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Nghiên cứu hệ thống hộ trợ đỗ xe thông minh dựa trên vận dụng công nghệ internet = intelligent parking assist system based





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Intelligent Parking Assist System based
on Internet of Things Technologies

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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

Acknowledgements
First and foremost, I would like to my advisers, Professor Ming-Fong Tsai and Professor
Fang-Rong Hsu. Professor Tsai, thank you very much for your encouragement, guidance,
and support for the years I spent in Feng Chia. You are truly visionary and a great
advisor. Professor Hsu, thank you for supporting me and your useful advice that you have
given me. I really enjoyed those brainstorming and discussion meetings that we had.
Without both of you, this research would not be possible. Thank you.
I am grateful to Professor Chyi-Ren Dow for supporting me and giving me the
opportunity to study in Feng Chia. Many thanks to Professor Wei-Bin Lee, Professor
Wei-Chih Hong, Professor Yi-Chung Chen, Professor Tzong-An Su for the knowledge
you gave me in my courses. To all Professors and Teaching Assistants who have taught
me, I thank you.
I would also like to thank to all my lab-mates in Wireless Networking Lab and Intelligent
of Things Lab for giving me a great working place and great help while I work here. In
particular, I would like to thank my dear friend Curtis Ye for the wonderful time that we
spent together. I also greatly appreciate all the help from Bo Cai, Ching-Fu Hsiang, ChiaYuan, Qi-Feng and other friends.
Special thanks to my family, especially my Mom and Dad, for their support and
encouragement over the years.
Finally, I am thankful to my wife for her love giving me.

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FCU e-Theses & Dissertations (2018)


Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

Abstract
In recent years, there has been a rapid development of technologies devising solutions for
intelligent transportation systems, including intelligent parking assist systems. However,
previous systems revealed several weaknesses, such as models which are not scalable, do
not provide a full range of parking services to users, do not effectively manage parking
resources, and have high latency in real-time parking services. To overcome these
problems, this thesis examines previous research and proposes a new model for
intelligent parking assist systems. We also introduce novel algorithms that increase the
efficiency of the proposed system based on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Our


system can help users to automatically find an optimal parking space at the least cost,
based on new performance metrics. In addition, this thesis also proposes an intelligent
parking assist system with a full range of end-to-end support services including: finding a
suitable parking space based on the user’s profile, outside guidance service, enter car park
service, and indoor guidance service. Our system has been simulated and successfully
implemented in the real world. The simulation results show that our system helps to
improve the probability of successful parking and minimizes user waiting time.

Keywords: Smart parking system, Internet of Things technologies, performance metrics.

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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements...................................................................................................
i Abstract ...................................................................................................................
ii Table of Contents ..................................................................................................
iii

List

of

Figures

..........................................................................................................v List of Tables
........................................................................................................ vii Chapter 1
Introduction to the Development of Intelligent Parking Systems ....1
1.1

Automated parking system ................................................................................... 1

1.2

Intelligent parking assist system .......................................................................... 3

1.3

Classification of intelligent parking assist system ............................................... 5

1.4

Shortfalls of current Parking Systems .................................................................. 6

Chapter 2 Architecture for Intelligent Parking Assist Systems based on
Internet of Things Technologies ............................................................................9
2.1 Internet of Things technologies ................................................................................. 9
2.2 Structure of an IPAS System based on IoT technologies........................................ 11
2.2.1 Local Parking Unit............................................................................................ 11
2.2.2 Database Server ................................................................................................ 13
2.2.3 Software Client ................................................................................................. 15
2.3 IoT Hardware for IPAS Systems............................................................................. 16
2.3.1 Sensors .............................................................................................................. 16
2.3.2 Arduino, Raspberry Pi Control Units ............................................................... 18
2.4

Protocol stack for IPAS systems ........................................................................ 19

2.5

Propose the IPAS network based on IoT technologies ...................................... 21

2.5.1

Parking Network ......................................................................................... 22

2.5.2

Construct the neighbor table of nodes ........................................................ 25

Chapter
3
Mathematical
..........................................28

Models

for

IPAS

Systems

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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

3.1 Linked-Cost function estimation ..........................................................................................28

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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

3.2 Total Parking Cost Estimation..............................................................................................31
3.3 Parking Queue Models .........................................................................................................33

Chapter 4 Smart Services System Over Parking Networks .............................35
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 35
4.2 System Framework.................................................................................................. 36
4.3 Parking Services ...................................................................................................... 38
4.3.1 Searching Service and Booking Service ........................................................... 38
4.3.2 Tracking service ............................................................................................... 40
4.3.3 Guidance service............................................................................................... 41
4.3.4 Locking Service and Warning Service ............................................................. 42
4.4. Implementation....................................................................................................... 43

Chapter 5 Enhance the Performance of Wireless Communication in
Intelligent Parking System ...................................................................................47
5.1 Indoor guidance using Ultra-wideband signals ....................................................... 47
5.2 Improve the quality of data transmission in IPAS system using a look up table
structure .........................................................................................................................
51
5.3 An adaptive solution for data transmission between local IoT network and server
system using MQTT protocol ....................................................................................... 56

Chapter 6 Evaluate the Performance of Intelligent Parking System...............60
6.1 Arena simulation tool .............................................................................................. 60
6.2 Scenarios setup ........................................................................................................ 61
6.3 Evaluate the performance of IPAS system.............................................................. 63
6.3.1 Without consideration of parking fee ............................................................... 63
6.3.2 With consideration of parking fee .................................................................... 67

Chapter 7 Conclusion ...........................................................................................69
7.1 Summary ................................................................................................................. 69
7.2 Perspectives ............................................................................................................. 69
7.3. The future of IPAS system ..................................................................................... 70
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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies ..............................................................................................................71
References

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Intelligent Parking Assist System based on Internet of Things
Technologies

List of Figures
Figure 1. 1. An automated parking system ......................................................................... 2
Figure 1. 2. The basic configuration of an IPAS system .................................................... 5

Figure 2. 1. The basic structure of an IPAS system based on Internet of Things
technologies ...................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 2. 2. The role of the control unit in an IPAS system ............................................. 12
Figure 2. 3. The use of ultrasonic sensor to detect the presence of the car at the parking
space.................................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2. 4. Propose to use Fog Computing in building intelligent parking assist system 14
Figure 2. 5. The interface of an IPAS system running on iOS platform........................... 16
Figure 2. 6. Andruino/Raspberry Pi module used as control unit in Intelligent Parking
Assist System .................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 2. 7. Stack of protocols for Intelligent Parking Assist System .............................. 21
Figure 2. 8. Infrastructure/Backbone of the CPN architecture ......................................... 22
Figure 2. 9. Car park network deployment for car parking system .................................. 23
Figure 2. 10. Parking network........................................................................................... 24
Figure 2. 11. Simple neighbour tables .............................................................................. 25
Figure 2. 12. Neighbour tables sorted by descending values of F, , ..................... 26
Figure 2. 13. A searching for a parking space based on the cost function........................ 27

Figure 3. 1. The service queue .......................................................................................... 33

Figure 4. 1. System framework for IPAS services............................................................ 37
Figure 4. 2. Illustrate the Searching/Booking Service ...................................................... 39
Figure 4. 3. Illustrate the Tracking service ....................................................................... 40
Figure 4. 4. Illustrate the guidance services: (a) Outside guidance, (b) Entering car park
guidance, (c) Indoor guidance........................................................................................... 42
Figure 4. 5. Illustrate the Car Locking and Warning Service ........................................... 43
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Figure 4. 6. Procedures reserved parking spot .................................................................. 44
Figure 4. 7. Implementation of outside car park navigation system ................................. 45
Figure 4. 8. Implementation of inside carpark navigation system .................................... 46

Figure 5. 1. Enhance the accuracy of indoor navigation method for intelligent parking
system using UWB signals ............................................................................................... 48
Figure 5. 2. Estimate the TOF between vehicle’s tag and anchor .................................... 49
Figure 5. 3. Determine the user’s position in the parking system..................................... 50
Figure 5. 4. Efficiency comparison between proposed method and other related works . 51
Figure 5. 5. Wireless communications in a local parking lot............................................ 52
Figure 5. 6. Apply the Lookup table structure to minimize the overhead of data
transmission in IPAS system ............................................................................................ 54
Figure 5. 7. Comparison of Recovery Overhead of different RS codes: (a)
Communication distance changes; (b) BER changes (with k = 223 bytes) ...................... 55
Figure 5. 8. Comparison of average recovery overhead of proposed Adaptive LookupTable method, AMFEC [57], and Ghaida [58] with number of data transmissions t = 6. 56
Figure 5. 9. A new architecture for real-time data transmission in IPAS system using
MQTT protocol ................................................................................................................. 57
Figure 5. 10. Comparison between the adaptive network and normal network for changes
in queue length and number of sensor nodes: (a) end-to-end delay; (b) packet drop rate 59

Figure 6. 1. An installation setup to simulate IPAS systems using Arena software ......... 61
Figure 6. 2. A 5-node network .......................................................................................... 62
Figure 6. 3. Average waiting time in a normal network vs. the proposed network .......... 64
Figure 6. 4. Average total time in normal network vs. the proposed network.................. 65
Figure 6. 5. Average waiting time vs. parking fee ............................................................ 68


List of Tables
Table 2. 1. Comparison between Cloud Computing and Fog Computing for IPAS system
........................................................................................................................................... 15
Table 2. 2. Comparison of protocols used in IPAS system .............................................. 20

Table 3. 1. Table of cost function ..................................................................................... 30

Table 4. 1. Reference information for each user .............................................................. 45

Table 6. 1. Simulation Parameters .................................................................................... 62
Table 6. 2. Average waiting time in case of POIS(20 minute) ......................................... 65
Table 6. 3. Average waiting time in case of POIS(15 minute) ......................................... 66
Table 6. 4. Average total time in case of POIS(20 minute) .............................................. 66
Table 6. 5. Average total time in case of POIS(15 minute) .............................................. 67

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Chapter 1 Introduction to the Development of Intelligent
Parking Systems
Today, parking is becoming a big concern because of the monetary cost of parking
and time spent looking for parking. According to statistics in recent studies, the time that
a vehicle travels is very small compared with the time it takes to park (about 5% for
travelling on the road and 95% for parking) [1]. This raises the importance of parking
systems in providing useful services for users and solutions to parking problems. Parking
problems can be resolved by finding how to optimize parking resources and make it
convenient for the driver to find the right parking lot at the least cost. Therefore,
intelligent parking assist systems have been built to provide solutions to these problems.
In this chapter, we will introduce the development history and characteristics of the
current intelligent parking assist system.

1.1 Automated parking system
An early form of intelligent parking assist systems was the automated parking
system (APS). As a result of the development of the vehicle industry and the exponential
increase in the numbers of cars in urban areas, the demand for parking services has
increased to try to meet the needs of users. In order to increase the capacity of a car park,
by maximizing the use of parking spaces and attracting customers’ interest, the automated
parking system was born. In this section, we will first learn about the characteristics of
the automated parking system. The definition of an automated parking system can be
given as follows: an automated (car) parking system is a mechanical system designed to
minimize the area and/or volume required for parking cars. In addition, today, an
automated parking system also assists operators to optimize their use of car parking
spaces as well as minimizing time and money costs for drivers by helping them to find
the best value vacant slots; the subsequent reduction in time spent looking for parking
reduces emissions.
Since the motor vehicle was born, an inevitable implication which is pulled by the
parking system also born. The early parking systems were mechanical systems with the
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direct operation of the workers. Along with the development of science and technology,
an automated parking system was introduced in Paris, France in 1905 at the Garage Rue
de Ponthieu [2]. In the early 1990s, nearly 40,000 parking spaces were being built
annually using the paternoster APS in Japan and about 1.6 million parking spaces in
2012. The rapid increase in urbanization combined with the number of used cars has led
to the need to replace traditional parking lots with APS systems to better meet the needs
of users.

Figure 1. 1. An automated parking system
Automated car parks rely on technology similar to that used for mechanical handling
and document retrieval. The driver leaves the car in an entrance module, and it is then
transported to a parking spot by a robot trolley. This process helps the driver save time in
finding parking spot inside the car park and driving time. The APS has common features
that reduce the vacant slots in car park, assist in finding parking spaces and support
charging for parking. The benefits that an automated car park can bring are as follows [24]:
Utilize the parking spaces in the parking lot by having plans to use vacant spaces.
Increase the capacity of the parking lot used by reducing the width and height of
each parking space.
More secure because the system prohibits public access to the parking lot.
Reduce driving time and cost because the search and move to the parking spot
inside car park are eliminated.
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The visual impact and handicap access are improved.
Shorter waiting time compare with traditional parking system.
However, these automated parking systems also have some problems. The main
issues are: technical problems, poor planning for parking customers, low popularity, and
low feasibility. The technical difficulties come from building a mechanical system with
the full functionality of an automated system. The cost to install the system’s equipment
and its maintenance is quite expensive. The organization of these car parks is not flexible;
usually APS will be located in supermarket shopping centres or crowded places. Drivers
often have a habit of parking their cars in the parking lot closest to their desired position,
thus leading to reduced competitiveness between the traditional car park and APS.
Because APSs are located in crowded places, congestion at the system’s input, resulting
in excessive wait times at the entrance, leads to a reduction in service speed of the
system. In order to overcome these weaknesses, the next generation parking system was
born, which is intelligent parking assist systems (IPAS). The IPAS address the problems
encountered by APS systems; first, they ensure that the system is flexible – that is, the
system can be installed everywhere by applying the new technologies to both traditional
car parks and automated car parks. Second, IPAS attract more customer interest, because
these IPAS combine IoT technologies [5-7], which allow drivers to easily interact with
parking system networks to find a suitable parking space via their smart devices.
Applying IoT technologies to IPAS enhances consumer interest, marketing and makes the
parking services more accessible to customers, giving them many options based on their
profiles. These IPAS are also built on existing plans to construct a widespread parking
system network. Each car park has a specific plan for the use of parking spaces to achieve
efficiency. Based on these benefits, this study focuses on the characteristics of the current
IPAS and proposes a new IPAS network model for future development.

1.2 Intelligent parking assist system
In the past, many parking systems were built, but these systems lacked consideration
of the user’s point of view and did not assist the driver in finding their most desired
parking spot. The introduction of an intelligent parking assist system was very important,
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especially in instances when the driver is in a rush. For example, if you have an important
work event, you need to save as much time as possible by finding the best car park.
Conventional parking systems make it difficult to find a good parking space quickly,
because you have to rely on your luck without much support information. However, with
an intelligent parking assist system, just a few simple operations via a smart device or
through a simple screen guide, will easily lead you to the best parking spot. Intelligent
parking assist systems utilize advanced technologies and wireless communication
technologies in the vehicle, thus improving parking services and reducing costs for users.
The definition of the IPAS is given as follows: the intelligent (car) parking assist system
is a system designed to assist drivers in finding a suitable parking space automatically,
according to the driver’s profile, and consume the least cost to reach the parking lot.
In 2003, the first version of the IPAS system was introduced, which allowed users to
park their car in the correct place without driver intervention. This is done by installing
the cameras in the front and rear of the vehicle, and combined with sensors located at
fixed positions inside the parking lot, the driver can easily identify the location of the car
in the parking lot through a smart control screen. Early versions of IPAS systems had
difficulty detecting objects, including cats, baby prams and pedestrians. Second, when the
driver activated the system in a too small a space, the system constantly flashed warning
signals to inform the user of the danger of hitting the vehicle. In 2005, an upgraded
version added recognition capability for parking stripes. A later version of this parking
technology launched in 2006 and added integration with parking sensors. However, these
early development systems do not fully support the features needed for an IPAS such as
parking information system (PIS) or parking guidance system (PGS). Over the past few
years, there are many commercial IPAS systems are produced including modern
technologies such as BMW’s self-parking system, Mercedes’ parking assistance system,
Audi’s guidance parking system and Toyota’s intelligent parking assistance system [8].
These systems have some interesting functionalities that ensure an easy parking with less
time in any suitable space and getting a notification if the parked car has any problem
while the driver is not in the car. The main purpose of the IPAS system is to provide the
necessary functions to help drivers find the most convenient parking space and with
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lowest cost. In general, the basic configuration of an IPAS system as described in
Figure
1.3. It consists of the basic components: Smart Navigation, Intelligent Parking Assistant.
The smart navigation employs an online traffic simulator which provides accurate
information about real-time traffic conditions and provides route maps to reserved
parking lot. Based on this information, the driver can choose the appropriate route to get
to the parking lot as quickly as possible. The intelligent parking assist system will provide
information about the availability of reserved parking lot from the start of the journey to
the end of the journey. This information will help drivers avoid wasting time when
entering a busy parking lot or a full parking lot. This information will frequently be
updated whenever the driver approaches the parking lot. And, the intelligent parking
assistant collects the driving characteristics of the driver i.e. whether aggressive, semi
aggressive or passive, reaction times, following distances etc. and provides this
information to the smart navigation for better estimation of travel times.

Smart
Navigation
Driver

IoT
Intelligent
Parking Assistant
Intelligent Parking System

Figure 1. 2. The basic configuration of an IPAS system

1.3 Classification of intelligent parking assist system
Since the concept of intelligent parking system has been introduced, there are many
types of implementations of such systems. Recently, we can summarize and list some of
the systems and their components such as: Parking Guidance and Information Systems
(PGI) [1, 8-16], Parking Reservations Systems (PRS) [17-18], and Intelligent Parking
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Assist System (IPAS) - a full hybrid of these two systems based on Internet of Things
technologies [19-24]. In order to solve the parking problem, many types of PGI system
have been introduced [8-16]. PGI systems is designed to assist in the search for free
parking spaces by directing drivers to high availability parking lots. The goal is to reduce
search time and travel time, thereby benefits such as reducing traffic congestion on roads
surrounding parking lots, reducing fuel consumption and reducing pollution due to CO2
emission. PGI systems typically use instant messages to send information about the
availability of parking lots to drivers via communication protocols in vehicle network.
However, PGI systems have the disadvantage of not providing a statistic on the number
of vehicles or forecast of the number of vehicles pursuing a parking lot, this phenomenon
is called “many cars are chasing a parking lot”, resulting in congestion and an increasing
of the average waiting time for parking. In recent years, the PRS system was launched
with the aim of providing parking reservation services for drivers [17-18]. These PRS
systems help users to book their parking slots through a short message service (SMS) and
this booking is a guaranteed reservation. The advantages offered by the PRS system are
that it significantly reduces congestion, helps operators forecast parking traffic, optimizes
parking resources, and maximizes revenue. With the development of electronic
technologies, IoT technologies, and cloud computing, a new parking system was built to
provide end-users with a full range of parking services; this system is called an intelligent
parking assist system (IPAS) [22-24]. The architecture of an IPAS system will be
discussed in detail in Chapter 2 of the thesis.

1.4 Shortfalls
Systems

of

current

Parking

The current parking systems mentioned in above are encountering some of shortfalls
for each system, these problems come from the structure of them.
The shortfalls of PGI systems are:
PGI systems provide users with parking information comparable to older parking
lots, but this information is limited and not a complete solution.

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PGI systems assist users in finding vacant parking spaces, which helps to
minimize congestion and drive time. However, this information is localized,

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leading to the phenomenon of many cars chasing the same parking lot and may
lead to congestion or increase the average waiting time for parking.
In addition, operation and maintenance costs of PGI systems are relatively high
because of the disadvantages of the sensor system that they use, especially in the
indoor guidance system. These sensors are quite sensitive to temperature and
weather changes. The power supply for the sensor needs to be recharged
regularly as it uses a battery power supply.
PGI systems based on limited technologies, so they do not provide optimal
solutions for parking systems and parking services. Parking information is
limited to the availability of individual parking lot.
The shortfalls of PRS systems are:
The main limitations are that reservations only allowed for limited period of time.
Furthermore, they used a fixed price and revenue was not estimated and only a
single choice of destination was considered. In fact, parking reservations in reality
could be more appreciated if it is for the long-term (e.g., reservation for a week
later to attend an event). In addition, city councils or private parking companies
may not invest in such systems if their parking revenue is not improved [1].
Agent based PRS systems may need great improvements. For instance, car park
and driver agents should utilize machine learning techniques to more flexibly
adjust their bids. In addition, more reasoning capabilities to judge drivers’
behavior should be provided by driver agents. Thus, current agent based PRS
systems are not mature enough to be fully implemented in real world applications.
Pricing based reservation systems could lead to many fairness issues. For
example, free parking spaces will always be occupied by higher class people or
rich ones. Another problem is that the congestion caused by the cheaper parking
lots always attracts many driver’s reservations.
Mobile/Web Parking Information and Reservation Systems reviewed earlier
indeed reduce the overall parking problems. However, they should not be utilized

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on their own. Instead, a smart parking reservation management model should be
integrated to them, such that a general objective (e.g., maximize revenue or
minimize cost) is achieved.
Recently, IPAS hybrid systems with fully integrated PGI and PRS functions have
been introduced. The IPAS system provides a flexible and convenient architecture for
operators to easily integrate local parking systems into a large parking network, based on
existing infrastructure and a number of extra devices. From this, global parking
information is established. This contributes greatly to solving the problem of intelligent
transport systems and optimizing the management of urban parking resources today.

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Chapter 2 Architecture for Intelligent Parking Assist
Systems based on Internet of Things Technologies
Over the past few years, the term ‘smart parking’ has become more common. To
build up a smart parking system with full functionality, it is necessary to have supportive
technologies. Modern IoT technology has brought widespread applications used in all
aspects of life, especially with regard to the Intelligent Transport System [22-23].
Therefore, IoT is a good solution to solve the problem of designing an intelligent parking
system [23-24]. In this chapter, we will take into consideration the IoT technologies
applied to design an intelligent parking system.

2.1 Internet of Things technologies
The Internet of Things is the inter-networking technology that enables the
connection between billions of smart electronic devices (e.g., smart handheld devices,
smartphones, sensors…), vehicles, building, and other devices through internet
connections. When the IoT technology was not invented, these devices were passive and
unable to exchange their information with other devices. When the IoT technology was
born, and applied, these devices became “smart devices”, and they were able to
communicate with other devices to exchange information they were holding. The term
“the Internet of Things” was introduced by Kevin Ashton of Procter & Gamble, later
MIT’s Auto-ID Center, in 1999. In 2013, the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of
Things (IoT-GSI) defined the IoT as “a global infrastructure for the information society,
enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on
existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies” and
for these purposes a “thing” is “an object of physical world (physical things) or the
information world (virtual things), which is capable of being identified and integrated
into communication networks”. Experts estimate that by 2020 34 billion devices will be
connected to the Internet, 24 billion of which will be IoT devices. This helps to apply IoT
technology to the design of IPAS systems, for example, by installing these smart
electronic devices to parking lots to monitor the availability of the parking lots.

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Intelligent parking systems based on IoT technology are presented as in [36]. In this
study, the authors introduce IoT-based parking systems combined with cloud computing
technology. This system allows the user to pre-reserve a parking slot from a remote place
using their smart device. This reservation requires proper authentication by the user. The
hardware deployed here are low-cost IR sensors, Raspberry Pi model 3b for real-time
data collection, and an application programme based on the android platform called Eparking. The results of this study show that it not only reduces traffic congestion, but also
provides authentication for users, and cost effective and real-time applications. In other
studies [39, 45], the authors propose intelligent parking architecture based on IoT
technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. The authors of [39] propose a smart parking
system using the system of interconnected Raspberry Pi, Distance Sensor, and Pi Camera
devices together. These hardware platforms are used to collect data at parking lots, such
as vehicle number plate data, distance measurements between car and parking curb, and
availability of slots. This information will be sent to the cloud server through the
Raspberry Pi module and users can directly access information about the car park using
smart handheld devices via their Internet connection. From this data, users can quickly
find a suitable parking lot, thus saving time and reducing CO2 emissions to the
environment. Their work has been implemented in New York. In [45], the authors
propose that parking lot guidance software should share parking lot information to a large
number of clients in real-time, using the MQTT protocol. MQTT is a protocol designed
specifically for IoT constrained devices. Since MQTT is a lightweight and energy
efficient protocol, it is more suitable for IoT devices than HTTP protocol. The
information about the parking lots will be collected and periodically published to the
topic registered and stored at the MQTT server through a publish/subscribe lightweight
messaging protocol. Users in the system will access the real-time data of these parking
lots by subscribing to the topic on the server. This system is suitable for providing a
solution to sharing parking information among a large number of clients.
In addition, many other types of intelligent parking systems have been implemented
based on IoT technologies. In the next section, we will analyse and introduce the basic
components of an intelligent parking system based on IoT technologies.
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2.2 Structure of an IPAS System based on IoT technologies

Database Server

IoT -Sensor

Smart phone

Figure 2. 1. The basic structure of an IPAS system based on Internet of Things
technologies
An intelligent parking assist system based on Internet of Things technologies
typically consists of 3 main components: Local Parking Units, System Database,
Software Client [22-23].

2.2.1 Local Parking Unit
This is a local IoT network that includes a wireless sensor network and control unit
for displaying information about parking lot. This local network is located in each car
park and contains the main components:
Control unit: this is a control module (e.g., Arduino module [8]) which is
connected to sensors so that it can recognize the number of cars in the
parking lot. There are several solutions offered, for example, using RFID card
readers to count the number of cars come in and go out of the system as in
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[23], or using Infrared sensors installed at each parking space to detect the
available status of

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