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Applied chemistry


Applied Chemistry



O.V. Roussak • H.D. Gesser

Applied Chemistry
A Textbook for Engineers and Technologists
Second Edition


O.V. Roussak
Chemistry Department
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

H.D. Gesser
Chemistry Department
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada


ISBN 978-1-4614-4261-5
ISBN 978-1-4614-4262-2 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-4262-2
Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012947030
# Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013
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O.V. Roussak: In memory of my father, Roussak Vladimir
Alexandrovich, a smart mining engineer, my best friend
and teacher.
H.D. Gesser: To Esther, Isaac, Sarah and Avi.



Preface to the Second Edition

The first edition of this book appeared 10 years ago. This book is the result of teaching in the Applied
Chemistry (Dr. H.D. Gesser, the Chemistry 2240 course) as well as in the Water Quality Analysis for
Civil Engineers (Dr. O.V. Roussak, the CHEM 2560 course) to second year engineering students
for many years at the University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Much has transpired in
science during this period and that includes applied chemistry. The major change in this new edition


that becomes obvious is the addition of several (eight) experiments to accompany the book and the
course for which it was intended. A new solutions manual is also a valuable asset to the second edition
of the book.
Chemistry is primarily an experimental science and the performance of a few experiments to
accompany the text was long considered while the course was taught. The choice of experiments we
include was determined by the equipment that is usually available (with one or two possible
exceptions) and by the expected usefulness of these experiments to the student, who will eventually
become a practicing professional, and to the cost that is involved in student time. We welcome any
reasonable and inexpensive additional experiments to introduce for the next edition of our book and
topics to include in the next edition.
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
September 2012

O.V. Roussak
H.D. Gesser

vii



Preface to the First Edition

This book is the result of teaching a one semester course in applied chemistry (Chemistry 224) to
second year engineering students for over 15 years. The contents of the course evolved as the interests
and needs of both the students and the engineering faculty changed. All the students had at least one
semester of introductory chemistry and it has been assumed in this text that the students have been
exposed to thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, solution equilibrium, and organic chemistry. These
topics must be discussed either before starting the applied subjects or developed as required if the
students are not familiar with these prerequisites.
Engineering students often ask “Why is another chemistry course required for non-chemical
engineers?”
There are many answers to this question but foremost is that the professional engineer must know
when to consult a chemist and be able to communicate with him. When this is not done, the consequences
can be disastrous due to faulty design, poor choice of materials, or inadequate safety factors.
Examples of blunders abound and only a few will be described in an attempt to convince the
student to take the subject matter seriously.
The Challenger space shuttle disaster which occurred in January 1986 was attributed to the cold
overnight weather which had hardened the O-rings on the booster rockets while the space craft sat on
the launchpad. During flight, the O-ring seals failed, causing fuel to leak out and ignite. The use of a
material with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) could have prevented the disaster.
A similar problem may exist in automatic transmissions used in vehicles. The use of silicone
rubber O-rings instead of neoprene may add to the cost of the transmission but this would be more
than compensated for by an improved and more reliable performance at À40 C where neoprene
begins to harden; whereas the silicone rubber is still flexible.
A new asphalt product from Europe incorporates the slow release of calcium chloride (CaCl2) to
prevent icing on roads and bridges. Predictably, this would have little use in Winnipeg, Canada,
where À40 C is not uncommon in winter.
The heavy water plant at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, was designed to extract D2O from sea water.
The corrosion of the plant eventually delayed production and the redesign and use of more appropriate materials added millions to the cost of the plant.
A chemistry colleague examined his refrigerator which failed after less than 10 years of use. He
noted that a compressor coil made of copper was soldered to an expansion tube made of iron.
Condensing water had corroded the—guess what?—iron tube. Was this an example of designed
obsolescence or sheer stupidity. One wonders, since the savings by using iron instead of copper is a
few cents and the company is a well-known prominent world manufacturer of electrical appliances
and equipment.
With the energy problems now facing our industry and the resulting economic problems, the
engineer will be required to make judgments which can alter the cost-benefit ratio for his employer.
ix


x

Preface to the First Edition

One must realize that perpetual motion is impossible even though the US Supreme Court has ruled
that a patent should be granted for a device which the Patent Office considers to be a Perpetual Motion
Machine. An example of this type of proposal appeared in a local newspaper which described an
invention for a car which ran on water. This is accomplished by a battery which is initially used to
electrolyze water to produce H2 and O2 that is then fed into a fuel cell which drives an electrical motor
that propels the car. While the car is moving, an alternator driven by the automobile’s motion charges
the battery. Thus, the only consumable item is water. This is an excellent example of perpetual
motion.
A similar invention of an automobile powered by an air engine has been described. A compressed
air cylinder powers an engine which drives the automobile. A compressor which is run by the moving
car recompresses the gas into a second cylinder which is used when the first cylinder is empty. Such
perpetual motion systems will abound and the public must be made aware of the pitfalls.
Have you heard of the Magnatron? Using 17 oz of deuterium (from heavy water) and 1.5 oz of
gallium will allow you to drive an engine 110,000 miles at a cost of $110. Are you skeptical? You
should be, because it is an example of the well-known Computer GIGO Principle (meaning garbage
in ¼ garbage out).
An engineer responsible for the application of a thin film of a liquid adhesive to a plastic was
experiencing problems. Bubbles were being formed which disrupted the even smooth adhesive coat.
The answer was found in the dissolved gases since air at high pressure was used to force the adhesive
out of the spreading nozzle. The engineer did not believe that the air was actually soluble in the
hexane used to dissolve the glue. When helium was used instead of air, no bubbles formed because of
the lower solubility of He compared to O2 and N2 in the solvent. Everything is soluble in all solvents,
only the extent of solution varies from non-detectable (by present methods of measurement) to
completely soluble. The same principle applies to the permeability of one substance through another.
An aluminum tank car exploded when the broken dome’s door hinge was being welded. The tank
car, which had been used to carry fertilizer (aqueous ammonium nitrate and urea), was washed and
cleaned with water—so why had it exploded? Dilute ammonium hydroxide is more corrosive to
aluminum than the concentrated solution. Hence, the reaction
3NH4 OH þ Al ! AlðOHÞ3 þ 3NH3 þ 1:5H2
produced hydrogen which exploded when the welding arc ignited the H2/O2 mixture. The broad
explosive range of hydrogen in air makes it a dangerous gas when confined.
Batteries are often used as a back-up power source for relays and, hence, stand idle for long
periods. To keep them ready for use they are continuously charged. However, they are known to
explode occasionally when they are switched into service because of the excess hydrogen produced
due to overcharging. This can be avoided by either catalyzing the recombination of the H2 and O2 to
form water
2H2 þ O2 ! 2H2 O
by a nickel, platinum, or palladium catalyst in the battery caps, or by keeping the charging current
equal to the inherent discharge rate which is about 1% per month for the lead-acid battery.
It has recently been shown that the flaming disaster of the Hindenburg Zeppelin in 1937, in which
36 lives were lost, may have been caused by static electricity igniting the outer fabric. This was shown
to contain an iron oxide pigment and reflecting powdered aluminum. Such a combination, known as a
thermite mixture, results in the highly exothermic Gouldshmidt reaction (first reported in 1898):
Fe2 O þ 2A1 ! A12 O þ 2Fe AH0 ¼ À852 kJ=mol of Fe2 O


Preface to the First Edition

xi

In the early days of the railway, rails were welded with the molten iron formed in this reaction.
The combination of powdered aluminum and a metal oxide has been used as a rocket fuel and
evidence has been obtained to indicate that after the disaster the Germans replaced the aluminum by
bronze which does not react with metal oxides. Thus, the bad reputation hydrogen has had as a result
of the accident is undeserved and the resulting limiting use of the airship was due to faulty chemistry
and could have been avoided.
The original design and structure of the Statue of Liberty, built about 100 years ago, took into
account the need to avoid using different metals in direct contact with each other. However, the salt
sea spray penetrated the structure and corroded the iron frame which supported the outer copper shell.
Chloride ions catalyzed the corrosion of iron. The use of brass in a steam line valve resulted in
corrosion and the formation of a green solid product. The architect was apparently unaware of the
standard practice to use amines such as morpholine as a corrosion inhibitor for steam lines. Amines
react with copper in the brass at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen to form copper-amine
complexes similar to the dark blue copper ammonium complex, Cu(NH3)J+.
Numbers are a fundamental component of measurements and of the physical properties of
materials. However, numbers without units are meaningless. Few quantities do not have units, e.g.,
specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of
water at 4 C. Another unitless quantity is the Reynolds Number, Re ¼ rnl/ where r is the density; n
is the velocity;  is the viscosity of the fluid, and l is the length or diameter of a body or internal
breadth of a pipe. The ratio /r ¼ m the kinematic viscosity with units of l2/t. R ¼ nl/m and has no
units if the units of n, l, and m are consistent.
To ignore units is to invite disaster. Two examples will illustrate the hazards of the careless or
nonuse of units. During the transition from Imperial to SI (metric) units in Canada, an Air Canada
commercial jet (Boeing 767) on a trans Canada flight (No 143) from Montreal to Edmonton on July
23, 1983, ran out of fuel over Winnipeg.
Fortunately the pilot was able to glide the airplane to an abandoned airfield (Gimli, MB) used for
training pilots during World War II. The cause of the near disaster was a mix-up in the two types of
units involved for loading the fuel and the use of a unitless conversion factor. (See Appendix A for a
detailed account of this error).
The second example of an error in units cost the USA (NASA) $94,000,000. A Mars climate probe
missed its target orbit of 150 km from the Mars’ surface and approached to within 60 km and burned
up. The error was due to the different units used by two contractors which were not interconverted by
the NASA systems engineering staff. This book uses various sets of units and the equivalences are
given in Appendix A. This is designed to keep the student constantly aware of the need to watch and
be aware of units.
The above examples show how what may be a simple design or system can fail due to insufficient
knowledge of chemistry. This textbook is not intended to solve all the problems you might encounter
during your career. It will, however, give you the vocabulary and basis on which you can build your
expertise in engineering.
The exercises presented at the end of each chapter are intended to test the students’ understanding
of the material and to extend the topics beyond their initial levels.
The author is indebted to the office staff in the Chemistry Department of the University of
Manitoba who took penciled scrawls and converted them into legible and meaningful text. These
include Cheryl Armstrong, Tricia Lewis, and Debbie Dobson. I also wish to thank my colleagues and
friends who contributed by critical discussions over coffee. I also wish to express my thanks to
Roberta Wover who gave me many helpful comments on reading the manuscript and checking the
exercises and websites. Mark Matousek having survived Chem. 224 several years ago, applied some
of his acquired drawing skills to many of the illustrations shown. Nevertheless, I must accept full
responsibility for any errors or omissions, and I would be very grateful if these would be brought to
my attention.


xii

Preface to the First Edition

Some general references are listed below:
Kirk RE, Othmer DF (1995) Encyclopedia of chemical technology, 4th edn. vol 30. Wiley, New
York
(1992) Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry, vol 26. VCH, Germany
(1987) Encyclopedia of physical science and technology, vol 15. + Year Books, Academic,
Orlando
Hopp V, Hennig I (1983) Handbook of applied chemistry. Hemisphere Publishing Company,
Washington
(1982) McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology, vol 15. + Year Books, New York
Steedman W, Snadden RB, Anderson IH (1980) Chemistry for the engineering and applied
sciences, 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford
Muklyonov IP (ed) (1979) Chemical technology, 3rd edn. vol 2. Mir Publishing, Moscow, in
English
Diamant RME (1972) Applied chemistry for engineers, 3rd edn. Pitman, London
Palin GR (1972) Chemistry for technologists. Pergamon Press, Oxford
(1972) Chemical technology: an encyclopedic treatment, vol 7. Barnes and Noble Inc., New York
Butler FG, Cowie GR (1965) A manual of applied chemistry for engineers. Oliver and Boyd,
London
Munro LA (1964) Chemistry in engineering. Prentice Hall, EnglewoodCliffs
Cartweil E (1964) Chemistry for engineers—an introductory course, 2nd edn. Butterworths,
London
Gyngell ES (1960) Applied chemistry for engineers, 3rd edn. Edward Arnold, London
(1957) Thorpe’s dictionary of applied chemistry, 4th edn. vol 11. Longmans, Green, London
The World Wide Web is an excellent source of technical information though it is important to
recognize that discretion must be exercised in selecting and using the information since the material
presented is not always accurate or up to date. Some selected websites are added to the Further
Readings list at the end of each chapter.


Contents

1

Energy: An Overview . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
1.1
Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
1.2
Renewable Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
Tidal Power . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
1.5
Solar Energy . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .
1.6
Photovoltaic Cells . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
1.7
Photogalvanic Cells . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .
1.8
Wind Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9
Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Ocean Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Wave Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Osmotic Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

1
1
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
16
16
18
19
22

2

Solid Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
2.2
Wood and Charcoal . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .
2.3
Peat . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
2.4
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5
Analysis of Coal .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. ..
2.6
ASTM Classification .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .
2.7
Ash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8
Coal and Its Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9
Fluidized Bed Combustion . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
2.10 Coke . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

25
25
28
28
29
29
30
31
33
35
35
38

3

Crude Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Early History . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
3.3 World Production of Crude Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Crude Oil Processing . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . ..
3.5 Petroleum Products . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .
3.6 Synthetic Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

41
41
41
43
46
46
49
55

xiii


xiv

Contents

4

Liquid Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Diesel Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Diesel Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Ignition Temperature, Flash Point, Fire Point, and Smoke Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 The Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Gasoline Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Grading Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

57
57
57
58
61
62
63
64
70

5

Alternate Fuels . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Propane . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
5.3 Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

71
71
71
74
78
82

6

Gaseous Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.1
Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . 85
6.2
Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.3
Natural Gas Uses . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 89
6.4
Natural Gas as a Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.5
Other Carbon-Based Fuel Gases . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . 92
6.6
Explosion Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.7
Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.8
Methods of Preparation of H2 . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. 94
6.8.1 Electrolysis . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . 94
6.8.2 Thermal Methods . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 96
6.8.3 Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.8.4 Thermal-Nuclear-Electrical .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 97
6.8.5 Photoelectrolysis .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. 98
6.9
Transportation and Storage of H2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.10 Safety .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. 100
6.11 Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 102

7

Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1
Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
7.2
Basis Theory of Nuclear Energy .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . ..
7.3
Nuclear Model and Nuclear Reactions . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
7.4
Radioactive Decay Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5
Radioactivity Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6
Nuclear Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7
The Hazards of Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8
Nuclear Waste . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .
7.9
Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10 Summary . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . ..
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

8

Lubrication and Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.1
An Introduction to Tribology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.2
Gaseous Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

105
105
105
110
111
113
114
120
124
126
128
129


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xv

8.3

Liquid Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 Journal Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 Thrust Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
8.3.3 Slider Bearings . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . ..
8.3.4 Ball Bearings . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . ..
8.4
Extreme Pressure Lubrication . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. ..
8.5
Wear . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . ..
8.6
Oil Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7
Synthetic Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8
Solid Lubricants .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .
8.9
Greases . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

133
133
135
135
136
137
138
138
140
141
143
144

9

Electrochemistry, Batteries, and Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1
Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
9.2
Ionics . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .
9.3
Electrolysis and Electrodeposition of Metals . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..
9.4
Electrochemical Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1 The Cathode .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. ..
9.4.2 The Electrolyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5
Electrodics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6
Batteries and Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1 Primary Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.2 Secondary Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7
Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8
Hybrid Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9
Electric Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

145
145
145
148
150
150
151
154
157
157
160
163
165
167
172

10

Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2
Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3
Types of Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1 Uniform Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.2 Bimetallic Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.3 Crevice Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.4 Pitting Corrosion .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . ..
10.3.5 Grain Boundary Corrosion . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .
10.3.6 Layer Corrosion . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . ..
10.3.7 Stress Corrosion Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.8 Cavitation Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.9 Hydrogen Embrittlement .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..
10.4
Atmospheric Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5
Corrosion in Soil . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . ..
10.6
Aqueous Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7
Corrosion Protection and Inhibition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.8
Corrosion in Boiler Steam and Condensate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.9
Cathodic Protection . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. ..
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

175
175
176
179
179
179
180
180
182
182
182
183
184
184
185
185
186
187
188
189


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Contents

11

Polymers and Plastics . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
11.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2
Molecular Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3
Copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4
Classification of Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Addition Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 Condensation Polymers . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .
11.5
Vinyl Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1 Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2 Polypropylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.3 Polyvinyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4 Polyvinylidene Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5 Polystyrene . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ..
11.5.6 Polyacrylonitrile . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .
11.5.7 Polymethyl Methacrylate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.8 Polyvinyl Acetate, Polyvinyl Alcohol . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ..
11.5.9 Polytetrafluoroethylene or Teflon . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..
11.6
Condensation Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.1 Nylon . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
11.6.2 Polyester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.3 Polycarbonates and Epoxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7
Thermosetting Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.1 Phenol Formaldehyde (Bakelite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.2 Urea Formaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.3 Polyurethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8
Glass Transition Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9
Elastomers . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
11.10 Mechanical Strength of Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11 Fire Retardants in Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

191
191
191
194
194
195
195
196
197
197
198
198
199
199
199
200
200
202
202
202
203
203
204
205
205
206
208
211
213
216

12

Adhesives and Adhesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2
Classification and Types of Adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3
The Adhesive Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4
The Theory of the Adhesive Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1
Mechanical Interlocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2
Diffusion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.3
Electrostatic Theory .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ..
12.4.4
Adsorption Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Chemistry of Selected Adhesives .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ..
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

219
219
220
220
223
223
223
224
224
225
232

13

Paint and Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2
Constituents of Paint and Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3
Binder . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . ..
13.4
Driers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5
Pigment . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
13.6
Solvents: Thinners .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .

233
233
233
233
235
236
237


Contents

xvii

13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10

Water-Based Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Protective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Specialized Coatings . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. 240
13.10.1 Formaldehyde Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
...
13.11 Fire Retardant Paints . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. 242
13.12 Antifouling Paints . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. 242
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 243
14

Explosives .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .
14.1 Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
14.2 Primary Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Secondary Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.1
Chemical Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.2
Sensitivity to Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.3
Sensitivity to Detonation . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..
14.3.4
Velocity of Detonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3.5
Explosive Strength .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. ..
14.4 Oxygen Balance .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .
14.5 Modern Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.1
Nitroglycerin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.2
Trinitrotoluene (TNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
14.5.3
Tetryl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.4
Ammonium Nitrate, NH4NO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5.5
Hexogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.1
Propellants .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..
14.6.2
Pyrotechnics . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
14.6.3
Metalworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6.4
Riveting .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .
14.7 Accidental Explosions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

245
245
245
247
247
247
249
249
249
250
250
251
251
251
252
252
253
254
254
254
256
256
260

15

Water . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..
15.1 Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
15.2 Natural Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.1
Turbidity . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . ..
15.2.2
Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .
15.2.3
Odor and Taste .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. .
15.3 Water Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1
Chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.2
Ozone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4 Infectious Agents .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . ..
15.5 Water Quality: Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.6 Water Softening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
15.6.1
Ion Exchange .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . ..
15.6.2
Reverse Osmosis .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . ..
15.6.3
Electrocoagulation . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ..
15.6.4
Electrodialysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261
261
265
265
266
266
266
266
267
268
269
271
271
272
272
273


xviii

Contents

15.7 Boiler Scale . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. 274
15.8 Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 277
16

Carbon-Based Polymers, Activated Carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1 Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
16.2 Polymeric Carbon: Diamond . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . ..
16.3 Polymeric Carbon: Graphite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4 Graphene . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . ..
16.4.1 Density of Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4.2 Optical Transparency of Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4.3 Strength of Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4.4 Electrical Conductivity of Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4.5 Thermal Conductivity of Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5 Activated Carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

279
279
279
280
281
283
283
283
284
284
284
290

17

Cement, Ceramics, and Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1 Introduction . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .
17.2 Cement Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Manufacture of Portland Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4 Setting of Cement .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .
17.5 Concrete .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. ..
17.6 Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6.1 Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

291
291
292
292
293
295
295
297
300

18

Semiconductors and Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1 Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.1 Introduction . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .
18.2 The Triode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.4 Optical Effects . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. ..
18.5 Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

303
303
303
303
305
306
307
309

19

Epilogue . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 311
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 312

Appendix A: Fundamental Constants and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Appendix B: Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Appendix C: Surface Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Appendix D: Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Appendix E: Experiments . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..
Experiments 1 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
Experiments 2 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
Experiments 3 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
Experiments 4 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..
Experiments 5 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ..

343
343
350
351
352
353


Contents

xix

Experiments 6 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. 355
Experiments 7 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. 356
Experiments 8 . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. 361
Index .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. 365



Abbreviations Used in This Text

AAGR
AAS
ABS
AEM
AFC
AFR
AGR
ANFO
ASTM
bbl
BC
BET
BLEVE
BOD
BP
BWR
CANDU
CASING
CC
CEM
CN
CNG
COD
CPVC
CR
DC
DNA
DP
DR
DR
DTA
ECE
ECM
EDS

Average annual growth rate
Atomic absorption spectrometry
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer
Anion exchange membrane
Atomic fluorescence spectrometry
Air fuel ratio
Advanced gas reactor
Ammonium nitrate fuel oil
American Society for Testing and Materials
Barrel for oil, see Appendix A
Bimetallic corrosion
Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
Biochemical oxygen demand
Boiling point
Boiling water reactor
Canadian deuterium uranium reactor
Cross-linking by activated species of inert gases
Crevice corrosion
Cation exchange membrane
Cetane number
Compressed natural gas
Chemical oxygen demand
Chlorinated polyvinylchloride
Compression ratio
Direct current
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Degree of polymerization
Drag Reducer
Distribution ratio
Differential thermal analysis
Economic Commission for Europe
Electrochemical machining
Exxon Donner Solvent

xxi


xxii

EHL
EIS
ENM
EO
ER
ETBE
EV
EV
FAC
FEP
FP
GAC
GBC
GNP
GR
hv
HAR
HDI
HLW
HMN
HRI
HWR
IAEA
ICAPS
ICE
Is
LEL
LH2
LNG
LWR
M-85
MDF
MeV
MI
MMT
MON
MPC
MPN
MTBE
MW
NMOG
NTP
OB
OECD
ON
OPEC
OTEC
PPP
PAH

Abbreviations Used in This Text

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Electrochemical noise method
Extreme pressure (lubrication)
Electrorheological fluid
Ethyl tert butyl ether
Expected value
Electric vehicle
Free available chlorine
Hexafluoropropylene + PTFE
Flash point
Granulated activated carbon
Grain boundary corrosion
Gross National Product
Gas cooled reactor
photon
High aspect ratio
Hexane diisocyanate
High level waste
Heptamethylnonane
Hydrocarbon Research Inc
Heavy water reactor
International Atomic Energy Agency
Inductively coupled argon plasma Spectrometry
Internal combustion engine
Specific impulse
Lower explosion limit
Liquid hydrogen
Liquified natural gas
Light water reactor
Methanol with 15% gasoline
Macro defect free
Million electron volts
Machinability index
Methylcyclopentadiene Manganese II tricarbonyl
Motor octane number
Maximum permissible concentration
Most probable number
Methyl tertiary butyl ether
Megawatt, 106 W
Non-methane organic gases
Normal conditions of temperature and pressure, 25 C and 1 atm pressure.
Oxygen balance
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Octane number (average of MON + RON)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Ocean thermal energy conversion
Purchasing Power Parity
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons


Abbreviations Used in This Text

PAN
PC
PCB
PF
pH
PMMA
ppm
PS
PTFE
PV
PVAc
PVC
PWR
Quad Q,
Rad
RBE
RDX
Rem
rpm
RO
RON
SAN
SCC
SCE
SHE
SI
SIT
SNG
SOAP
SP
SRC
SSPP
STP
TDC
TDI
TEL
TGA
THM
TLV
TML
TNG
TNT
TOE
TW
UC
UEL
UFFI
UN
UV

Polyacrylonitrile
Pitting corrosion
Polychlorinated biphenyl
Phenol-formaldehyde
pH ¼ À log10 [H+], neutral water has pH ¼ 7
Polymethylmethacrylate
parts per million, mg/g or mL/m3
Polystyrene
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Pressure volume (product)
Polyvinylacetate
Polyvinyl chloride
Pressurized water reactor
Unit of energy, see Appendix A
Radiation absorbed dose
Relative biological effectiveness
Cyclonite or hexogen
Roentgen equivalent to man
Revolutions per minute
Reverse osmosis
Research octane number
Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer
Stress corrosion cracking
Saturated calomel electrode
Standard hydrogen electrode
Spark ignition
Spontaneous ignition temperature
Synthetic natural gas
Spectrographic oil analysis program
Smoke point
Solvent refined coal
Solar sea power plants
Standard condition of temperature and pressure, 0 C and 1 atm pressure
Top dead center
Toluene diisocyanate
Tetraethyl lead
Thermal gravimetric analysis
Trihalomethanes
Threshold limit value
Tetramethyl lead
Trinitroglycerol
Trinitrotolluene
Tons of oil equivalent (energy)
Terawatts, 1012 W
Uniform corrosion
Upper explosion limit
Urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
United Nations
Ultraviolet light, l < 380 nm

xxiii


xxiv

VCI
VI
VOC
VOD
WHO

Abbreviations Used in This Text

Vapor corrosion inhibitors
Viscosity index
Volatile organic compounds
Velocity of detonation
World Health Organization


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