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TestBank psychology around us 2nd edition comer ch08

Chapter: Chapter 08: Memory

Multiple Choice

1.Which of the following memory processes is associated with retaining memories for future
use?
a) encoding
b) storage
c) retrieval
d) invigoration
e) plastification
Ans: b
Feedback A: This process involves transferring information into memory.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: This process involves recapturing a memory when we need it.
Feedback D: This process was not discussed in the text.
Feedback E: This process was not discussed in the text.
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Easy


True/False

2.Memory is the faculty for recalling past events and past learning.
Ans: True
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.

Fill-in-the-blank

3.According to the information processing model of memory, ________is the first stage in which


an image is retained by the brain for less than 1 second.
Ans: sensory memory
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

4.How can information be retained in working memory?
Ans: concentrating hard and repeating the information over and over again until it is used
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

5. Using the computer metaphor described in the text, identify the component that is analogous
to the hard drive and its characteristics.
Ans: The answer should identify long term memory and mention that an indefinite number of
items can be stored permanently.
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.


Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

6.What type of memory storage is described as temporary memory that will be lost if it is not
repeated before being passed on to long term memory?
a) sensory
b) temporal
c) working


d) episodic
e) none of these
Ans: c
Feedback A: Sensory memory is not rehearsed.
Feedback B: This type of memory was not discussed in the text.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Episodic memory is a form of long term memory.
Feedback E: One of the answers is correct.
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

7. Only a limited amount of information can be stored in working memory.
Ans: True
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

8.Sensory, working, and long term memory are often referred to as memory _________.
Ans: stores
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

9.What is another name for the parallel distributed processing model of memory?


Ans: connectionist model
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

10. How is the connectionist model of memory different from the information-processing model?
Ans: The answer should reflect the idea that the connectionist model joins newly acquired
information to information that is already stored in long term memory to form networks of
information.
Section Ref: What is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

11. Amelia remarks that she needs to learn her text’s section on the structures of the brain for
an upcoming test. Brian responds that he couldn’t remember the function of the hippocampus
on a test the preceding day. With respect to the three activities of memory described in your
text, Amelia is making reference to _________. Brian is referring to ______.
a) encoding; storage
b) retrieval; encoding
c) retrieval; storage
d) encoding; retrieval
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. The term ‘remembering’ corresponds to retrieval, not to storage.
Feedback B: Incorrect. “Learning’ or taking in information is similar to encoding, not
retrieval. The term ‘remembering’ corresponds to retrieval, not to encoding.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Learning’ or taking in information is similar to encoding, not
retrieval. The term ‘remembering’ corresponds to retrieval, not to storage.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: What Is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.


Difficulty Level: Hard

12. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage
memory model, from first to last?
a) sensory memory working memory long-term memory
b) working memory sensory memory long-term memory
c) sensory memory long-term memory working memory
d) working memory long-term memory sensory memory
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Sensory memory precedes working memory in the model.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Working memory precedes long-term memory in the model.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Sensory memory is the first, not the last, stage in the model.
Section Ref: What Is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Information may last for _______ seconds in sensory memory. The capacity of sensory
memory is _______.
a) a few; small
b) a few; large
c) about 30; small
d) about 30; large
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. The capacity of sensory memory is large.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Information can only last a few seconds in sensory memory. Also,
the capacity of sensory memory is large.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Information can only last a few seconds in sensory memory.
Section Ref: What Is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty Level: Medium

14. Clarice presses on her keyboard to save a document she has been editing. A file
is then created on her computer’s hard drive. Clarice’s action of pressing is most
nearly analogous to the memory activity of _________. The computer’s hard drive is similar to
_________ memory in the three-stage memory model.
a) storage; long-term
b) storage; working


c) encoding; long-term
d) encoding; working
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Saving a file enters it into the computer’s memory, making the action
analogous to encoding.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Saving a file enters it into the computer’s memory, making the action
analogous to encoding. A computer’s hard drive has a large capacity, making it similar to
long-term memory.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. A computer’s hard drive has a large capacity, making it similar to
long-term memory.
Section Ref: What Is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Which of the following is the MOST accurate description of the relationship between the
information processing and connectionist models of memory?
a) They are different models.
b) They are identical models.
c) They are similar models.
d) They model different aspects of memory.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. The information processing and connectionist models of memory are
different, alternative models.
Feedback C: Incorrect. The two types of models are quite different.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The information processing and connectionist models of memory are
both intended to be comprehensive models of memory generally.
Section Ref: What Is Memory?
Learning Objective: Define the basic activities of memory and describe two major models of
memory.
Difficulty Level: Hard
16. For encoding to occur, individuals need to focus on environmental stimuli. This “focus”
refers to what cognitive process?
a) attention
b) storage
c) retrieval
d) invigoration
e) plastification


Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: This process involves retaining a memory for future use
Feedback C: This process involves recapturing a memory when we need it.
Feedback D: This process was not discussed in the text.
Feedback E: This process was not discussed in the text.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False

17.Automatic processing refers to the process by which we attend to environmental information
with little or no conscious effort or thought.
Ans: True
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank

18.You attend a party where you meet someone new. You think this person is cute so you
employ_____ processing by applying careful attention when he/she tells you his/her name.
Ans: effortful
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

19.What types of information might be encoded with little or no conscious effort via automatic
processing?


Ans: time, space, or frequency
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

20. Explain why performing another task while engaging in effortful processing will likely
disrupt encoding whereas encoding of information during automatic processing is less likely to
be affected? Provide an example.
Ans: The answer should mention that a secondary task would detract from the encoding process
and that this would differentially impact effortful rather than automatic processes.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

21. On the Fourth of July, Colin “wrote” his name in the air, and for a few hundred milliseconds
he could see his name. This example illustrates the brief visual storehouse associated with what
memory store?
a) long term
b) declarative
c) working
d) procedural
e) sensory
Ans: e
Feedback A: Information in long term memory is stored permanently.
Feedback B: This is a type of long term memory.
Feedback C: Items in working memory last longer than a few hundred milliseconds.
Feedback D: Procedural memory is a form of long term memory.
Feedback E: Correct!
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.


Difficulty: Hard

True/False

22. Sperling provided important insights into how working memory operates.
Ans: False
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

23.______ or consciously repeating information increases the likelihood of information being
encoded into working memory
Ans: Rehearsal
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer

24.Which is most effective; distributed or massed practice?
Ans: distributed
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay


25. Describe the different types of information that are encoded as phonological versus visual
codes?
Ans: The answer should mention that phonological codes are used to encode verbal information
whereas visual codes are used to encode perceptual information as images.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

26.Mica, five years old, was very good at remembering details such as the jersey numbers of her
favorite hockey players. When asked how she did it, she mentioned that she relied on a highly
detailed team picture that she has at home. This example illustrates what memory phenomenon?
a) encoding
b) verbal encoding
c) retrieval
d) eidetic memory
e) semantic encoding
Ans: d
Feedback A: This answer is too general.
Feedback B: She is relying on an image, so this answer is not correct.
Feedback C: This answer is too general.
Feedback D: Correct!
Feedback E: She is relying on an image, so this answer is not correct.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

True/False

27. Photographic or eidetic memories usually occur in adults.
Ans: False
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?


Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

28. Representations based on the meaning of information are referred to as_______codes.
Ans: semantic
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

29.You need to remember the phone number of the local pizza parlor and you repeat the number
to yourself until you have it entered in the telephone. What type of memory code was used to
encode that information?
Ans: phonological
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay

30. Describe how phonological, visual, and semantic codes might be used simultaneously. Which
is most important in increasing the likelihood that information will be remembered?
Ans: The answer should mention that some codes may be more active than others depending on
the situation, yet combining all types of coding will most likely result in a stronger memory.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard


Multiple Choice

31. While learning the colors associated with our perception of the visual spectrum, Susan
memorized “ROY G BIV.” This is an example of which type of memory aid?
a) cretacious induction
b) mnemonic device
c) workable encoding
d) episodic divination
e) all of these
Ans: b
Feedback A: This term was not discussed in the text.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: This term was not discussed in the text
Feedback D: This term was not discussed in the text.
Feedback E: Only one of the answers is correct.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Easy

32. Professor Mills encourages her students to use the PQRST (Preview, Question, Read,
Self-recite, and Test) method when reading their psychology textbooks. Why does the
PQRST method effectively increase memory performance?
a) The PQRST method decreases the risk of dementia.
b) The PQRST method enhances synaptagenesis.
c) The PQRST method improves organization.
d) The PQRST method increases the intensity of emotions, which thereby increases
memory.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. There is no mention of a link between dementia and the PQRST method
in the textbook.
Feedback B: Incorrect. There is no mention of a link between synaptagenesis. and the PQRST
method in the textbook.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. There is no mention of a link between emotion and the PQRST method
in the textbook.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information into Memory?


Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Hard

32. Tori wants to use the PQRST method when studying the memory chapter of her
psychology textbook. She has previewed each chapter and outlined a list of questions to
guide her note taking. After she reads, according to the PQRST method, what should Tori
do next if she wants to effectively increase memory performance?
a) Tori should self-recite and test herself on the material.
b) Tori should sleep and think some more about the topic.
c) Tori should find something that will reduce her stress and talk to her friends about the
chapter.
d) Tori should sit down and visualize herself getting an A on the chapter test.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Although sleep can enhance consolidation and thus increase memory
performance, sleep is not mentioned as a component of the PQRST method.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Although stress can impact memory performance, stress is not
mentioned as a component of the PQRST method.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Visualization is not mentioned as a component of the PQRST method.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

33. Information is most likely to be stored in long term memory if people elaborate on its
meaning.
Ans: True
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank


33._________are knowledge structures that have been developed based on previous exposure to
similar experiences.
Ans: Schemas
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

Short Answer

34. Although Rick had never visited the Burger King in Shreveport, he knew how to order his
food from the drive up window. What knowledge structure did he use in this instance?
Ans: schema derived from previous restaurant visits
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

35. Provide an example of how organization can enhance our ability to encode information in
long term memory.
Ans: The answer should reflect the idea that organization of new information reformats to have a
structure that is consistent with the familiar/old information already stored in long term memory
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information Into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores, and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice


36. Drew is unable to recall whether Lincoln’s head faces left or right on the penny. Which of
the following is probably the best explanation for Drew’s memory failure?
a) The information is difficult to retrieve, because it is stored along with so many other pieces of
information in Drew’s long-term memory.
b) The information was learned so long ago that it is no longer stored in Drew’s long-term
memory.
c) The information was not encoded, because Drew never really paid attention to Lincoln’s head
on the penny.
d) The information was immediately displaced from Drew’s working memory after it was
encoded.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Interference is a less likely explanation of Drew’s memory failure than
is encoding failure. Few people ever pay attention to the penny.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Decay is a less likely explanation of Drew’s memory failure than is
encoding failure. Few people ever pay attention to the penny.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. It is not likely that Drew encoded the information into working
memory. Few people ever pay attention to the penny.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

37. Which statement best expresses the relationship between attention and the memory
activity of encoding?
a) Attention is a byproduct of encoding.
b) Attention is unrelated to encoding.
c) Attention is synonymous with encoding.
d) Attention is necessary for encoding.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Attention is a necessary prerequisite for encoding.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Attention is necessary for encoding.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Attention is a different process than encoding.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy


38. Which of the following activities is CORRECTLY identified as either an automatic
processing task or an effortful processing task?
a) memorizing a sonnet --- automatic processing
b) estimating how long you have been studying English this evening – automatic processing
c) solving an algebra problem – automatic processing
d) driving a familiar route – effortful processing
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Memorizing a sonnet involves effortful processes.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Solving an algebra problem involves effortful processes.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Driving a familiar route involves automatic processes.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

39. Which of the statements is TRUE regarding automatic processing?
a) We are less aware of the attention we devote to automatic than to effortful processes.
b) Automatic processing does not require attention.
c) We are just as aware of the attention we devote to automatic as to effortful processes.
d) Automatic processing actually requires more attention than does effortful processing.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Automatic processing requires attention, but we are less aware of the
attention we devote to automatic than to effortful processes.
Feedback C: Incorrect. We are less aware of the attention we devote to automatic than to
effortful processes.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Automatic processing does not require more attention than does
effortful processing.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

40. You desperately need to study French vocabulary. Your roommate recommends that you
sit at your desk and turn off the TV and your phone. Is this good advice? Why or why not?
a) Yes, it is good advice. Automatic processes are susceptible to interruption by distractions.
b) Yes, it is good advice. Effortful processes are susceptible to interruption by distractions.
c) No, it is not especially good advice. Automatic processes are not susceptible to interruption


by distractions.
d) No, it is not especially good advice. Effortful processes are not susceptible to interruption by
distractions.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Studying French is an effortful, not an automatic, process. Moreover,
automatic processes are not susceptible to interruption by distractions.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Studying French is an effortful, not an automatic, process.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Effortful processes are susceptible to interruption by distractions.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy

42. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologist George Sperling conducted key studies of:
a) long-term memory
b) working memory
c) effortful processing
d) sensory memory
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Sperling studied sensory memory.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Sperling studied sensory memory.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Sperling studied sensory memory.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy

43. “She did WHAT??” your roommate exclaims as you relate an anecdote about a mutual
friend. Your roommate is processing your story in _________ memory.
a) working
b) sensory
c) semantic
d) long-term
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Keeping up with a story takes place in working memory, not sensory
memory.


Feedback C: Incorrect. Keeping up with a story takes place in working memory, not long-term
memory. Semantic memory is a type of long-term memory.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Keeping up with a story takes place in working memory, not long-term
memory.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

44. The conscious repetition of information to ensure its encoding is termed ________.
a) retrieval
b) rehearsal
c) semantic coding
d) active encoding
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Effortful processing is a more general term referring to tasks requiring
deliberate, conscious control.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Semantic coding refers to the abstract, meaning-based format in which
information is stored in long-term memory.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Active encoding is not a term used in the text.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy

45. Erika usually ‘crams’ for tests the night before they are given. Francisco generally studies
each of his courses for about 45 minutes each night throughout the term. Erika relies on
__________, whereas Francisco uses _________.
a) effortful processing; automatic processing
b) distributed practice; massed practice
c) automatic processing; effortful processing
d) massed practice; distributed practice
Ans: d
Feedback A:
Feedback B:
practice.
Feedback C:
Feedback D:
Section Ref:

Incorrect. Studying is effortful no matter how it is distributed in time.
Incorrect. Cramming is massed practice; spacing out study sessions is distributed
Incorrect. Studying is effortful no matter how it is distributed in t ime.
Correct!
How Do We Encode Information in Memory?


Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

46. Gemma studies History immediately before she falls asleep, so that it will be the last thing
that she learns each day. Holt plays tapes of his professor’s Economics lectures while he sleeps,
thinking he’ll absorb the material ‘subconsciously.’ Armed with your knowledge of the
psychology of memory, what might you tell Gemma? Holt?
a) I would tell Gemma that material encoded immediately prior to sleep is unlikely to be
rehearsed sufficiently for its optimal retention. I would tell Holt that he’ll actually learn a
surprising amount that way.
b) I would tell Gemma that she has a good idea, because learning material immediately prior to
sleep minimizes interference. I would tell Holt that the material on his tapes will not be
encoded while he sleeps.
c) I would tell Gemma that material encoded immediately prior to sleep is unlikely to be
rehearsed sufficiently for its optimal retention. I would tell Holt that the material on his tapes
will not be encoded while he sleeps.
d) I would tell both Gemma and Holt that the material they are trying to learn is unlikely to be
encoded given their strategies.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Holt will not encode information while he sleeps.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Gemma will not rehearse the information sufficiently to ensure its
long-term retention.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. Gemma will encode the information, but not rehearse itinformation
sufficiently to ensure its long-term retention.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Hard

47. You are trying to remember an address long enough to map it using your search engine.
Research suggests that you will probably encode the address using a(n) ______ code.
a) phonological
b) semantic
c) visual
d) eidetic
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Only long-term memories are coded semantically; you are only trying


to maintain the address in working memory.
Feedback C: Incorrect. You are trying to maintain the address in working memory, in which
information is coded phonologically.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The term ‘eidetic’ does not refer to a type of memory code.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

48. Phonological is to semantic as ________ is to _______.
a) appearance; sound
b) meaning; sound
c) sound; meaning
d) sound; appearance
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. The term ‘phonological’ refers to sound, not visual appearance. The
term ‘semantic’ refers to meaning, not sound
Feedback B: Incorrect. The term ‘phonological’ refers to sound, not meaning. The term
‘semantic’ refers to meaning, not sound.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. The term ‘semantic’ refers to meaning, not visual appearance.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

49. Approximately 1 in ____ children encode images eidetically. Eidetic memory occurs
________ frequently among adults than among children.
a) 10; equally
b) 10; less
c) 20; equally
d) 20; less
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. About 1 in 20 children encode images eidetically; it occurs less
frequently among adults than among children.
Feedback B: Incorrect. About 1 in 20 children encode images eidetically.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Eidetic memory occurs less frequently among adults than among
children.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?


Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Hard

50. According to your text, why do different people often seem to remember different details of
the same event?
a) Long-term memories are coded in terms of overall meaning, rather than specific sensory
details.
b) Few people have the eidetic memory to recall events exactly as they occurred.
c) The type of code used to store long-term memories differs greatly from person to person.
d) Long-term memories tend to be coded at a superficial phonological level.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. The text suggests that people remember different details because the
event’s general meaning is coded, rather than its specific details.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Everyone codes long-term memories semantically.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Long-term memories are coded semantically.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

Where do feelings of disgust for products such as trash bags, diapers, and cat litter come from?
Ans: Research by Andrea Morales and Gavin Fitzsimons suggests two possible sources. First,
feelings of disgust for these types of items may develop from early life experiences with the
products. However, the researchers also suggest that these feelings of disgust can develop
outside of our conscious awareness over the course of evolution.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information into Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among
different

Multiple Choice


51. The key word method and method of loci are examples of techniques used to enhance the
meaningfulness of materials so that they may be better remembered. That is, they are examples
of ________.
a) retrieval techniques
b) mnemonic devices
c) rehearsal strategies
d) eidetic methods
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. The answer is too specific. Mnemonic devices involve elaborative
techniques.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. The answer is too specific. Mnemonic devices may involve rehearsal
techniques.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The term ‘eidetic methods’ is not used in the text.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Easy

52. Your text describes a study in which 200-word poems were memorized more quickly than
were 200-word prose passages, which in turn were memorized more quickly than were 200
nonsense syllables. That participants memorized poetry more quickly than prose may reflect the
sound features one finds in poetry, such as rhyme and meter. Poetry, then, may allow one to
take advantage not only of meaning, but also of distinctive _____ codes when one is trying to
memorize it.
a) eidetic
b) visual
c) phonological
d) semantic
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. ‘Eidetic’ is not a term used to refer to a type of code in memory.
Feedback B: Incorrect. The question refers to the sound features of poetry, not its visual
aspects.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. The term ‘semantic’ refers to meaning, not to sound.
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Hard


53. Isadora knows that during a typical job interview, she will be asked to tell the interviewer a
little about herself and suggest why she wants the position. Isadora has developed a(n) _______
for job interviews.
a) semantic code
b) elaborated representation
c) mnemonic
d) schema
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. The answer is too specific. The knowledge framework Isadora has
developed is termed a ‘schema.’ The information contained in schemas is coded semantically.
Feedback B: Incorrect. The answer is not specific enough. The term ‘schema’ is used to refer
to an elaborated representation or knowledge framework for an event.
Feedback C: Incorrect. The question refers to Isadora’s knowledge of job interviews, not to
her attempt to remember interviews.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: How Do We Encode Information in Memory?
Learning Objective: Describe how information is encoded and transferred among different
memory stores and what we can do to enhance encoding.
Difficulty Level: Medium

55.What is the capacity of working memory?
a) 1-8 items
b) 3-11 items
c) 5-9 items
d) 7-13 items
e) none of these
Ans: c
Feedback A: This is not the correct range.
Feedback B: This is not the correct range.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: This is not the correct range.
Feedback E: One of these answers is correct.
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False


56.Old information stored in long term memory must enter working memory for it to be active
for use in an ongoing task.
Ans: True
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Hard

Fill-in-the-blank

57.In 1885, _________pioneered memory research by studying his own memory.
Ans: Hermann Ebbinghaus
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Medium

Short Answer

58. How did George Miller describe working memory capacity?
Ans: magical number seven, plus or minus two
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay


59. Define “chunking” and explain how this concept reveals that working memory can hold more
than 7 plus or minus 2 words/numbers.
Ans: The answer should identify chunks as larger units of information that surpass the definition
of “items” as more than single digits or words.
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

60.During an exam, Joe found that he could look at questions and know the meaning of
acronyms such as PET, MRI, fMRI, PET, and ERP. Although he found it difficult to encode the
spelling of each word because that surpassed his 7+/-2 working memory capacity, he knew the
meaning of each letter. This example illustrates what method used to expand working memory
capacity?
a) spelling
b) temporal overload
c) chunking
d) episodic buffer
Ans: c
Feedback A: This was not discussed as a method of increasing working memory capacity.
Feedback B: This was not discussed as a method of increasing working memory capacity.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: This was not discussed as a method of increasing working memory capacity.
Feedback E: One of the answers is correct.
Section Ref: How Do We Store Memories?
Learning Objective: Describe how we organize and store information in working and long-term
memory, and how we can enhance our long-term memories.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

61.Neuroimaging studies of brain damaged patients suggest that implicit and explicit memories
are stored using the same mechanisms.


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