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A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY

M.A. THESIS

A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD
FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL
TERMINOLOGY
(KHẢO SÁT CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM CẤU TẠO TỪ CỦA
THUẬT NGỮ Y HỌC TIẾNG ANH)

HOANG THI HAN

Field: English Language
Code: 8220201

Hanoi, 2018


MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY


M.A. THESIS

A STUDY ON TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORD
FORMATION IN ENGLISH MEDICAL
TERMINOLOGY
(KHẢO SÁT CÁC ĐẶC ĐIỂM CẤU TẠO TỪ CỦA
THUẬT NGỮ Y HỌC TIẾNG ANH)
HOANG THI HAN

Field: English Language
Code: 8220201

Supervisor: Assoc. Prof., Dr. Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong

HANOI, 2018


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled
“A study on typical features of word formation in English medical
terminology” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master in English Language. Except where the reference is indicated, no other
person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis.
Hanoi, 2018

Hoang Thi Han

Approved by
SUPERVISOR

Assoc. Pro., Dr Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor
Ph.D. Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, who has patiently supported me through the
stages of the study, and whose stimulating ideas, expertise, and suggestions have


inspired me greatly through my growth as an academic researcher.
I would like to express my gratitude to other lecturers for the useful
comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process of this master
thesis.
Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family for
providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my
years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This
accomplishment would not have been possible without them. Thank you.

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ABSTRACT

The study is carried out to investigate typical features of word formation in
English medical terminology. The main purpose of the study is word formation but
besides that it also looks into if the word formation affects the syntactic semantic
(the use of prefix and suffix) of the word or not. The study is limited to 396
terminologies which were taken from the two chapters: 3, 4 and 6 of the book
Medicine and Surgery. After being collected, 396 terminologies are described and
analyzed by descriptive method and then classified into groups of semantic features.
The writer also conducts a qualitative research as a description of data from the
source. Data analysis techniques used are collecting, analyzing and classifying.
Morphological features are presented through ways of creating terminology and
types of English medical terminology. The study will be conducted through three
steps: first, data are collected from the chosen materials and other references; then,
the data are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to figure out the typical
features of word formation in English medical terminology; finally, the results are
classified and presented in form of tables, after that the rate of typical ways of word
formations are shown in the diagrams. The findings of the study on typical features
of word formation in English medical terminology would be a great contribution to
help the learners at Nam Dinh university of Nursing to use medical terminology in
general and read the foreign documents effectively in particular. The findings are
also helpful to the readers with translating English medical terminology while
reading medical documents.

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LIST OF TABLES AND DIAGRAMS
Diagram 1: Derivative medical terminologies in English .........................................37
Diagram 2: Popularity of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English ..37
Diagram 3: Kinds of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English .........40
Diagram 4: Kinds of compound in medical terminologies in English ......................41
Diagram 5: Shortenings in medical terminologies in English ..................................42

Table 3.1: Kinds of suffixes in derivative medical terminologies in English ...........38
Table 3.2.1. Main types of meanings .......................................................................46
Table 3.2.2 Terminology meanings .........................................................................47

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1.INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................1
1.1. Rationale ..............................................................................................................1
1.2. Aims and objectives of the study .........................................................................2
1.3. Research questions ...............................................................................................3
1.4. Methods of the study ............................................................................................3
1.5. Scope of the study ................................................................................................4
1.6. Significance of the study ......................................................................................4
1.7. Design of the study...............................................................................................4
Chapter 2.LITERATURE REVIEW ...........................................................................6
2.1. Previous studies ....................................................................................................6
2.2. An over view of word and word formation..........................................................8
2.2.1. Word ..................................................................................................................8
2.2.2. Word Formation ................................................................................................8
2.3. Morpheme ............................................................................................................9
2.4. Affixes ................................................................................................................10
2.5. Concept of Derivation and Inflection .................................................................11
2.6. Concept of Derivation without Affix .................................................................13
2.7. The transpositions which happen due to the process of derivation according to
Rozelin (2011) ...........................................................................................................14
2.8. Compound ..........................................................................................................16
2.9. Shortenings .........................................................................................................18
2.10. Definition of terminology ................................................................................19
2.11. Main features of terminology ...........................................................................20
2.11.1. Accurateness .................................................................................................20
2.11.2 Systematism ...................................................................................................21
2.11.3 Internationalism..............................................................................................21
2.11.4. Nationalism ...................................................................................................22
2.11.5. Popularity ......................................................................................................22
2.12. The creation of terminology .............................................................................22
2.13. The distinction between terminology and word ...............................................23
2.14. Definition of medical terminology ...................................................................23

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2.15. Main features of medical terminology .............................................................25
2.15.1. Synonymous character of medical terminology............................................26
2.15.2. Eponyms in medical terminology .................................................................28
2.15.3. The structure of medical terminology of Greek-Latin origin and their
adaptation in medical terminology ............................................................................29
2.15.4. Word-formation principles of medical terminology of Greek-Latin origin .29
2.15.5. Adaptation of medical terms of Greek-Latin origin in medical terminology
...................................................................................................................................30
2.16. English for specific purpose .............................................................................31
2.17. Summary ..........................................................................................................33
Chương 3.MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC FEATURE OF ENGLISH
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY ..................................................................................34
3.1. Morphological features of English medical terminology ..................................34
3.1.1. Typical ways of forming medical terminologies in English ...........................34
3.1.1.1. Affixes ..........................................................................................................34
3.1.1.2. Compound words .........................................................................................40
3.1.1.3. Shortenings ...................................................................................................41
3.1.1.4. Back-formation ............................................................................................43
3.1.1.5. Conversion or functional shift......................................................................43
3.1.1.6. Semantic shift ...............................................................................................43
3.1.2. Borrowing words .............................................................................................44
3.1.3. Creating from scratch ......................................................................................44
3.2. Semantic features of English medical terminology ...........................................45
3.2.1. Meaning and meaning perspectives ................................................................45
3.2.2. Classification of English medical terminologies in terms of semantics .........47
Chapter 4.TEACHING AND LEARNING TRANSLATING ENGLISH MEDICAL
TERMINOLOGY .....................................................................................................50
4.1. Subjects ..............................................................................................................50
4.2. Tasks...................................................................................................................52
4.2.1. For teaching English medical terminologies ...................................................52
4.2.2. For learning English medical terminologies ...................................................53
4.3. Procedures ..........................................................................................................53
4.4. Data collection ...................................................................................................53
4.5. Difficulties..........................................................................................................53
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4.5.1. Word formation ...............................................................................................53
4.5.2. Translation .......................................................................................................58
Chapter 5.CONCLUSION ........................................................................................68
5.1. Recapitulation ....................................................................................................68
5.2. Concluding remarks ...........................................................................................70
5.3. Limitation of the study .......................................................................................70
5.4. Implications for teaching and learning English medical terminology ...............70
5.5. Recommendations for further studies ................................................................71
REFERENCE ............................................................................................................72

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Rationale
Theoretically, medical terminology is a topic which has been interested in by
many scientists and researchers. In the word, there are many researchers
investigating characteristics of English medical terminology in some aspects such
as: An Introduction to Medical Terminology - Greek and Latin Derivations by
George L. Banay, Ph.D, Librarian, Worcester State Hospital, Worcester, Mass.
PhDr. Božena Džuganova, Comenius University had an article about – different
ways of forming medical terms. Anna BROWNE (Akademia im. Jana Długosza
Częstochowie) wrote an article about “selected medical translation problems” in
2016. Other researchers have carried out researches about translation English
medical terminology into different languages.
In Vietnam, the dissertation “Khảo sát thuật ngữ y học tiếng Anh và cách
phiên chuyển sang tiếng Việt” was carried out by Vuong Thi Thu Minh. Many
articles about word formation of English medical terminology have also written by
Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Co and his partners. In recent years, there has been an increase
in the amount of studies on medical terminology. Many of which have had
considerable contribution to the improvement of health care. However, studies on
English medical terminology seem not to have fulfilled the need of this area, the
reason for this deficiency, as consider before, is that the number of terminologies is
huge.
As a matter of fact, in the process of using medical terminologies not only
doctors, nurses or specialists in health care but also especially medical learners who
want to learn them for their learning have difficulties in thoroughly understanding
medical terminology.

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Medical terminology is a special vocabulary used by health care
professionals for effective and accurate communication and for normal people to get
information about health from documents every day. Because it is based mainly on
Greek and Latin words, medical terminology is consistent and uniform throughout
the world. It is also efficient; although some of the terms are long, they often reduce
an entire phrase to a single word. The one word gastroduodenostomy, for example,
stands for “a communication between the stomach and the first part of the small
intestine. This state may be reasonable for the fact that medical terminologies are
complex in their structure.
The medical vocabulary is vast, and learning it may seem like learning the
entire vocabulary of a foreign language. The task seems overwhelming, but there
are methods that can aid in learning and remembering words and can even help in
making informed guesses regarding the meanings of unfamiliar words. Most
medical terminologies can be divided into component parts-roots, prefixes, and
suffixes-that maintain the same meaning whenever they appear. By learning these
meanings, learners can analyze and remember many words easily.
In context of Nam Dinh University of Nursing, learners are supposed to learn
English medical terminologies in the second year of the course. Being a teacher of
English here, I find that the study on typical features of word formation in English
medical terminology is expected to have a small contribution to learners’ learning
English medical terminology.
1.2. Aims and objectives of the study
The study aims at helping the learners use English medical terminology in
general and read English language document effectively in particular.
In order to achieve the aim, the study is expected to reach the following
objectives:

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1. describe typical features of word formation in English medical
terminology,
2. investigate semantic and syntactic features of English medical
terminology,
3. apply typical features of word formation in teaching and learning English
medical terminology.
1.3. Research questions
The study on typical features of word formation in English medical
terminology is conducted to answer the following questions:
1. What are morphological features of English medical terminology?
2. What are semantic features of English medical terminology?
3. What are the implications for teaching and learning English medical
terminology?
1.4. Methods of the study
So as to acquire the aims and objectives of the study, the descriptive method
is used to carry out the study. This method is suitable for the study it is used to
describe characteristics or features, the main procedure throughout the study. The
writer also conducts a qualitative research as a description of data from the source.
One of the characteristics of qualitative research is descriptive research and a subcategory of that is documentary analysis. Documents are printed paper furnishing
information. In this one, the documentary analysis focused on the list of
terminologies from the chosen materials. The major data collection technique is
collecting the English medical terminology in the materials. Data analysis
techniques used are collecting, analyzing and classifying. The study will be
conducted through the following steps: first, data are collected from the three
chapters: 3, 4 and 6 and the other references; The componential analysis method is
used to analyze structure components of chosen English medical terminologies;

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after that, the data are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to figure out the
typical features of word formation in English medical terminology; finally, the
results are classified and presented in forms of tables and shown on diagrams.
1.5. Scope of the study
The study will be limited in typical features of word formation in English
medical terminologies taken from the three chapters in the book Medicine and
Surgery by Giles Kendall and Kin Yee Shiu published by Blackwell Publishing.
The study mainly investigate word formation of English medical terminology but
besides that it also looks into if the word formation affects the syntactic semantic
(the use of prefix and suffix) of the word or not. There are 396 English medical
terminologies investigated and analyzed in the present study.
1.6. Significance of the study
Theoretically, this study is expected to contribute to the theoretical
foundation of terminology, in terms of systemizing general theories as well as
theory of English medical terminology. It also confirms and provides detailed
presentation on English medical terminology.
Practically, the findings of the study, to some extent, The findings of the
study on typical features of word formation in English medical terminology would
be a great contribution to help the learners to use medical terminology in general
and read the foreign documents effectively in particular. The findings are also
helpful to the readers with translating English medical terminologies in health
sections in English newspapers. It can be used as a referential material in teaching
translating English medical terminology at medical schools.
1.7. Design of the study
The thesis consists of 5 chapters:

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Chapter 1, Introduction, includes rationale, aims and objectives, research
questions, methods and scope, significance, and design of the study are presented.
Chapter 2, Literature review, is the second chapter that summarizes the
results of other researchers who have worked on the problem and gives an overview
on English medical terminology.
Chapter 3, Morphological and semantic features of English medical
terminology, describes procedures including data collection and data analysis
technique, analyzing data and interpreting the results.
Chapter 4, Implications of teaching and learning English medical
terminologies, states implications in teaching and learning English medical
terminology at Nam Dinh university of Nursing.
Chapter 5, Conclusion, which summarizes the results found after
investigating typical features of word formation in English medical terminology,
points out the limitation of the study as well as offers some recommendations for
further study.
References and Appendix come at the end of the study.

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Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Previous studies
No sooner did terminology acquire a scientific orientation than it was recognize as a
socially important activity only in the 20th century. Since then terminology has been
discussed variously by many different foreign and Vietnamese linguists.
A theoretically oriented approach towards terminology began no earlier than in the
20th century. This development was triggered by the Austrian E. Wuster, who
originally came from the field of engineering and is seen as the founder of the
general theory of terminology. He talked about terminology in the book
Introduction to the general theory of terminology and terminological lexicography
(1979). His new perception was that terminology was two-folded: one side was
occupied by systematized concepts of a specific subject area, whereas the other
belonged to the designation. However, Wuster’s work has been criticized by many
specialists in the area as it did not succeed in representing terminology as an
independent discipline.
Studying terminology processing, Sager (1990) contributed the theory of
terminology: It can be identified as having three different dimensions i.e. the
cognitive, the linguistic, and the communicative dimension. The linguistic
dimension of the theory of terminology can be detected mainly in the linguistic
mechanism the set the patterns for term formation management for the English
language, for general and specific purposes. It was particularly suitable for
translation courses, technical writers, as well as for non-linguists who are
confronted with the terminology processing as part of their profession.
Rey (1995), in Terminology: Norms and Notions, indicated that the cognitive
dimension of terminology resulted from the cognitive nature of its own subject of
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study, and was thus not a particularly of its theory. What was interesting about
terminology was that it succeed in linking the cognitive dimension with social needs
via linguistic forms; thus it contributed to the optimization of communication
between experts and mediators who transfer knowledge, such as terminologist,
translators, etc., and general public.
Another research was written by Lewis DJ (1996) from Journal of Speech and
Hearing research in USA. This research titled - Children‘s Analysis of Derivational
Suffix Meaning focuses on the relation between school age children‘s production
and comprehension of derivational suffixes in nonsense words and their knowledge
of suffix meaning in real derivatives. The results found in the research indicate that
knowledge of derivational suffixes was used often in defining low-frequency
derivatives and that it was significantly correlated with suffix production in the
nonsense task. In addition, suffix productivity was found to be an important factor
determining the comprehension as well as the production of particular suffixes to
convey a range of meanings.
Packeiser (2000) presents the general theory of terminology, the nature of concepts,
conceptual relations, the relationship between terms and concepts, the designation
of terms to concepts. The sphere of concepts is seen as independent from the sphere
of terms.
The research was written by Kim Say Yong, Wang Min and Ko In Yeong from
scholarly journal of Cambridge University Pres in Cambridge. The study titled- The
Processing of Derivational morphology in Korean - English Bilingual Reader
focuses on the cross language activation occurs via decomposition during the
processing of derived words in Korean-English bilingual readers. The author of this
study used a priming lexical decision to conduct three experiments. The results of
the three experiments are different: in experiment 1, when participants were given a
real derived word and an interpretable derived pseudoword (i.e., illegal combination
of a stem and a suffix) in Korean as a prime, response times for the corresponding

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English-translated stem were significantly faster than when they had received an
unrelated word. In Experiment 2, non-morphological ending pseudo words (i.e.,
illegal combination of a stem and an orthographic ending) were included, and this
did not show a priming effect. In Experiment 3, non-interpretable derived pseudo
words also yielded a significant priming effect just as the interpretable ones.
In respect of terms, many Vietnamese authors have contributed their views in such
aspects as general concepts, classification, characteristics, formations and creation.
Đỗ Hữu Châu (1981:221), meanwhile, stated that tém not only indicate scientific
concepts but name certain scientific phenonmena. Besides, he stressed that one
characteristics of terms was that a term was intended to indicate one meaning,
denote one concept or name a certain scientific or technical object or event.
The last research “Khảo sát thuật ngữ y học trong tiếng Anh và cách phiên chuyển
sang tiếng Việt”, by Vuong Thi Thu Minh (2006)- survey and study systematically
and comprehensively medical terminology in English as well as propose directions
and solutions to the transfer of medical terms in English into Vietnamese and it also
internationalizes and standardizes medical terminology.
In conclusion, linguists have attempted to contribute to the theory of terms and
terminology as a branch of linguistics. These theories are supposed to be the
orientation of this study.
2.2. An over view of word and word formation
2.2.1. Word
2.2.2. Word Formation
The notion of what a word is, should, after all, not depend on the fancies of
individual writers or the arbitrariness of the English spelling system. The second
problem with the orthographically defined word is that it may not always coincide
with our intuitions. Thus, most of us would probably agree that girlfriend is a word
(i.e. one word) which consists of two words (girl and friend), a so-called
compound. If compounds are one word, they should be spelled without a blank
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space separating the elements that together make up the compound. Unfortunately,
this is not the case. Therefore, word formation is a concept of internal formation of
a word or complex word, with certain rules. According to Plag (2002), there are
some types of word formation. They are derivation, compound, shortening, back
formation, conversion or functional shift, semantic shift, borrowing words and
words created from scratch.
2.3. Morpheme
Basically, bound morpheme serves to form words. A word referred to
derivative only if the word has plural morphemes distributed syntactically and has
the equivalent of the single word with single morpheme. Before we step to the main
discussion of this research, it is important to acknowledge an entity known as
morpheme which is the subject of study by the branch of linguistics known as
morphology.
A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria:
(1) it is a word or a part of a word that has meaning, (2) it cannot be divided into
smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless
remainders, (3) it recurs in differing verbal environment with a relatively stable
meaning The criteria simply indicate that morpheme is the smallest part of a word
that has meaning and cannot be dividing into a smaller one because it will violate
the meaning of its morpheme. For example, word speaker can be divided into
speak+er. Word speak and suffix –er are both morphemes. There is at least one
morpheme contained in a word. Word like out, just, grace, person, ozone, London
contain of one morpheme. A word may also have more than one morpheme. Outing,
justly, ungracious, personalize, ozonation, Londoner, are the example of words
which have more than one morphemes.
Morpheme is divided into two, free and bound. The one which be able
to stand alone with meaning is called free morpheme. They may be lexical which
already has meaning by itself, such as Eat, word, mix, or grammatical morpheme,

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like at, and, but. Unlike the free, a bound morpheme cannot be used alone with as a
word. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word, in other
word they are parts of a word. They may be lexical as in preview, played, activity,
supervise. The italicized letters in those words pre-, -ed, -ity, -vise are bound
morphemes. And they may be grammatical such as plural form as in boys, girls, and
cats. Hence, it can be inferred that those morphemes which can stand alone as
words are called free morpheme (e.g., eat, word, mix) and those morphemes which
occur only in combination are called bound morphemes (e.g., pre-, -s, -en, -ity).
The word bright - light with the word brighten - make light are
different. The distinction between the two words is marked by the different form
and different meaning. The different form is the added of /-ǝ n/ in brighten, and the
difference in meaning is the added sense of - make to the word bright. This leads us
to conclude that /-ǝ n/ means - make. Thus we see that /-ǝn/ is a part of a word that
has meaning. In other words, suffix -ǝ n is a morpheme.
Another classification of morphemes put them into two classes, bases
and affixes. A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principle. The
italicized morphemes in these words are bases: denial, lovable, annoyance, re-enter.
Bases are very numerous, and most of them in English are free morphemes. But,
some are bond, like –sent in consent, dissent, and assent. A word may contain one
base and several affixes. In the other hand, Grammatical bound morphemes are
usually some affixes form (-ness, -ly, -ion, -s, -er, -ing). Morpheme divided into two
branches, namely, derivational morpheme and inflectional morpheme.
2.4. Affixes
An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before or after a base. Affix consists of
two types, prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes are those bound morphemes that occur
before the bases, as in important, prefix, reconsider. Prefixes in English are a small
class of morphemes, numbering about seventy-five. Their meanings are often those
of English prepositions and adverbials.

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Suffixes are bound morphemes that occur after a base, like shrinkage, failure, noisy,
realize, nails, dreamed. Suffixes may pile up to the number of three or four, whereas
prefixes are commonly single, except for the negative un- before another prefix. In
normalizers we perhaps reach the limit with four: the base norm plus the four
suffixes –al, -ize, -er, -s. When suffixes multiply like this, their order is fixed: there
is one and only one order in which they occur. Dogs, oxen, discussing, bolder,
boldest, chewed, chosen, are the some examples of inflectional affixes. The words
to which these affixes (mostly suffixes) are attached are called stems. The stem
includes the base or bases and all the derivational affixes. Thus the stem of playboys
is playboy and that of beautified is beautify.
The class of derivational affixes is much larger than that of the inflectional affixes,
its members are less interdependent, and the new ones emerge now and then.
Affixes like –ness forms abstract noun from adjectives, or –er forms agent nouns
from verbs, which are very productive, are also markedly stable in meaning. Many
derivational affixes, however, have more than one meaning and can be added to
more than one category of base words.
We can assume the root is a morpheme which is left over when all the derivational
and inflectional morphemes, in this case affixes, have been removed. For example,
the word immovability, im-, -abil, and -ity are all derivational morphemes. When all
the derivational morphemes were removed, the word move is left, which cannot be
further divided into the smaller meaningful pieces. Therefore it must be the root of
the word.
2.5. Concept of Derivation and Inflection
In every discussion about derivation, surely, inflection has a place to be
expostulated. Traditionally, there are equations and differences which have been
made between derivation and inflection. The equation between derivation and
inflection is in the relation of the members of a pair, consisting of the 'unmarked'
base form and the 'marked' affixed form.

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Bauer stated that derivation is morphemic process generate new lexeme, while
inflection is morphemic process generate different type of word from in the same
lexeme. Lexemes are the vocabulary items that are listed in the dictionary. For
example, the form pockling, pockle, pockles, pockled are different representations of
the lexeme pockle. They all share a core meaning although they are spelled and
pronounced differently.
Verhaar (1977) in Subroto (1985) also stated that derivation is all change of
affixation which oversteps the identity of words, while all change maintaining word
identity referred to inflection.

Moreover, Katamba (1993) formulated that

derivation is the process of word form which change the meaning of the base to the
new form, e.g kind to un- kind (both are adjective, but have an opposite meaning);
obey vs disobely (both are verb, but have an opposite meaning), or is changing the
word class of the base to form a new word, e.g. the addition of –ly to the adjectives
kind and simple produces the adverbs kind-ly and simp-ly. Meanwhile, inflection
does not change referential or cognitive meaning. Inflectional suffix will not change
the word as derivational morpheme change the word kind to unkind before and will
not alter the word class of the base to which it is attached. Inflectional morphemes
are only able to modify the form of a word, thus it can fit into a particular syntactic
slot.
Those notions of change and do not change the word class correlated to the concept
of class maintaining and class changing from Bauer (1983) - A class maintains
process of derivation produces lexemes which belong to the same form class as the
base, while a class-changing process of derivation produces lexemes which belong
to a form class other than the form class of the base. For example, when suffix –ly
distributed to the word king (noun), it will generate an adjective kingly. The
example points the case of class-changing derivation. Another example, if the suffix
–dom is distributed to the word king (noun), it will generate a new word kingdom
which is also a noun, but different lexical meaning. And it is the case of classmaintaining derivation.

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In conclusion, the different of the two paradigms, from the previous discussion of
derivation and inflection is derivation change the identity and the meaning of a
single word, therefore, it forms a new lexeme, while inflection does not. Inflection
happens grammatically and has a different grammatical meaning which is
predictable.
Previously, this has been discussed by the author in chapter 1 about division of
morphology branches according to Matthews. It also discussed in Plag (2002) and
Bauer (1983). Morphology deals with the internal structure of a word-form. In
morphology, the analysts divided word-forms into their component formatives
(most of which are morphs realizing roots or affixes), and attempts to account for
the occurrence of its formative. Morphology divided into two shares, namely,
inflection and word- formation. Again, Word-formation divided into two, consisting
of derivation and compounding. And derivation can be subdivided into class
changing and class maintaining.
One of the factor a word can be said as a derivative is if the distribution of affixes
changes the identity of the word, with the result that it creates a new lexeme.
However, the derivational process is not always about the addition of affixation. It
can also occur without any of affixation in a word. This type of derivation is usually
mentioned as conversion by many scholars.
2.6. Concept of Derivation without Affix
So far, we have only encountered complex words that are created by concatenation,
i.e. by linking together bases and affixes as in a chain. There are, however, also
other, i.e. non-concatenative, ways to form morphologically complex words.
Conversion is the change in form class of a form without any corresponding change
of form. The exact status of conversion within word formation is unclear. For some
scholars conversion is a brunch of derivation, for others it is a separate type of word
formation on a level with derivation and compounding. Frequently, a term which

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many scholars - adams (1973), Jespersen (1942), Marchand (1969) - prefer for
conversion is zero-derivation.
The change of pronunciation and stress in a word can also be considered as
conversion process according to Rozelin (2010), where the pronunciation of
consonant and different stress in a word changes its identity and meaning. For
instance, the change of consonant in the word house (s) to the word house (z). The
difference of consonant changes the class of the noun house into verb. The other
example is the change of the stress of word in expórt and éxport. Verb usually has a
stress in the end of the word, as in expórt, and it turns into a noun when the stress
moves to the beginning of the word, as in éxport.
2.7. The transpositions which happen due to the process of derivation
according to Rozelin (2011)
The Derivational Process from Noun into Verb
It will be evident by now that suffixes play a larger role than prefixes in English
derivational morphology. But there is still one prefix, namely, en- which forms
verbs from a few nouns: enfeeble, enslave, empower, enrage, enthrone, entomb.
Derivational Process from Noun to Adjective
The affixes of this process are numerous. This process is affected by some affixes
Adjectives –ful and –less tend to come in pairs, although the correspondence is not
exact: we have slothful but not slothless, andpenniless but not penniful. This shows
that even when the meaning of a potential word may be easily guessable, the
existence of the word is not guaranteed.
Derivational Process From Noun to Noun
There is no prefix for this process. However, some suffixes which can be added to
form noun from the other noun. The following suffixes form the nouns from the
other nouns.
Derivational Process from Adjective into Noun

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There are one prefix and several suffixes to form a noun from an adjective. From all
the three suffixes which form a noun, -ness is the most widely applicable. It gives
an abstract meaning to the base. For example, the meaning of the word Highness is
not -property of being high‘, but, it has a meaning of -royal personage‘, as in Her
Royal Highness.
Derivational Process from Adjective to Verb
There are two prefixes and one suffix, according to Rozelin (2011), to form a verb
from adjective.
Besides –en, suffix –ise and –ify can also derive verbs from adjectival bases. The
words nationalise, tenderise, intensify, and purify, which are all verb, are the
evident of this case. To form a verb from adjective, we can combine the prefix enwith a suffix –en. For example, the word bold derive into embolden, and the word
live derive into enliven.
Derivational Process from Adjective into Adjective
Most of affixes that use to form adjective from the adjectival base are prefixes. But
according to McCarthy (2002), there is one suffix used for this process. The only
suffix is –ish, meaning -somewhat X’, as in greenish, smallish, remotish.
Derivational Process From Verb into Noun
It is only suffixes which form a noun from a verb. According Rozelin (2011), the
following suffixes are used to form a noun from a verb.
Those suffixes cannot be used freely to the bases. In English, the verb - perform
turns into performance but not performent or performation to be a noun. And also,
the verb commit can be turned into three, commitment, committal, and commission
but not commitance.
The suffix –er is the one most generally used for forming nouns denoting a person
performing the action of the corresponding verb (agent noun). But it is not the only
agent suffixes, because there is the word typist and informant which use other

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suffixes. The function of the Suffix –er is not only denoting a person. For example,
digger which is more denoting a piece of machinery than a person.
Derivational Process from Verb into Adjective
Only suffixes are used for this process. According to Rozelin (2011), the following
suffixes are used to form adjectives from verbal bases. Some of the processes that
derive adjectives from verbs straddle the divide between derivation and inflection in
a way that we have not yet encountered. The suffixes –ed, -en, and –ing, and vowel
change, in passive and progressive participle forms of verb. Such form can also be
adjective.
Derivational process from verb into verb
Prefix is the only affixes used in this process. According to Rozelin (2011), the
following prefixes are used to form verb from the other verbal bases.
According to McCarthy (2002), the most prominent is re- and the negative or reversive’ prefixes un-, de-, and dis-, as in repaint, re- enter, untie, untangle,
decompose, desensitise, disentangle, disbelieve.
Semantically, prefix de- in decompose is -not to undo the creative work of a musical
composer‘.
Derivational Process from Adjective into Adverb
Some introductory treatments of English grammar talk as if all adverbs end in –
ly.But according to Rozelin (2011), suffixes –wise and –ward are also exist form
adverbs, for example likewise which has a meaning -in the same way‘.
2.8. Compound
When two or more elements which could potentially be used as stems are combined
to form another stem, the form is said to be a compound. This definition contains
two crucial assumptions, the first being that compounds consist of two (and not
more) elements, the second being that these elements are words.

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