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TestBank psychology around us 2nd edition comer ch06

Chapter: Chapter 06: Consciousness

Short Answer

1. Name 2 elements that are involved in conscious awareness.
Ans: Attention, monitoring, remembering, planning
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False

2. To be fully conscious of an event, we must be aware that we are attending to it.
Ans: True
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank


3. Weiskrantz’s study suggested that the areas of the brain that allow us to attend to stimuli are
different from the areas that make us aware that we are attending to such stimuli. The term used
to describe this phenomenon is __________.
Ans: blindsight
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Medium


Short Answer

4. What group of individuals did Sperry and Gazzaniga investigate in their research programs to
determine the roles played by the different hemispheres of the brain in regulating conscious
attention?
Ans: Split-brain patients
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Hard

Essay

5. Describe the difference in conscious awareness regulation produced by the left and right
hemispheres of the brain.
Ans: The left cerebral cortex appears to be responsible for verbal awareness, whereas the right
cerebral cortex appears to be responsible for nonverbal forms of conscious awareness such as
tactile awareness.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

6. What portions of the thalamus play the role of a “train conductor” in overseeing the routing of
messages we are consciously aware of?
a) Neurons AND Axons
b) Midline nuclei AND intralaminar nuclei


c) Neurons AND midline nuclei
d) Axons AND intralaminar nuclei


Ans: b
Feedback A: Nerve cells; part of neurons
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Nerve cells; conductor of messages
Feedback D: Part of neurons; conductor of messages
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

7. If either the intralaminar or midline nuclei of the thalamus are damaged, people lose
consciousness and enter a deep coma.
Ans: True
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

8. There is evidence that babies can direct their attention before the age of __________.
Ans: two years
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank


9. A baby must develop a sense of __________ to be fully aware of him/herself as a separate
being from others.
Ans: self
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay

10. Describe how consciousness may be rooted in language.
Ans: Babies cannot reflect on their thoughts and behaviors because they cannot represent them
with language. Due to this lack of language ability, some researchers argue that babies do not
fully develop consciousness until approximately 22 months of age.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

11. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between attention and
consciousness?
a) Attention is necessary for consciousness.
b) Attention is a product of consciousness.
c) Attention is sufficient for consciousness.
d) Attention is the same as consciousness.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Consciousness arises in part from attention. Attention is necessary but
not sufficient for consciousness.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Attention is necessary but not sufficient for consciousness.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Attention is not equal to consciousness. Attention is necessary but not
sufficient for consciousness.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness


Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

12. Recall your text’s discussion of monitoring, remembering, and planning. Which of the
following conclusions concerning the nature of consciousness might be drawn from your text’s
discussion of these elements?
a) Consciousness is oriented to the here and now: It reflects current awareness of the immediate
environment.
b) Consciousness entails bringing past experience to bear on the processing of the immediate
environment.
c) Conscious awareness is directed toward the present and to the immediate future. An
awareness of the immediate environment guides the selection of the next behavior.
d) Conscious awareness involves the processing of the immediate environment informed by past
experience as well as future intentions.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Conscious awareness involves the processing of the immediate
environment informed by both past experience and future intentions.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Conscious awareness involves the processing of the immediate
environment informed by both past experience and future intentions.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Conscious awareness involves the processing of the immediate
environment informed by both past experience and future intentions.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

13. Which of the following alternatives best captures what happens in the brain when we
become aware of a stimulus?
a) Certain neurons in the brain become active.
b) One group of neurons, or network, comes to dominate the brain’s activity.
c) Multiple networks of neurons become more active.
d) All the neurons in the brain increase their level of activity.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. When we become aware of a stimulus, multiple neural networks
increase their activity.
Feedback B: Incorrect. When we become aware of a stimulus, multiple neural networks
increase their activity.
Feedback C: Correct!


Feedback D: Incorrect. When we become aware of a stimulus, multiple neural networks
increase their activity.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

14. Which of the following subcortical structures in the brain is especially important for
consciousness?
a) hippocampus
b) thalamus
c) hypothalamus
d) amygdala
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. The thalamus, not the hippocampus, is especially important for
consciousness.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. The thalamus, not the hypothalamus, is especially important for
consciousness.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The thalamus, not the amygdala, is especially important for
consciousness.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Easy

15. Which of the following statements best expresses the importance of blindsight for our
understanding of consciousness?
a) Blindsight reveals the role of the thalamic nuclei in consciousness.
b) Blindsight indicates the different contributions to consciousness of the right and left
hemispheres.
c) Blindsight suggests that consciousness is different from awareness.
d) Blindsight underscores the contribution to consciousness of parallel processing in multiple
neural networks.
Ans: c
Feedback A:
Feedback B:
Feedback C:
Feedback D:
Section Ref:

Incorrect. Blindsight suggests that consciousness is different from awareness.
Incorrect. Blindsight suggests that consciousness is different from awareness.
Correct!
Incorrect. Blindsight suggests that consciousness is different from awareness.
When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness


Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

16. Mr. Altschuler insists that he sees no objects in a room, yet he manages to avoid bumping
into furniture and tripping over items on the floor. What seems to be Mr. Altschuler’s condition?
a) Mr. Althschuler has a thalamic lesion.
b) Mr. Altschuler has visual agnosia.
c) Mr. Altschuler’s corpus callosum has been severed.
d) Mr. Altschuler has blindsight.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Mr. Altschuler has blindsight, not a thalamic lesion.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Mr. Altschuler has blindsight, not visual agnosia.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Mr. Altschuler has blindsight.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

17. Which neuroscientist is most closely associated with split-brain studies? What did these
studies demonstrate regarding consciousness?
a) Split-brain studies are associated with Roger Sperry. The studies show that the left
hemisphere contributes to verbal awareness, while the right hemisphere underlies nonverbal
awareness.
b) Split-brain studies are associated with Roger Sperry. The studies show that the right
hemisphere contributes to verbal awareness, while the left hemisphere underlies nonverbal
awareness.
c) Split-brain studies are associated with Lawrence Weiskrantz. The studies show that the left
hemisphere contributes to verbal awareness, while the right hemisphere underlies nonverbal
awareness.
d) Split-brain studies are associated with Lawrence Weiskrantz. The studies show that the right
hemisphere contributes to verbal awareness, while the left hemisphere underlies nonverbal
awareness.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Split-brain studies show that the left hemisphere contributes to verbal
awareness, while the right hemisphere underlies nonverbal awareness.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Split-brain studies are associated with Roger Sperry.


Feedback D: Incorrect. Split-brain studies are associated with Roger Sperry. The studies show
that the left hemisphere contributes to verbal awareness, while the right hemisphere underlies
nonverbal awareness.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

18. Which of the following thalamic nuclei is involved in conscious awareness?
a) lateral geniculate nucleus
b) intralaminar nucleus
c) ventromedial nucleus
d) medial geniculate nucleus
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. The intralaminar nucleus is involved in conscious awareness. The
lateral geniculate nucleus is involved in vision.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. The intralaminar nucleus is involved in conscious awareness. The
ventromedial nucleus is in the hypothalamus.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The intralaminar nucleus is involved in conscious awareness. The
medial geniculate nucleus is involved in vision.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Easy

19. Ms. Badeaux has suffered damage to her left midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. Most
likely, Ms. Badeaux will:
a) lose awareness of events happening on the right side of her body
b) have difficulty naming objects
c) appear unaware of objects in her environment
d) lapse into a coma
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Ms. Badeaux should lose awareness of events on the right side of her
body.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Ms. Badeaux should lose awareness of events on the right side of her
body.
Feedback D: Incorrect. With midline and intralaminar damage in only the left hemisphere, Ms.
Badeaux should lose awareness of events on the right side of her body.


Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

20. Based on your text’s discussion of the development of consciousness during infancy, which
of the following statements is MOST accurate?
a) The development of the self-concept depends on the development of consciousness.
b) The development of the self-concept precedes the development of consciousness.
c) The development of the self-concept follows the development of consciousness.
d) The development of the self-concept occurs simultaneously with the development of
consciousness.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Your text suggests that the development of the self-concept precedes the
development of consciousness.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Your text suggests that the development of the self-concept precedes the
development of consciousness.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Your text suggests that the development of the self-concept precedes the
development of consciousness.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

21. Chyna is 20 months old. Danae is 24 months old. Which of the following choices best
describes the development of the self-concept and of conscious awareness more broadly in these
infants?
a) Both infants have consciousness. Only Danae, though, has a self-concept.
b) Both infants have a self-concept. Only Danae, though, has consciousness.
c) Both Chynna and Danae have both a self-concept and consciousness.
d) Neither Chynna nor Danae has either a self-concept or consciousness.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Both infants have a self-concept. Only Danae, though, has
consciousness.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Both infants have a self-concept. Only Danae, though, has
consciousness.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Both infants have a self-concept. Only Danae, though, has
consciousness.


Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

22. Enrique is 16 months old. Fidel is 20 months old. A researcher dabs rouge on the foreheads
of each of these infants and then holds each in front of a mirror in turn. What should happen?
a) Both infants will try to touch the mirror.
b) Each infant will touch his own forehead.
c) Enrique will touch his forehead. Fidel will touch the mirror.
d) Enrique will touch the mirror. Fidel will touch his forehead.
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Because a stable sense of self develops around 18 mo., Fidel will touch
his forehead, not the mirror.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Because a stable sense of self develops around 18 mo., only Fidel will
touch his forehead.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Because a stable sense of self develops around 18 mo., Fidel will touch
his forehead, whereas Enrique will touch the mirror.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

23. Based on your text’s discussion, which of the following alternatives best reflects a current
controversy among theorists examining the development of consciousness in infancy?
a) whether it is possible to investigate the self-concept among very young infants
b) whether the development of a self-concept precedes or follows the development of
consciousness
c) whether the development of consciousness depends on the development of language
d) whether the development of consciousness depends on the development of a self-concept
Ans: c
Feedback A:
development
Feedback B:
development
Feedback C:
Feedback D:
development
Section Ref:

Incorrect. Your text suggests that a current controversy is whether the
of consciousness depends on the development of language.
Incorrect. Your text suggests that a current controversy is whether the
of consciousness depends on the development of language.
Correct!
Incorrect. Your text suggests that a current controversy is whether the
of consciousness depends on the development of language.
When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness


Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness, and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

1. According to research on heightened awareness and driving experience, which of the
following drivers will be most likely to view driving as a process that requires constant
conscious awareness and attention?
a) Chantal, who has 20 years of driving experience
b) Thomas, who has 5 years of driving experience
c) Ashley, who has 1 year of driving experience
d) Justin, who has 1 month of driving experience
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Justin will be most likely to view driving as a process that requires
constant conscious attention because he has the least amount of driving experience.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Justin will be most likely to view driving as a process that requires
constant conscious attention because he has the least amount of driving experience.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Justin will be most likely to view driving as a process that requires
constant conscious attention because he has the least amount of driving experience.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay

2. Do we demonstrate heightened awareness of our actions when a task is novel or familiar?
Explain how task familiarity is related to our sense of awareness.
Ans: When we perform a new task that we are relatively inexperienced at, we are more likely to
demonstrate heightened awareness. Well-learned and familiar tasks may become relatively
automatic over time.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium
True-False
3. As cognitive overload increases, our ability to make rational choices about issues that are less
important decreases.
Ans: True


Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Medium

Multiple Choice

4. You are in charge of running the company holiday party and are left with a large bowl of fruit
salad and a huge chocolate cake. You want to desperately get rid of the leftovers so you plate
them up and start asking co-workers one by one if they want any more fruit or cake. According
to research on cognitive stress and overload, which of the following people will be most likely to
select the giant piece of chocolate cake despite the fact that the cake is higher in fat and calories
and lower in overall nutritional value ?
a) Jenny, who was relaxing and reading a book at the party.
b) Raquel, who has been working around the clock vigorously preparing a end-of-year
multi-group presentation with the company CEO and stockholders.
c) Chandra, who has been visiting with friends and planning her weekend.
d) Naomi, who fell asleep at her desk during the party.
Ans: b
Feedback A: Raquel will be most likely to select the cake because she is experiencing the greatest
amount of cognitive stress and overload.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Raquel will be most likely to select the cake because she is experiencing the greatest
amount of cognitive stress and overload.
Feedback D: Raquel will be most likely to select the cake because she is experiencing the greatest
amount of cognitive stress and overload.
Section Ref: When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness
Learning Objective: Define different levels of conscious awareness and describe key brain
structures and functions associated with those levels.
Difficulty Level: Hard

24. Today, Jaquanda saw a woman she met last night at a college fundraiser, but could not
remember her name. She could only remember that her name started with the letter “B”. At what
level of consciousness does this name information reside?
a) Preconscious
b) Unconscious
c) Conscious
d) Altered


Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Not in the unconscious because James has some access to it
Feedback C: Not conscious because he cannot produce the entire name
Feedback D: Change in level of consciousness
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False

25. Automatic processes are considered unconscious behaviors.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

26. A memory has reached the __________ level when we finally remember information.
Ans: conscious
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer

27. Mike said he “hated his attorney”. He meant to say that he “waited on his attorney”. What
term is used to identify this “slip of the tongue”?


Ans: Freudian slip
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Easy

Essay

28. Provide an example of information that exists at the unconscious level of thought.
Ans: Example that depicts that unconscious information is not readily accessible, yet it may
guide our behavior
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

29. Susan tried to remember her son’s middle school teacher’s name by applying effort and
stating that it rhymed with the word “nails”. Her awareness of this knowledge suggests that she
was utilizing what type of memory?
a) Long term
b) Explicit
c) Working
d) Implicit
Ans: b
Feedback A: Too general
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Items in working memory last longer than a few hundred milliseconds.
Feedback D: Knowledge we are not typically aware of
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium


True/False

30. Explicit memory is used when we display the skills that we have acquired through
experience.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

31. Freud suggested that people deal with memories that are too painful by __________ such
thoughts and keeping them in the unconscious.
Ans: repressing
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer

32. What is the purpose of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in dealing with unconscious material?
Ans: To bring unconscious material into conscious awareness
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Medium


Essay

33. Describe the difference between explicit and implicit memory processes?
Ans: Explicit memory is effortfully acquired and accessible to conscious awareness, whereas
implicit memory is not effortfully acquired or consciously accessible.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

34. Information of which you are currently unaware but which you can bring to mind quite
easily is said to be in the ___________.
a) unconscious
b) protoconscious
c) subconscious
d) preconscious
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Information you can bring to mind quite easily is said to be
preconscious, not the unconscious.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Information you can bring to mind quite easily is said to be
preconscious. “Protoconscious” is not a term used in your text.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Information you can bring to mind quite easily is said to be
preconscious. “Subconscious” is not a term used in your text.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Easy

35. Adding water to the coffeemaker, Geraldine realizes too late that she had ready poured a
carafe of water into the machine. Geraldine wonders where her mind went; apparently, she
completed the coffee-making task:
a) paraconsciously
b) subconsciously


c) preconsciously
d) unconsciously
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Automatic behaviors like making coffee are often completed
preconsciously. “Paraconscious” is not a term used in your text.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Automatic behaviors like making coffee are often completed
preconsciously. “Subconscious” is not a term used in your text.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. Automatic behaviors like making coffee are often completed
preconsciously, not unconsciously.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium

36. You are helping your young niece complete a worksheet for her elementary-school social
studies class. You find that although you hadn’t thought about the information in years, you can
bring obscure state capitals like Dover, Pierre, and Carson City to mind quite easily. This
information is housed in your ___________.
a) preconscious
b) subconscious
c) conscious mind
d) unconscious
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. The example refers to preconscious information. “Subconscious” is not
a term used in your text.
Feedback C: Incorrect. The example refers to preconscious, not conscious information: The
capitals were not on your mind before beginning the homework.
Feedback D: Incorrect. The example refers to preconscious, not unconscious information: You
can recall the capitals quite easily.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium

37. Freud suggested that most of one’s personal knowledge is contained in the _______.
a) conscious mind
b) subconscious
c) preconscious


d) unconscious
Ans: d
Feedback A: Incorrect. Freud suggested that most knowledge is unconscious, not conscious.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Freud suggested that most knowledge is unconscious. “Subconscious” is
not a term used in your text.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Freud suggested that most knowledge is in the unconscious mind, not
the preconscious mind.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Easy

38. How has the status of the concept of the unconscious changed through psychology’s history
since Freud’s time?
a) It hasn’t, really: Psychologists have continued to embrace the notion of the unconscious since
the time of Freud.
b) Psychologists have generally rejected the concept of the unconscious ever since Freud’s death.
c) In recent decades, many psychologists have rediscovered the concept of the unconscious.
d) In recent years, an increasing number of psychologists have rejected the notion of the
unconscious.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Psychologists largely rejected the unconscious for a long time. Only in
recent decades have many psychologists have rediscovered it.
Feedback B: Incorrect. While psychologists largely rejected the concept for a long time, many
psychologists have rediscovered the unconscious in recent years.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. In recent decades, many psychologists have rediscovered the concept of
the unconscious.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium

39. Memories that we cannot recall deliberately but that we use to perform tasks are termed
________.
a) tacit
b) implicit
c) intrinsic
d) internal


Ans: b
Feedback A: Incorrect. Memories that are not recalled deliberately but rather used to perform
tasks are termed implicit, not tacit, memories.
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Incorrect. Memories that are not recalled deliberately but rather used to perform
tasks are termed implicit, not intrinsic, memories.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Memories that are not recalled deliberately but rather used to perform
tasks are termed implicit, not internal, memories.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious
Difficulty Level: Easy

40. Hayden is learning to drive. Ida is an experienced driver. Hayden relies on _______
memory to supply answers to the questions on the written drivers’ test. To successfully negotiate
the rush hour traffic on the way home, Ida depends on _________.
a) implicit; implicit memory, too
b) implicit; explicit memory
c) explicit; implicit memory
d) explicit; explicit memory, too
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. Hayden is using explicit memory to answer test questions.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Hayden is using explicit memory to answer test questions. Ida is using
implicit memory to drive home.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Incorrect. Ida is using implicit memory to drive home.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Hard

41. Dr. James is a contemporary psychodynamic psychologist. Her colleague, Dr. Kagawa, is a
cognitive psychologist. How does each of these psychologists view the function of unconscious
thought?
a) Dr. James views unconscious processing as a mechanism protecting us from disturbing
thoughts. Dr. Kagawa sees it as part of everyday information processing.
b) Dr. James views unconscious thought as part of everyday information processing. Dr.
Kagawa sees it as a mechanism protecting us from disturbing thoughts.
c) Both Dr. James and Dr. Kagawa see unconscious processing as a mechanism protecting us
from disturbing thoughts.


d) Both Dr. James and Dr. Kagawa see unconscious mechanisms as part of everyday information
processing.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Dr. James views unconscious processing as a mechanism protecting us
from disturbing thoughts. Dr. Kagawa sees it as part of everyday information processing.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Only Dr. James views unconscious processing as a mechanism
protecting us from disturbing thoughts.
Feedback D: Incorrect. Only Dr. Kagawa sees unconscious mechanisms as part of everyday
information processing.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium
True – False

5. Negative memories are more likely to be repressed than positive memories.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Easy

Multiple Choice

6. According to research on emotion and memory, which of the following events is Amber most
likely to repress?
a) The day she had her first kiss with the boy of her dreams.
b) The day she got an A on a science project she had been working hard on.
c) The day she felt humiliated at school for not noticing that the zipper was down on her
jeans.
d) The day her parents surprised her with a special sweet sixteen surprise party.
Ans: c
Feedback A: Incorrect. A kiss with someone you like is considered a pleasant event. Pleasant
events are less likely to be repressed.
Feedback B: Incorrect. Achievement is considered a pleasant event. Pleasant events are less
likely to be repressed.
Feedback C: Correct!

Commented [w1]: Don’t see any text corresponding to this
question.


Feedback D: Incorrect. Spending time at a party with friends and family is considered a pleasant
event. Pleasant events are less likely to be repressed.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium

7. Which of the following situational factors will increase our tendency to make automatic
intuitive judgments?
a) Being forced to make quick decisions under uncertain circumstances.
b) Having access to both positive and negative information so that the pros and cons of
possible options can be evaluated.
c) Having unlimited time to process information and come to a decision.
d) Feeling as though one is being watched by others.
Ans: a
Feedback A: Correct!
Feedback B: Incorrect. Weighing the pros and cons of a situation requires controlled conscious
thinking.
Feedback C: Incorrect. Strict time constraints are more likely to yield automatic intuitive
judgements. Unlimited time constraints allow for the possibility of controlled conscious
decision-making.
Feedback D: The effects of social influence on automatic and controlled processing were not
discussed in the text.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer

8. Why is the ability to make intuitive and unconscious decisions under conditions of uncertainty
important?
Ans: According to the text, many of life’s decisions involve conditions of uncertainty. Intuitive
and unconscious decision-making allows us to quickly adapt to these types of situations.
Section Ref: Preconscious and Unconscious States
Learning Objective: Summarize the ideas of preconscious and unconscious states, including
Freud’s thinking on the unconscious.
Difficulty Level: Hard

42. Which of the following results may occur when a person is hypnotized?


a) They act in unusual ways.
b) They experience unusual sensations.
c) They remember forgotten events.
d) All of the above
Ans: d
Feedback A: Options A, B, and C are all accurate statements.
Feedback B: Options A, B, and C are all accurate statements.
Feedback C: Options A, B, and C are all accurate statements.
Feedback D: Correct!
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False

43. Approximately forty percent of the adult population is highly susceptible to hypnosis.
Ans: False
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Medium

Fill-in-the-blank

44. Hypnosis is often referred to as a(n) __________ state of consciousness.
Ans: altered
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer


45. What percentage of the population reportedly cannot be hypnotized at all?
Ans: 10%
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Medium

Essay

46. Describe 2 characteristics an individual must possess in order for the hypnotic process to
work?
Ans: Willingness to relinquish control over certain behaviors; openness and responsiveness to
suggestions made by the hypnotist
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

47. Which group tends to be particularly open to hypnotic suggestions?
a) Women
b) Children
c) Elderly
d) Men
Ans: b
Feedback A: Less open than children
Feedback B: Correct!
Feedback C: Less open than children
Feedback D: Less open than children
Section Ref: Hypnosis


Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Easy

True/False

48. People who are in touch with their imaginations are especially suggestible to hypnosis.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Easy

Fill-in-the-blank

49. When a hypnotist guides an individual to a heightened tension and awareness, the individual
is in a __________ trance.
Ans: hyperalert
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Hard

Short Answer

50. What type of response has occurred when a predetermined signal prompts a response from a
person after they have been roused from a hypnotic trance?
Ans: Posthypnotic
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.


Difficulty: Medium

Essay

51. Define posthypnotic amnesia and provide an example in which this may occur.
Ans: Information learned during the trance state is forgotten until the hypnotist provides a
predetermined signal to remember it; provide an applicable example
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Hard

Multiple Choice

52. Which of the following disorders is hypnosis most helpful in treating?
a) Depression
b) Alcoholism
c) Anxiety
d) Narcolepsy
Ans: c
Feedback A: Not enough research has been conducted to know whether hypnosis may be helpful
in treating this disorder.
Feedback B: Not enough research has been conducted to know whether hypnosis may be helpful
in treating this disorder.
Feedback C: Correct!
Feedback D: Not enough research has been conducted to know whether hypnosis may be helpful
in treating this disorder.
Section Ref: Hypnosis
Learning Objective: Discuss theories and evidence about how hypnosis works, what it is, and
how it can be used.
Difficulty: Medium

True/False


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