TỔNG HỢP CÁC THÌ (TENSES) TRONG TIẾNG ANH
Uses and Examples
1. The Present Simple Tense:
- Diễn tả một chân lí, một sự thật hiển hiên.
Ex: The sun rises in the East.
- Diễn tả thói quen, hành động thường xuyên xảy ra ở
- ‘to be’: S +
Ex: Mary often goes to school by bicycle.
- ordinary verbs: S
- Diễn tả hành động , sự việc tương lai sẽ xảy ra theo
thời gian biểu hay lịch trình.
Ex: The train leaves at seven twenty-three tomorrow
2. The Present Continuous Tense
- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra tại thời điểm nói
hoặc xung quanh thời điểm nói.
Ex: Tom is having dinner at the moment.
Be quiet! The baby is sleeping.
S + am/is/are +
- Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai có kế hoạch
Ex: George is leaving for New York tomorrow.
What are you doing tonight?
3. The Present Perfect Tense
- Diễn tả một hành động vừ mới xảy ra.
Ex: I have just finished my homework.
- Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng
không xác định rõ thời điểm.
Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t.
- Diễn tả hảnh động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ, kéo dài đến
hiện tại, và có thể tiếp tục ở tương lai.
S + have/has +
Ex: Mary has lived in this house for ten years.
- Diễn tả hành động lặp đi lặp lại nhiều lần.
Ex: I have seen this film three times.
- Dùng trong cấu trúc:
Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed
Be + the ss nhất + N + S + have/has + V3/ed
Ex: This is the first time I have been to Paris.
She is the most honest person I have ever met.
4. The Present Perfect Continuous:
Diễn tả một hành động bắt đầu trong quá khứ và kéo dài liên
tục đến hiện tại. (nhấn mạnh tính liên tục của hành động)
Notes: Không dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn để nói
S + have/has+
những tình huống tồn tại 1 thời gian dài nhất là khi có
been + V-ing
Ex: Alice has always worked hard. (Không dùng has always
been working hard)
every day/ year/
once/ three times
month, . ..
now, right now,
at the moment,
at present, ...;
already, up to
now, so far, for a
long time, for
ages, since, for,
just, yet, several
times, How long,
in the last
How long, since,
5. The Simple Past tense.
- Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra và kết thúc tại một thời
điểm xác định trong quá khứ.
- ‘tobe’: S +
Ex: My mother left this city three years ago.
- ordinary verbs: S
- Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra suốt thời gian dài trong
quá khứ nhưng đã hoàn tòan chấm dứt.
Ex: Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
6. The Past Continuous Tense:
- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm
hay cả một khoảng thời gian trong quá khứ.
Ex: I was watching a football match on T.V at 8 o'clock
- Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra trong quá khứ
S + was/were +
(QKTD) thì một hành động khác xảy ra (quá khứ đơn)
Ex: I was having dinner when he came.
- Diễn tả hai hoặc nhiều hành động xảy ra đồng thời tại
cùng một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ.
Ex: At 8p.m yesterday, Mary was watching TV while
Tom was reading a newspaper.
7. The Past Perfect Tense:
Diễn tả một hành động đã xảy ra và kết thúc trước một
thời điểm hay một sự việc khác trong quá khứ.
Ex: He had worked in that company for 5 years before
S + had + V3
The train had gone when we arrived the station.
8. The Past Perfect Continuous:
Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn diễn tả một hành động quá
khứ đã xảy ra và kéo dài cho đến khi hành động quá khứ thứ
2 xảy ra(hành động thứ 2 dùng Past Simple) thường khoảng
S + had been +
thời gian kéo dài được êu rõ trong câu.
Ex: The man had been playing cards for 3 hours before I
9. The Simple Future Tense
- Diễn tả một hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai.
Ex: He will be 20 next week.
- Diễn đạt ý kiến, đưa ra lời hứa hoặc một quyết định tức
S + will + V0
I, we + will/ shall
Ex: I think Liverpool will win.
I’ phone you tonight.
the day before
in 1995, ...
at 7.00 pm
yesterday, at this
time last night,
Before, after, up
to then, when,...
10. Near Future:
S + is/am/are +
going to + V0
- Hành động sắp và sẽ xảy ra trong tương lai gần dựa
vào dấu hiệu của hiện tại.
Ex: Look at the black clouds in the sky. It's going to rain.
- Hành động tương lai có dự định trước:
Ex: I am going to sell my house next week.
11. The Future Continuous Tense:
- Diễn tả hành động đang tiến hành tại một thời điểm ở
Eg: At 10 o’clock tomorrow morning he will be working at
- Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra ở tương lai thì có hành
động khác xen vào.
Eg: I will be studying when you return this evening
S + will/shall + be +
They will be travelling in Italy by the time you arrive here.
- Dùng Will you be + V-ing? để hỏi về dự định của một
người khi ta cần điều gì hoặc cần người đó làm điều gì.
Ex: A: Will you be using your motorbike this evening?
B: No, you can take it.
A: Will you be passing the post office when you go out?
B: Yes, why?
12. The Future Perfect Tense
Diễn tả một hành động sẽ hoàn tất vào một thời điểm
S + will/shall +
cho trước ở tương lai.
have + V-ing
Ex: I will have finished my work by noon.
13. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense:
Diễn tả một hành động bắt đầu từ quá khứ và kéo dài
đến 1 thời điểm cho trước ở tương lai.
S + will/shall +
Ex: By November, we will been living in this house for 10
have been +
By March 15th, I wil have been working for this company
for 6 years.
this time next
week, this time
By + mốc thời
gian, by the
time, by then.
By... + for +
gian, by the
time, by then.
1. Không dùng các thì tiếp diễn (continuous tenses) với các động từ chỉ nhận thức sau:
- Động từ chỉ giác quan hoạc động từ nối (verbs of senses or linking verbs): be, feel, look, hear, see, smell,
sound, taste, notice,...
Ex: I don’t see anything now. Can you turn on the light? (NOT: I’m mot seeing anything now...)
- Động từ diễn tả tình cảm (verbs of emotions): like, love, hate, dislike, detest, fear, desire, need, respect,
Ex: Anita didn’t use to like classical music, but now she likes it a lot. (NOT: ... But now she is liking it a lot)
- Động từ chỉ sinh hoạt tinh thần (verbs of mental activities): believe, know, mean, realize, recognize,
remember, understand, suppose, think (that), ...
Ex: I believe they are enjoying themselves at the beach. (NOT: I’m believing they are...)
- Động từ chỉ sở hữu (verbs of possession): belong to, owe, own, possess, contain, consist of, depend on,
Ex: How much do owe me now? (NOT: How much you are owing me now?)
- Một số động từ thuộc nhóm trên nếu mang ý nghĩa diễn tả hành động thì có thể dùng ở các thì tiếp diễn:
Không dùng với thì tiếp diễn
Smell (linking verb): có mùi
Ex: Your tower smells bad.
Dùng với thì tiếp diễn
Smell (action verb): ngửi
Ex: Tom is smelling his tower to see it needs washing.
Các động từ giác quan khác cũng có cách dùng tương tự: taste: có mùi vị (LV), nếm (AV); feel: có cảm
giác (LV); sờ xem (AV)
Think (that) cho rằng
Think about/of: suy nghĩ về/nhớ
Ex: I think you should pay more attention to your Ex: “What are you thinking about?”
Have: có (động từ sở hữu)
Ex: I have my credit card but I don’t have any
Have dùng với thì tiếp diễn trong các cụm từ sau:
- have breakfast/lunch/dinner/meat/steak...: ăn = to eat
- have coffee/tea/orange juice/wine...: uống = to drink
- have a walk/a swim/ a bath/ a drive: đi bộ/ bơi/ tắm/
- have trouble/a problem/a good time/ a party...: gặp
rắc rối/vui vẻ/ mở tiệc
Ex: I don’t usually have wine with meals, but now I’m
having a glass of whiskey.
Look (linking verb): trông có vẻ
Ex: You look ill. What’s the matter with you?
Look at/ after/ for (action verb): nhìn vào/ chăm sóc/
Ex: I’m looking for my pen, but I can’t see it
2. Không dùng các thì tương lai (Future tenses) trong các mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian, thì Simple
Future được thay bằng Simple Present, thì Future Perfect (hoặc Future Perfect Continuous) đựoc thay bằng
thì Present Perfect (hoặc Present Perfect continuous).
3. Sequence of Tenses: (Sự phối hợp thì trong mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian)
Adverbial clauses of time: bắt đầu bằng các liên từ chỉ thời gian như: when, whenever, before, after,
since, as soon as, as, while, till, until, just as, no sooner…than, hardly…when, as long as, etc.
Adverbial clause of
Biên soạn: Vu Dai Loi
Use the correct form of verbs in brackets.
In all the world, there (be) __________ only 14 mountains that (reach) __________above 8,000
He sometimes (come) __________ to see his parents.
When I (come) __________, she (leave) __________for Dalat ten minutes ago.
My grandfather never (fly) __________ in an airplane, and he has no intention of ever doing so.
We just (decide) __________ that we (undertake) the job.
He told me that he (take) __________ a trip to California the following week.
I knew that this road (be) __________ too narrow.
Right now I (attend) __________ class. Yesterday at this time I (attend) __________class.
Tomorrow I’m going to leave for home. When I (arrive) __________at the airport, Mary (wait) for
10. Margaret was born in 1950. By the year 2005, she (live) __________on this earth for 55 years .
11. The traffic was very heavy. By the time I (get) __________to Mary’s party, everyone already
12. I will graduate in June. I (see) you in July. By the time I (see) __________ you , I (graduate)
13. I (visit) __________ my uncle’s home many times when I (be) __________ a child.
14. That book (lie) __________ on the table for week. You (not read) __________ it yet ?
15. David (wash) __________ his hands. He just (repair) __________ the TV set.
16. You (be) __________here before? Yes, I (spend) __________ my holidays here last year.
17. We never (meet) __________ him. We don’t know what he (look) __________ like.
18. The car (be) __________ ready for him by the time he (come) __________tomorrow.
19. On arriving at home I (find) __________that she just (leave) __________a few minutes before.
20. When we (arrive) __________ in London tonight, it probably (rain) __________.
21. It (rain) __________ hard. We can’t do anything until it (stop) __________
22. Last night we (watch) __________TV when the power (fail) __________.
23. That evening we (stay) __________up to talk about the town where he (live) __________for some
24. I (sit) __________down for a rest while the shoes (repair) __________.
25. Half way to the office Paul (turn) __________round and (go) __________back home because he
(forget) to turn the gas off.
26. London (change) a lot since we first (come) __________ to live here.
27. While we (talk) __________on the phone the children (start) __________fighting and (break)
28. He used to talk to us for hours about all the interesting things he (do) __________ in his life.
29. You know she (stand) __________looking at that picture for the last twenty minutes.
30. I (spend) __________ a lot of time travelling since I (get) __________this new job.
31. When I (be) __________ at school we all (study) __________Latin.
32. When I (meet) __________ him , he (work) __________as a waiter for a year or so.
33. After he (finish) __________ breakfast he (sit) __________down to write some letters.
34. She (have) __________a hard life, but she’s always smiling.
35. I think Jim (be) __________ out of town.
Choose the word or phrase that best complete the sentence (A, B, C, or D):
1) He ____ for London one year ago.
B. has left
D. had left
2) She ____ in Hue for twenty years.
B. has lived
D. will live
3) I ____ to the market with my mother yesterday.
C. have gone
D. was going
4) What ____ you ____, Nam? – I’m thinking of my mother.
5) How long ____ you ____ her? – For five months.
6) I usually ____ to school by bus.
B. am going
D. have gone
7) Yesterday morning I ____ up at 6.30.
C. was getting
D. had got
8) Please don’t make so much noise. I ____.
C. am studying
9) Water ____ at 100 degrees Celsius.
C. is boiling
D. will boil
10) It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago. So it ____ for two hours.
B. is raining
C. has rained
11) ____ you ____ out last night?
12) This house ____ 35,000 pounds in 1980.
C. had cost
D. was cost
13) While Tom ____ tennis, Ann ____ a shower.
C. was playing/was taking
D. was play/was take
14) Mike is playing chess. How long ____ he ____?
D. has/been playing
15) When they ____ in the garden, the phone ____.
A. worked/was ringing
B. were working/rang
16) After they ____ their breakfast, they ____ shopping yesterday.
B. had had/go
C. had/had gone
D. had had/went
17) They ____ tea when the doorbell ____.
A. have/is ringing
B. were having/rang
C. had had/ rang
18) Father ____ his pipe while mother ____ a magazine.
B. had smoked/read
C. was smoking/was reading
19) When I ____ into the office, my boss ____ for me.
A. came/was waiting
B. was coming/waited
C. had come/waited
20) When I ____ Brian, he ____ a taxi.
B. see/was driving
C. saw/was driving
D. saw/is driving
21) When he ____, we ____ dinner.
B. arrived/were having C. was arriving/had
D. had arrived/had
22) While they ____ chess, we ____ the shopping.
B. were playing/doing
D. were playing/were doing
23) They ____ football when the lights in the stadium ____ out.
A. were playing/went
B. played/was going
C. were playing/ was going
24) While George and John ____ their room, she ____ the ironing.
B. were cleaning/was doing
C. were cleaning/doing
D. cleaning/was doing
25) Today is Thursday and she ____ late twice this week. She ____ late yesterday and on Monday.
B. has been/is
C. has been/was
D. has been/had been
26) He ____ in the same house since 1975.
A. has lived
B. is living
D. had lived
27) We ____ him since he ____ married.
A. didn’t see/got
B. haven’t seen/got
D. hadn’t seen/got
28) It ____ for two hours and the ground is too wet to play tennis.
A. is raining
B. had rained
C. has rained
D. was raining
29) He ____ to HCMC last year and I ____ him since then.
A. moved/didn’t see
B. moves/haven’t seen C. moved/haven’t seen D. moved/hadn’t seen
30) We ____ what to do with the money yet.
A. not decide
B. didn’t decide
C. haven’t decided
D. hadn’t decided
31) My father ____ as a teacher for thirty years.
B. is working
D. has worked
32) He ____ to New York three times this year.
A. had been
C. has been
33) I ____ how to dance when I ____ six years old.
A. don’t know / was
B. didn’t know / am
C. didn’t know / was
D. haven’t known/was
34) Last month my brother ____ me his photos. He ____ me his photos every year.
35) Nam is a careful driver but yesterday he ____ carelessly.
B. had driven
D. was driving
36) Do you like swimming, Ba? – I ____ when I was a child but not now.
C. have done
D. had done
37) I ____ her at the school gate yesterday.
C. had met
D. am meeting
38) She ____ English when she was six years old.
B. has learned
C. is learning
D. had learned
39) I don’t remember where and when I ____ her.
B. had met
D. have met
40) They ____ to know each other for more than ten years.
C. have got
D. had got
41) ____ you ____ that film yet?
42) I ____ the film with my friends last week.
C. have watched
D. had watched
43) He ____ up at five every morning.
A. is getting
D. was getting
44) ____ she ____ in Hue at the moment?
45) He usually ____ her at weekend but now he ____ in bed because of his
D. visits/is staying
46) Don’t make noise, children! Parents ____.
B. are sleeping
C. were sleeping
47) Why ____ you often ____ so much noise in the house?
48) What ____ he ____ before you came?
49) While mum was watching TV, I ____ my homework.
A. am doing
B. was doing
C. had done
D. has done
50) At this time yesterday I ____ to music.
B. had listened
C. was listening
D. am listening