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TestBank psychology around us 2nd edition comer ch09

Chapter: Chapter 09: Language and Thought

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following areas refers to the meaning of words?
a) Phonology
b) Semantics
c) Morphology
d) Pragmatics
Ans: b
Feedback A: Sounds of language
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Smallest units of language that have meaning
Feedback D: Social norms of language
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False


2. Language can be spoken, signed, or written.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank


3. Humans make new sentences each time they speak. This refers to the concept that language is
creative or __________.
Ans: generative
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

4. What are the two main components of language?
Ans: Production and comprehension
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

5. Why is animal communication not a language?
Ans: Animal vocalizations are innate and do not change, whereas human speech is generative.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard



Multiple Choice


6. How many phonemes does the English language have?
a) Approximately 15
b) Approximately 25
c) Approximately 40
d) Approximately 50
Ans: c
Feedback A: Too few
Feedback B: Too few
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Too many
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

7. Languages with more phonemes are capable of producing more complex ideas than languages
with fewer phonemes.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

8. The study of phonemes is called __________.
Ans: phonology
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.


Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer

9. What are the smallest units of meaning within a language called?
Ans: Morphemes
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

10. Define lexical meaning and describe how it changes over time?
Ans: Lexical meaning refers to the dictionary meaning or words within the study of semantics.
Over time, additional meanings may be added to words.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

11. Colin received his paper back from his English teacher, Ms. Taylor. She informed him that
adverbs follow the verbs they modify in sentence order. What level of language analysis does
this represent?
a) Syntax
b) Semantics
c) Morphology
d) Pragmatics


Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Meaning of words
Feedback C: Smallest units of language that have meaning
Feedback D: Social norms of language
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

12. Pragmatics refers to the practical use of language.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank

13. One aspect of pragmatics is our use of body language such as facial movements and gestures
that may affect the meaning of the words we speak. The use of body language is a type of
__________ communication.
Ans: nonverbal
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium


Short Answer

14. What makes the word “dog” different from the word “dogs”?
Ans: Morpheme of “s” indicates plurality
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

15. Provide an example of nonverbal communication that you have encountered and explain how
it actively changed the connotation of the words that were spoken.
Ans: Provide an example in which the verbiage is similar, but the nonverbal component affected
the interpretation of the words. For example, a sincere smile versus a sneer may influence
whether a person will accept an apology.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

16. By what age do normally-developing babies begin to babble?
a) 1 month
b) 3 months
c) 6 months
d) 9 months
Ans: c
Feedback A: Babies babble after this age.
Feedback B: Babies babble after this age.
Feedback C: Correct!


Feedback D: Babies babble before this age.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

17. Babies can initially produce all of the phonemes of different languages.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

18. Babies typically begin speaking simple words such as mama and dada around the age of
__________ year(s) old.
Ans: one
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer

19. Alphonso, who is 2 years old, frequently asks his mother for a drink by using two-word
phrases such as “More milk.” What type of speech does this represent?


Ans: Telegraphic
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

20. Describe Chomsky’s theory of the language acquisition device (LAD).
Ans: Chomsky believed that language acquisition in human infants is biologically programmed.
The ease with which a child learns language is due to the presence of an innate language
acquisition device that is unique to humans.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

21. What does a “critical period” in language development refer to?
a) Period during which the brain is receptive to language learning
b) Period during which children are proficient in their first language
c) Period during which children must receive stimulation to learn language
d) Period during which the brain forms neural connections for language learning
Ans: c
Feedback A: Sensitive period
Feedback B: No specific term is associated with this.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Neural connections form continuously.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.


Difficulty: Hard
Which of the following statements regarding chimpanzees language abilities is true?
a) The language comprehension skills of chimpanzees are equivalent to that of
humans.
b) The language production skills of chimpanzees are equivalent to that of humans.
c) The language comprehension and productions skills of chimpanzees are limited
in comparison to that of humans.
d) Chimpanzees communicate through hand gestures rather than through
vocalizations.

Ans: c
Feedback A: The language comprehension skills of humans exceed that of chimpanzees.
Feedback B: The language production skills of humans exceed that of chimpanzees.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Chimpanzees communicate through vocalizations.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Research shows that compared to children from middle- and upper- socioeconomic
backgrounds, poor children have deficient vocabularies. These differences are
apparent when children _________.
a) enter elementary school
b) enter middle school
c) graduate from

middle school

d) enter high school

Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: The language deficits of low SES children are apparent when children enter
elementary school.


Feedback C: The language deficits of low SES children are apparent when children enter
elementary school.
Feedback D: The language deficits of low SES children are apparent when children enter
elementary school.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Amy is a 5-year-old from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background. Here
cousin Amanda is the same age but comes from higher socioeconomic background.
According to research on language exposure which of the following statements is
most likely true?
a) Amy and Amanda are both exposed to about 2,000 words per hour.
b) Amy is exposed to about 1,000 words per hour while Amanda is exposed to
approximately 2,000 words per hour.
c) Amy is exposed to about 200 words per hour while Amanda is exposed to
approximately 2,000 words per hour.
d) Amy is exposed to about 2,000 words per hour while Amanda is exposed to
approximately 200 words per hour.

Ans: b
Feedback A: Research shows that on average, low SES children are exposed to 50% fewer
words.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Research shows that on average, low SES children are exposed to 50% fewer
words.
Feedback D: Research shows that on average, low SES children are exposed to 50% fewer
words.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay


How do psychologists explain the initial vocabulary deficits of children from
socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds?
Ans: The initial language deficits of poor children are explained by environmental
differences. For example, children from lower SES backgrounds are exposed to
fewer words than children from higher SES backgrounds.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard
Short Answer
How does socioeconomic status affect communication within the family?
Ans: Parents from low SES backgrounds speak less frequently to their children. They
also are more likely to use prohibitive speech.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

According to the text, how can the problem of reduced vocabularies in lower SES
children be remedied?
Ans: Educating parents about the importance of talking and reading to their children
can help to prevent the problem of reduced vocabularies in lower SES children.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

True/False
Parents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds tend to communicate more
with their children than parents from upper socioeconomic status backgrounds.


Ans: False
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

22. Most younger adults score higher than older adults on tests of vocabulary.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

23. Psychologists often report that the years prior to age __________ are an especially important
time for language acquisition.
Ans: thirteen
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

24. What is the term used to define the developmental time window during which the brain is
especially susceptible to influences?
Ans: Sensitive period
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain


that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay

25. Describe the interactionist theory of language development.
Ans: Biological propensity for language development interacts with environmental factors to
enhance language learning
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

26. Joan speaks to her toddler son using high-pitched and exaggerated speech. Which type of
speech is this an example of?
a) Baby talk
b) Child-directed speech
c) Telegraphic speech
d) Pragmatic speech
Ans: b
Feedback A: Meaningless words or sounds
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Short phrases or sentences toddlers often use
Feedback D: Information about language use
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy


True/False

27. Child-directed speech is observed when parents communicate using sign language.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

28. Maya said, “I thinked about it.” This is an example of the linguistic error called __________.
Ans: overregularization
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Short Answer
What do the results of the case study of Genie, a young girl who had spent her entire life chained
to a potty chair, suggest about the critical period theory of language development?
Ans: Genie’s experiences tended to support the theory that a sensitive period for language
learning does exist. During the years that followed her rescue, Genie received extensive,
interactive language training. Although she did initially show progress in expanding her
vocabulary, it was always limited and didn’t include the acquisition of grammatical rules.
Although the case of Genie seems to support the critical period theory for language, it’s
important to keep in mind that Genie was not only deprived of language, but also subjected to
extreme physical and emotional abuse that may have contributed significantly to her inability to
learn.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s


language skills.
Difficulty: Hard
29. What brain area is critical for speech production?
Ans: Broca’s area
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

30. Define aphasia and describe the difference between Wernicke’s aphasia and Broca’s aphasia.
Ans: Aphasia is a general term that refers to difficulty with speech (either production or
comprehension). Broca’s aphasia refers to difficulty in language production whereas Wernicke’s
aphasia refers to difficulty in language comprehension.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

31. Which condition, resulting from damage to Broca’s area, can produce an inability to speak
using proper grammar?
a) Aphasia
b) Agraphia
c) Agrammatism
d) Agnosia
Ans: c
Feedback A: Difficulty with speech (either production or comprehension)
Feedback B: Deficiency in the ability to write by hand
Feedback C: Correct!


Feedback D: Loss of ability to recognize sensory input
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False

32. Wernicke’s area is located in the left temporal lobe.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Fill-in-the-blank

33. The brain region responsible for fear and aggression that appears to be involved in the use of
profanity is the __________.
Ans: amygdala
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Short Answer

34. Damage to which hemisphere of the brain is linked to the inability to understand humor and
metaphors?


Ans: Right
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

35. Define transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and describe a study that used this
technique.
Ans: TMS uses a strong magnetic signal to temporarily inactivate a specific brain region. One
study used this technique to investigate whether people were able to understand metaphors when
their right hemisphere was impaired. They were not able to do so.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

36. Which of the following areas is activated when individuals read?
a) Pons
b) Medulla
c) Frontal eye fields
d) Parietal cortex
Ans: c
Feedback A: Not active while reading
Feedback B: Not active while reading
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Not active while reading
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s


language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

37. When individuals read words that evoke odors, the smell-related portions of the brain
become active.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Boys learn to speak earlier than girls
Ans: False
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer
Why do people swear?
Ans: People swear for a variety of reasons: to intimidate, to show off, to emphasize a point, to
express negative emotions in response to a mishap, and so on. Expletives are often used to get
attention and intimidate. They are commonly associated with anger.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Medium


Essay

40. What pattern in the progression of language development is seen in children who grow up in
a bilingual or multilingual home?
Ans: Learn to speak and understand language at a slightly slower pace than children who grow
up in homes where one language is spoken
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

What region of the brain is activated when we read obscenities or disgust words?
a) the frontal cortex
b) the amygdala
c) the occipital lobe
d) the parietal lobe
Ans: b
Feedback A: The amygdala activates when we read obscenities or disgust words.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: The amygdala activates when we read obscenities or disgust words.
Feedback D: The amygdala activates when we read obscenities or disgust words.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Hard
41. When linguists and psychologists say that language is “generative,” they mean that it is
a) creative
b) innate
c) complex
d) symbolic


Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. To say that language is generative is to say that it is creative, not that it
is innate.
Feedback C: Incorrect. To say that language is generative is to say that it is creative, not that it
is complex.
Feedback D: Incorrect. To say that language is generative is to say that it is creative, not that it
is symbolic.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

42. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the components of language, from the
smallest or most specific to the broadest?
a) phoneme morpheme syntax
b) syntax morpheme phoneme
c) phoneme syntax morpheme
d) syntax phoneme morpheme
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Phonemes, or speech sounds, are smaller than morphemes, which
correspond to words or parts of words. Syntax is broader, consisting of an arrangement of
several words. The correct sequence is: phoneme morpheme syntax
Feedback C: Incorrect. Morphemes are more specific than syntax. Morphemes correspond to
words or parts of words, whereas syntax consists of an arrangement of several words. The
correct sequence is: phoneme morpheme syntax
Feedback D: Incorrect. Phonemes and morphemes are more specific than syntax. Phonemes
are individual speech sounds. Morphemes correspond to words or parts of words. Finally,
syntax consists of an arrangement of several words. The correct sequence is: phoneme
morpheme syntax
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

43. Phonology is the study of:
a) nonverbal communication


b) meaning
c) word order
d) speech sounds
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Phonology is the study of speech sounds. Pragmatics includes the
study of nonverbal communication.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Phonology is the study of speech sounds. Semantics is the study of
meaning.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Phonology is the study of speech sounds. Syntax is the study of word
order.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Easy

44. Approximately how many phonemes are found in English?
a) 26
b) 150
c) 40
d) an infinite number
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. English contains about 40 phonemes.
Feedback B: Incorrect. English contains about 40 phonemes.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. English contains about 40 phonemes.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Easy

45. How many morphemes does the word firefighters contain?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 4
d) 9
Ans: c


Feedback A: Incorrect. The word firefighters contains 4 morphemes or units of meaning:
fire, fight, -er, and –s.
Feedback B: Incorrect. The word firefighters contains 4 morphemes or units of meaning:
fire, fight, -er, and –s.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. The word firefighters contains 4 morphemes or units of meaning:
fire, fight, -er, and –s.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Hard

46. Which component of language below is CORRECTLY matched to its description?
a) pragmatics – social communication
b) syntax – speech sounds
c) semantics – word order
d) phoneme – meaning
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Syntax refers to word order. Speech sounds are phonemes.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Semantics refers to meaning. Word order is syntax.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Phonemes are speech sounds. Meaning is studied in semantics.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

47. Grammar is to meaning as ________ is to ________.
a) semantics; syntax
b) syntax; semantics
c) syntax; phoneme
d) phoneme; semantics
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Grammar is syntax, not semantics. Meaning is examined in
semantics, not syntax.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Meaning entails the examination of semantics, not phonemes.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Grammar is contained in syntax, not in phonemes.


Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

48. Dr. Salim is a linguist, studying the rules guiding the order of words and phrases in several
of the world’s languages. Dr. Salim is a(n) ___________.
a) syntactician
b) semanticist
c) phonologist
d) morphologist
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Dr. Salim is a syntactician. A semanticist studies meaning.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Dr. Salim is a syntactician. A phonologist studies speech sounds.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Dr. Salim is a syntactician. A morphologist studies words and the
units of meaning they contain.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

49. Which component of language is CORRECTLY matched with its usual representation in
written language?
a) syntax -- syllable or word
b) phoneme -- letter
c) morpheme -- sentence
d) semantics -- letter
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Syntax is represented by sentences. Syllables and words generally
represent morphemes and semantics.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Morphemes are represented by syllables and words. Sentences
represent syntax.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Semantics are captured in words. Letters represent phonemes.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s


language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

50. In written language, letters most closely represent __________, whereas sentences may be
said to reflect __________.
a) syntax; semantics
b) syntax; phonemes
c) phonemes; syntax
d) phonemes; semantics
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Letters most closely represent phonemes, not syntax. Sentences most
directly reflect syntax.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Letters most closely represent phonemes, not syntax. Sentences most
directly reflect syntax, not phonemes.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. Sentences more directly reflect syntax than they do semantics.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

52. Which of the following alternatives best expresses the relationships among nonverbal
communication, pragmatics, and gesturing?
a) The terms are synonymous and used interchangeably.
b) Nonverbal communication includes pragmatics and gesturing.
c) Pragmatics includes nonverbal communication, which is synonymous with gesturing.
d) Pragmatics includes nonverbal communication and gesturing.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. The terms are not synonymous. Pragmatics includes nonverbal
communication and gesturing.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Pragmatics includes nonverbal communication and gesturing.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Nonverbal communication is not quite the same as gesturing.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium


53. What is the relationship, if any, between language comprehension and language production
among young children in the “first-words” stage?
a) There is no systematic relationship between language comprehension and language production
at this point: It varies from child to child.
b) Language comprehension generally exceeds language production at this stage.
c) Language comprehension generally lags behind language production at this stage.
d) Language comprehension ability is generally equivalent to language production ability at this
point.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Language comprehension usually exceeds language production at the
first-words stage.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Language comprehension usually exceeds language production at the
first-words stage.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Language comprehension usually exceeds language production at the
first-words stage.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.
Difficulty Level: Medium

54. “Sophie kitty,” Tara says, when her aunt asks her whether the stuffed animal belongs to her
or to her sister. Tara’s reply exemplifies _________ speech.
a) telegraphic
b) holographic
c) idiographic
d) agrammatic
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. “Sophie kitty” exemplifies telegraphic speech. The term
“holographic” is not used in language development.
Feedback C: Incorrect. “Sophie kitty” exemplifies telegraphic speech. The term “idiographic”
does not refer to a language development phenomenon.
Feedback D: Incorrect. “Sophie kitty” exemplifies telegraphic speech. Agrammatism is the
difficulty with grammar displayed by Broca’s aphasics.
Section Ref: Language
Learning Objective: Define language, describe how we learn languages and parts of the brain
that are active in language, and discuss differences and problems that can affect people’s
language skills.


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