Inc., the
makers of the outstanding RocketVault Data Protection Appliance.
✦ Efficient Networks and Derek Fay’s PR support.
✦ Mirra Personal Server
✦ Kanguru Solutions
✦ Snap Appliance
✦ Tritton Technologies
✦ Buffalo Technology
✦ SMC
✦ IOGear, Inc.
✦ ZyXEL Communications Corp.
✦ Avocent
✦ Microsoft Corp. provided test software operating systems and Microsoft
Office.
✦ Last, but not least, Laura Lewin of Studio B who put me together with the
folks at Wiley and made all this happen.

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Contents at a Glance

..............................................
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

Part I: Determining Which Broadband Is Right for You . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1:
Chapter 2:
Chapter 3:
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:
Chapter 6:

Why You Need Broadband Internet Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Getting Familiar with Broadband Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Types of Broadband Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Types of Alternative Broadband Providers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Emerging Broadband Service Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Pros and Cons: Choosing Your Best Broadband Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Part II: Practicing Safe Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Chapter 7: Understanding Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Chapter 8: Examining Your Home Broadband Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Chapter 9: Examining the Multitenant Broadband Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Part III: Moving from Stand-Alone PCs to a Network . . . . . . . . . 203
Chapter 10:
Chapter 11:
Chapter 12:
Chapter 13:

Server and Storage Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
What You Need to Know About Desktop Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
What You Need to Know About TCP/IP Networks and Routing . . . . . . . .285
Backup and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Part IV: Linking Your Network Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Chapter 14:
Chapter 15:
Chapter 16:
Chapter 17:

Wired Connection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Wireless Connection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Wireless Security in Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Avoiding Wireless Eavesdropping and Hacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Part V: Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Chapter 18: Troubleshooting Internet Access Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
Chapter 19: Troubleshooting Your Side of the Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Appendix A: Quick Hits Roundup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Appendix B: Additional Web Directory Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Appendix C: Broadband, Internet, and Networking Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555

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Contents

..............................................
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

Part I: Determining Which Broadband Is
Right for You

1

Chapter 1: Why You Need Broadband Internet Access . . . . 3
Computing Without Interruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Support files download in a flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Applications arrive in a blink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Immersive Experiences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Streaming audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Streaming video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Communicating Over Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Voice over broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Webcams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Videophones and video IM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Broadband Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Game play requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Wrapping yourself in the game world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
The most popular games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Chapter 2: Getting Familiar with Broadband
Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
What Is Broadband?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
What the Feds Call Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Why service providers offer both options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Downstream details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Upstream details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Asymmetrical advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Symmetrical advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Speed comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Chapter 3: Types of Broadband Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Broadband from Phone Companies: Flavors of DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
The development of DSL technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
How DSL works for you. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Service provider details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

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xx Contents
Broadband from the Cable Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
How broadband over cable works for you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Service provider details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Chapter 4: Types of Alternative Broadband Providers . . . . 77
Satellite Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
How satellite works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Service providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Community Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
How wireless works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Service providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Wi-Fi hotspots: public 802.11b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Chapter 5: Emerging Broadband Service Options . . . . . . . . 97
Fiber to the Home and Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
How fiber works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Coverage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Trials in progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
WiMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
How WiMax works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Coverage area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Trials in progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Powerline Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
How Powerline broadband works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Trials in progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Chapter 6: Pros and Cons: Choosing Your Best
Broadband Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Decision Points for Your Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
How to compare service features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Pros and Cons for Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Current coverage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Decision checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Pros and Cons for DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Current coverage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
How to compare service features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Decision checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

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Pros and Cons for Satellite Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Current coverage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
How to compare service features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Downlink and uplink details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Decision checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Pros and Cons for Community Wireless Broadband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Current coverage areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Security concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Decision checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Service Provider Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Acceptable use policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Rules on connection sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Bandwidth hogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Part II: Practicing Safe Broadband

137

Chapter 7: Understanding Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . 139
How Miscreants Get into Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
E-Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Downloaded files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Physical Security Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Traveling laptops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Disks from outside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Wired network security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Wireless network security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Keeping Things Out (Viruses, Worms, Trojans, Hackers) . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Update your operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Update your virus protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Update your personal firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Keeping Things In (Your Information) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Router firewall settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
Desktop firewall settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Note to online game players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Chapter 8: Examining Your Home Broadband Hookup . . 161
Cable and DSL “Modems” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Modem/not modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Demarcation point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Routers for Access Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Router features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Router security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Wireless Broadband Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Wi-Fi speeds and more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Improving distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

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Chapter 9: Examining the Multitenant Broadband
Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Broadband When You Don’t Control Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
The building local exchange carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Physical connection options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Apartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Condos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Executive suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Office parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Service from the landlord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Billing questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Separate terms of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Service level agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Support contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Privacy assurances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Update your security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Service from a third party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Support contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Service level agreement and privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Keeping your account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Onsite broadband router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Network address translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Part III: Moving from Stand-Alone
PCs to a Network

203

Chapter 10: Server and Storage Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Why You Want a Home Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
The messy side of home computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Cleaning up home computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Why You Need a Small Business Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Choosing Your Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
All-in-one server appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Network-attached storage units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Turning an old computer into a server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Setting Up Users and Disk Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Setting up users and groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Managing disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Connecting Network Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Server and storage appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Wireless Webcam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

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Server Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Physical security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Blocking hackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Backup planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Chapter 11: What You Need to Know About Desktop
Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Inexpensive Routers with NAT Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Windows 9x/ME: Keep or Can? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Reasons to upgrade your Windows 9x/ME
computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Reasons not to upgrade your Windows 9x/ME
computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Configuring Windows 95/98/ME for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Basic network settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Adjusting the default security options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Closing exposed security holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Configuring Windows 2000 for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Basic network settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Adjusting the default security options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Closing exposed security holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Configuring Windows XP for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Basic network settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Adjusting the default security options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Closing exposed security holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Configuring Other Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Using Shared Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Finding and linking to shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Sharing resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Chapter 12: What You Need to Know About TCP/IP
Networks and Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
TCP/IP Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Why TCP/IP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
What DHCP servers do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
DHCP server settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
DHCP client settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Domain Name Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
What name servers do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Finding name servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Static IP addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Dynamic Domain Name Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Network Address Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Public and private addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Configuring NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

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Translating the address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Is NAT enough security?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
NAT limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Router-based firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Configuring a router-based firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Using a personal firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Configuring firewalls for online games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Proxy and cache servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

Chapter 13: Backup and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
More Backups Mean Less Frustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
What to backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Configure your PC for easy backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Back-up technology overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Pros and cons of back-up options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Back-Up Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Backing up a desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Backing up a laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Backing up network-connected computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
How Your Small Business Data Can Survive Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Offsite storage saves the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Tools that rebuild systems quickly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Data retention rules for businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

Part IV: Linking Your Network Devices

357

Chapter 14: Wired Connection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Choosing Between Wired and Wireless. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Pros and cons of wired versus wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Where to use wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Where to use wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Twisted Pair (10 and 100Base-T) Ethernet Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
A quick overview of Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Category 5 (CAT5) cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Wiring hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Wiring hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Wiring switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Wiring devices in routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
HomePlug: Networking through Your Power Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
HomePlug overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
HomePlug and Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
HomePlug security and compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
HomePlug and wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
HomePlug pros and cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
HomePNA: Networking through Your Telephone Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

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