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TestBank psychology around us 2nd edition comer ch13

Chapter: Chapter 13: Personality

Multiple Choice

1. Freud identified three central forces in personality development. Which
force controls our moral limits?
a) Id
b) Superego
c) Ego
d) Unconscious
Ans: b
Feedback A: Controls basic drives
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Controls rational thoughts
Feedback D: Thoughts we are not consciously aware of
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False


2. The unconscious or deepest level of the mind contains the greatest
amount of content.
Ans: True
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development..
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank


3. The id and our most instinctual impulses are governed by the __________
principle.
Ans: pleasure
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

4. What type of energy fuels the id?
Ans: Libido or sexual energy
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

5. Describe how Freud conceptualized the ego.
Ans: Ego is the rational, problem-solving force that strives to keep the idbased impulses in check. The ego is governed by the reality principle such
that it may not always be possible to have all wants and desires satisfied.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice



6. Which of the following is/are a stage(s) of Freud’s psychosexual stages of


development?
a) Oral
b) Anal
c) Phallic
d) All of the above
Ans: d
Feedback A: There is more than one psychosexual stage listed.
Feedback B: There is more than one psychosexual stage listed.
Feedback C:There is more than one psychosexual stage listed.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy
The folktale story of the “Emperor Wears No Clothes” clearly exemplifies the
concept of ________.
a) projections
b) denial
c) repression
d) assimilation
Ans: b
Feedback A: The “Emperor Wears No Clothes” exemplifies the concept of
denial.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: The “Emperor Wears No Clothes” exemplifies the concept of
denial.
Feedback D: The “Emperor Wears No Clothes” exemplifies the concept of
denial.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium
True/False
7. An individual who is considered mentally healthy may become fixated at a
particular stage and suffer no adverse consequences.
Ans: False
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of


personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

8. A boy entering the phallic stage may begin to feel sexual attraction
towards his mother. This is referred to as the __________ complex.
Ans: Oedipus
Section Ref:The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

9. According to Freud, what are defense mechanisms?
Ans: Unconscious tactics employed by our egos to protect us from anxiety
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

10. Name and describe our most basic defense mechanism according to
Freud.
Ans: Repression is the most basic defense mechanism that allows us to keep
unpleasant memories or thoughts buried deep within the unconscious mind
to avoid facing them.
Section Ref:The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of


personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

11. Which of the following statements describes a key weakness of
psychoanalytic theory?
a) None of Freud’s patients were ever helped.
b) It generalizes to everyone.
c) It is derived from Freud’s sexist beliefs.
d) It lacks predictive power.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Freud’s views did help people.
Feedback B: Not an accurate statement
Feedback C: Not commented on
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

12. Freud’s observations were based on a very small and select group of
upper-class individuals from Vienna.
Ans: True
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank


13. Unlike Freud, Adler was interested in how feelings of __________,
stemming from childhood experiences, motivate behavior.
Ans: inferiority
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

14. What was Adler’s school of psychology called?
Ans: Individual psychology
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay

15. Name and describe the 2 parts of the unconscious mind identified by
Jung.
Ans: Personal unconscious is formed by personal experiences, whereas the
collective unconscious is a cumulative storehouse of inherited memories
shared by all humanity.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice


16. According to Jung, what form do shared memories from the collective
unconscious take on?
a) Free will
b) Emotions
c) Archetypes
d) Personal unconscious
Ans: c
Feedback A: Choice
Feedback B: Affective component
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Individual unconscious
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

17. Jung argued that the unconscious drives our behavior towards joy,
creativity, and internal harmony.
Ans: True
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank

18. The search for __________ is a central theme of Jung’s theory.
Ans: harmony
Section Ref The Psychodynamic Perspectivey
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Easy


Short Answer

19. Describe basic anxiety according to Horney.
Ans: Develops in children who experience extreme feelings of isolation and
helplessness; feelings set the stage for later neuroses.
Section Ref:The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view of
personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

20. Describe Maslow’s concept of “self-actualization”.
Ans: Highest level of need within his hierarchy; need to fulfill our full
potential as human beings
Section Ref:The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

21. Unlike Freud, Maslow believed that we could learn a great deal about
human behavior by studying which group?
a) Depressed individuals
b) Well-adjusted people
c) Children
d) Women
Ans: b
Feedback A: Would provide biased information about average human


behavior
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Freud observed children.
Feedback D: Freud observed women.
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium
Athletes who are “in the zone” experience __________.
a) a heightened sense of awareness
b) increased mental clarity
c) a sense of ease and effortlessness
d) All of the above
Ans: d
Feedback A: Athletes who are “in the zone” experience a heightened sense
of awareness,
increased mental clarity, and a sense of ease and effortlessness.
Feedback B: Athletes who are “in the zone” experience a heightened sense
of awareness,
increased mental clarity, and a sense of ease and effortlessness.
Feedback C: Athletes who are “in the zone” experience a heightened sense
of awareness,
increased mental clarity, and a sense of ease and effortlessness.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium
True/False

22. Peak experiences describe the sexual stage of orgasm.
Ans: False
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank


23. Moments when people experience intense clarity of perception, feelings
of joy, and a suspended sense of time are known as __________.
Ans: peak experiences
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

24. What type of therapy did Rogers develop?
Ans: Client-centered therapy
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Easy
What does it mean when an athlete says he or she is “in the zone”?
Ans: It is a time period when mind and body are harmonized. The individual
experiences a heightened sense of awareness, increased mental clarity, and
a sense of ease and effortlessness.
Section Ref: Historical Perspective on Personality
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium
Essay

25. Describe the concept Rogers termed as “unconditional positive regard”.
Ans: Children need acceptance without terms or conditions from parents and
other adults to develop healthy self concepts.
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow


and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

26. In Freud’s view, the personality forms as the result of the struggle
between
a) conscious and unconscious processes.
b) primal needs and social or moral restraints.
c) the individual and other people.
d) biological drives and intellectual abilities.
Ans: b
Feedback A: The struggle between primal needs and social or moral
restraints forms the personality.
Feedback B:
Feedback C: The struggle between primal needs and social or moral
restraints forms the personality.
Feedback D: The struggle between primal needs and social or moral
restraints forms the personality.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

27. According to Freud, the preconscious
a) is the reservoir of sexual and aggressive instincts.
b) cannot be accessed except through dreams.
c) contains mental content that can be brought into the conscious mind.
d) is occupied mostly by the id.
Ans: c
Feedback A: The id is the reservoir of instincts.
Feedback B: Information from the preconscious can be accessed with little
effort.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: The id rests primarily in the unconscious.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view


of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

28. Which of the following is primarily associated with consciousness?
a) The libido
b) The id
c) The superego
d) The ego
Ans: d
Feedback A: The libido is an unconscious instinct.
Feedback B: Most of consciousness is taken up by the ego.
Feedback C: Most of consciousness is taken up by the ego.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy
29. Which of the following is FALSE about the id?
a) It has the ability to delay gratification when necessary.
b) It is present from birth.
c) It operates on the pleasure principle.
d) It is fueled by the libido
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: This is a characteristic of the id.
Feedback C: This is a characteristic of the id.
Feedback D: This is a characteristic of the id.
Section Ref:
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

30. The _____ operates on the reality principle; the _____operates on the
morality principle; the ______operates on the pleasure principle.
a) id; ego; superego
b) ego; superego; id
c) superego; ego; id
d) ego; id; superego


Ans: b
Feedback A: The correct relationships are ego(reality); superego
(morality); id (pleasure.)
Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: The correct relationships are ego(reality); superego
(morality); id (pleasure.)
Feedback D: The correct relationships are ego(reality); superego
(morality); id (pleasure.)
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

31. Mary has been studying for a long time. She is hungry and tired.
Eventually, she closes her books, eats something, and goes to bed. The part
of the personality that influenced her behavior is the
a) conscious.
b) ego.
c) id.
d) superego.
Ans: c
Feedback A: The id represents basic instinctual drives, such as eating and
sleeping.
Feedback B: The id represents basic instinctual drives, such as eating and
sleeping.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: The id represents basic instinctual drives, such as eating and
sleeping.
Section Ref:The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

32. Lee sees a sexually appealing person. Lee’s id wants to engage in a
sexual relationship with the person. Which of the following will Lee’s ego
likely “say” to the id?
a) Great idea – let’s do it!
b) No. You can’t do it.
c) Wait a minute; we have to go on a few dates first.
d) Shame on you; what are you thinking?


Ans: c
Feedback A: The ego would recognize that not all of the id’s needs can
realistically be met.
Feedback B: Part of the ego’s job is to solve problems and find solutions.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: This is something that the superego would say.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

33. In a healthy personality, Freud believed that
a) The superego chooses the best course of action, taking into account
the reality of the situation.
b) The ego stops the id from satisfying its impulses.
c) The id, ego, and superego are equally powerful.
d) the ego acts as a mediator between the id and the superego.
Ans: d
Feedback A: It is the ego, not the id, that understands reality.
Feedback B: The ego’s job is to provide balance between the id and the
superego, not to block the id’s impulses.
Feedback C: It is the ego’s job to act as the mediator between the id and
the superego.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

34. Which part of the personality operates on the reality principle?
a) conscience
b) id
c) ego
d) superego
Ans: c
Feedback
Feedback
Feedback
Feedback

A: The conscience is part of the superego.
B: The id operates on the pleasure principle.
C: Correct
D: The superego operates on morality.


Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

35. The reality principle states that
a) it is not always possible or acceptable to have all desires met.
b) the ego’s job is to keep the personality from losing touch with reality.
c) unconscious forces are realistically always going to have an effect on
personality.
d) having to deal with other people is a reality of human existence.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: The reality principle states that it is not always possible or
acceptable to have all desires met.
Feedback C: The reality principle states that it is not always possible or
acceptable to have all desires met.
Feedback D: The reality principle states that it is not always possible or
acceptable to have all desires met.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

36. The superego’s view of which behaviors are acceptable is based on
a) an understanding of society’s laws.
b) an internalization of values that are unconsciously adopted.
c) a desire to avoid punishment.
d) universal standards of moral behavior.
Ans: b
Feedback A: The superego unconsciously adopts the values of people
around it.
Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: Avoiding punishment is a recognition of reality (ego)
Feedback D: Children adopt the morals of those around them – good or
bad.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard


37. Stephanie snooped through her boyfriend’s desk because she thought
he was cheating on her. She didn’t find anything suspicious and wishes she
hadn’t done it. Now, Stephanie is having trouble sleeping. Which part of the
personality is keeping Stephanie awake?
a) Id
b) Ego
c) Superego
d) It’s hard to say, since the behavior is unconscious.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Stephanie feels guilty (superego).
Feedback B: Stephanie feels guilty (superego).
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Stephanie feels guilty (superego).
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

38. If the ego is not able to find compromises between the id and the
superego, what is likely to happen, according to Freud?
a) The needs of the id will win out.
b) The conscience and the superego will win out.
c) The ego will repress everything.
d) The person may become neurotic.
Ans: d
Feedback A: The id does not always get what it wants.
Feedback B: The superego does not always get what it wants.
Feedback C: Repression cannot be used indefinitely
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard
39. According to Freud, the most basic human drives are
a) libido and morality.
b) conscious and unconscious.
c) sex and aggression.


d) pleasure and reality
Ans: c
Feedback A: Morality is not a drive.
Feedback B: Conscious and unconscious are parts of the psyche, not
drives.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: Pleasure and reality are the principles guiding the id and the
ego, respectively.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

40. The correct order of Freud’s psychosexual stages is
a) oral, latency, genital, anal, phallic.
b) oral, anal phallic, genital, latency.
c) oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency.
d) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Ans: d
Feedback A: The correct order is oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Feedback B: The correct order is oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Feedback C: The correct order is oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

41. __________is a pleasure-producing area of the body.
a) An erogenous zone.
b) A psychosexual stage.
c) An Oedipus complex.
d) A fixation
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: This is the definition of an erogenous zone.
Feedback C: This is the definition of an erogenous zone.
Feedback D: This is the definition of an erogenous zone.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective


Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

42. Which of the following conflict is correctly matched with the stage?
a) phallic; identification with the same sex parent.
b) latency; repression of sexual impulses.
c) anal; weaning
d) genital; attraction to opposite sex parent.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Identification with the same sex parent occurs during latency.
Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: Weaning occurs during the oral stage.
Feedback D: Attraction to the opposite sex parent happens during the
phallic stage.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

43. Phillip works for a large corporation. He is suspicious of his male boss
and puts a lot of effort into proving that he is better than his male coworkers.
Which of the following is most likely Philips problem?
a) Philip has penis envy.
b) Philip is fixated at the latency stage.
c) Philip is fixated at the phallic stage.
d) Philip is neurotic
Ans: c
Feedback A: Females experience penis envy, not males.
Feedback B: There are no fixations at the latency stage.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: Neuroticism is caused by unresolved conflicts between the id
and the superego.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard


44. The Oedipus complex happens to ____ at the ____ stage of development.
a) girls; gential
b) girls; phallic
c) boys; genital
d) boys; phallic
Ans: d
Feedback A: The Oedipus complex is experienced by boys who suffer from
castration anxiety.
Feedback B: The Oedipus complex is experienced by boys who suffer from
castration anxiety.
Feedback C: The Oedipus complex is experienced by boys who suffer from
castration anxiety.
Feedback D:
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy
45. The latency period is characterized by
a) the repression of sexual impulses.
b) the need to avoid becoming fixated.
c) the development of castration anxiety in the boy and penis envy in the
girl.
d) excessive neatness or stubbornness.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: Fixation is not an issue during the latency period.
Feedback C: These events happen during the phallic stage.
Feedback D: This is an issue at the anal stage.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

46. Twenty year old Sasha smokes and drinks a lot, and tends to be verbally
aggressive and sarcastic. Sasha is most likely fixated at the ______stage
a) anal
b) genital
c) phallic
d) oral


Ans: d
Feedback A: Activities surrounding the mouth are typical of the oral stage.
Feedback B: Activities surrounding the mouth are typical of the oral stage.
Feedback C: Activities surrounding the mouth are typical of the oral stage.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

47. According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used to
a) protect us from anxiety.
b) resolve conflicts between the id and the superego.
c) prevent us from becoming fixated at various stages.
d) help us resolve our unconscious conflicts.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: Repression buries conflicts in the unconscious; it does not
result in solutions.
Feedback C: Defense mechanisms are used by the ego to protect us from
anxiety.
Feedback D: Defense mechanisms are used by the ego to protect us from
anxiety.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

48. Gracie is pregnant, but her boyfriend has deserted her. She really doesn’t
want this baby, but she doesn’t believe in abortion, so she has the baby and
keeps it. After the baby is born, Gracie turns into “supermom” and spends all
her energies on the baby and tells everyone she meets how much she loves
her child. Which defense mechanism is Gracie using?
a) Displacement
b) Reaction formation
c) Denial
d) Regression
Ans: b
Feedback A: Gracie is doing the exact opposite of what she actually feels;
this is reaction formation.


Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: Gracie is doing the exact opposite of what she actually feels;
this is reaction formation.
Feedback D: Gracie is doing the exact opposite of what she actually feels;
this is reaction formation.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium
49. George and Harry are two little boys who take pleasure in tormenting
little creatures. When they grow up, George becomes an exterminator and
Harry goes to work for an animal activist organization. As adults, George is
using the defense mechanism _______ and Harry is using the defense
mechanism________.
a) repression; reaction formation
b) denial; sublimaton
c) sublimation; rationalization
d) sublimation; reaction formation
Ans: d
Feedback A: George is using sublimation (channeling into acceptable
outlets), not repression
Feedback B: George is using sublimation (channeling into acceptable
outlets), not repression, and Harry is doing the exact opposite (reaction
formation)
Feedback C: Harry is not rationalizing bad acts; he is doing the exact
opposite of his earlier behavior (reaction formation.)
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

50. Which of the following people is most clearly using the defense
mechanism projection?
a) Carolyn, who yells at her husband after she had a bad day at work.
b) Cody, who justifies his problem drinking by saying “I’m just being
sociable.”
c) Matthew, who is wrestling with his own sexual identity and makes
derogatory remarks about any man he suspects of being gay.
d) Jasmine, who yells and gestures at other drivers who are “in her way.”


Ans: c
Feedback A: Carolyn is using displacement.
Feedback B: Cody is using rationalization.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: Jasmine is using regression.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

51. Maryann forgot her dentist’s appointment, even though the dentist’s
office reminded her the day before. Maryann is most clearly using
a) repression.
b) intellectualization.
c) denial.
d) rationalization.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: Maryann isn’t just ignoring the emotional aspects; she is
forgetting it entirely (repression).
Feedback C: Maryann isn’t refusing to admit that she needs dental care;
she is simply foretting (repression).
Feedback D: Maryann doesn’t have a “good reason” for missing her
appointment; she is forgetting it entirely (repression).
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Hard

53. Much of the criticism of Freud’s theory stems from the fact that
a) he spent too much time talking about sexual issues.
b) his theory is difficult to test.
c) Freud overestimated how much influence parents had on child
development.
d) most psychologists do not believe in unconscious processes.
Ans: b
Feedback A: This is not an objection discussed in your textbook.
Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: Psychologists agree that parents are profoundly important to
child development.


Feedback D: Research into the unconscious has accelerated in recent
decades.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy

54. Adler believed that
a) humans have not only a personal unconscious, but also a collective
unconscious.
b) Freud’s concept of penis envy was more accurately described as social
envy.
c) conscious thoughts were more important to human behavior than
sexual needs.
d) humans are basically good and work towards self-actualization.
Ans: c
Feedback A: This was Jung.
Feedback B: This was Horney.
Feedback C: Correct
Feedback D: This was Maslow.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty:

55. Which of the following theorists believed that cultural differences play a
more important role in development than Freud acknowledged?
a) Rogers
b) Jung
c) Adler
d) Horney
Ans: d
Feedback A: This was Horney’s belief.
Feedback B: This was Horney’s belief.
Feedback C: This was Horney’s belief.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Easy


56. According to Carl Jung, archetypes are
a) symbols and images that appear in all cultures.
b) the root cause of basic anxiety.
c) a storehouse of memories shared by all humans.
d) a result of our attempts to overcome inferiority.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: Horney discussed the issue of basic anxiety.
Feedback C: This is the definition for the collective unconscious.
Feedback D: Adler discussed the issue of inferiority.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

57. According to Jung, the coherent whole that results from integrating the
conscious and unconscious minds is called the
a) collective unconscious.
b) self.
c) archetype.
d) psychodynamic imperative.
Ans: b
Feedback A: The collective unconscious is only one part of the whole.
Feedback B: Correct
Feedback C: An archetype is a symbol.
Feedback D: Psychodynamic refers to the theories of Freud and the neoFreudians.
Section Ref: The Psychodynamic Perspective
Learning Objective: Summarize the main ideas of the psychodynamic view
of personality development.
Difficulty: Medium

59. The full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities is
called
a) a peak experience.
b) self-concept.
c) unconditional positive regard.


d) self-actualization.
Ans: d
Feedback A: A peak experience is a moment of intense clarity.
Feedback B: This is Roger’s term for a pattern of perception that remains
consistent over time.
Feedback C: This refers to acceptance without terms or conditions.
Feedback D: Correct
Section Ref: Historical Perspectives on Personality
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Easy

60. Maslow believed that we can learn the most about the human condition
by
a) studying healthy well-adjusted people.
b) studying those with psychological problems.
c) paying attention to the unconscious symbols in our collective ancestry.
d) creating an atmosphere of openness, honesty, and freedom from
judgment.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct
Feedback B: This was Freud.
Feedback C: This was Jung
Feedback D: This was Rogers
Section Ref: The Humanistic Perspective
Learning Objective:Describe the humanistic theories of Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
Difficulty: Easy
62. According to Carl Rogers, we need __________ in order to develop a
healthy self-concept.
a) conditions of worth
b) positive psychology
c) unconditional positive regard
d) self actualization
Ans: c
Feedback
Feedback
Feedback
Feedback

A: Conditions of worth is the opposite of what is needed.
B: This is a general term for the study of positive experiences.
C: Correct
D: This is part of Maslow’s theory.


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