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11 viết lại câu

MỤC LỤC
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I. Lý do chọn đề tài
3
II. Giải pháp thực tế giúp học sinh học Viết lại câu hiệu quả
4
1. Lập kế hoạch cho từng tiết dạy, buổi dạy:
4
2. Thực hiện tốt tiến trình dạy Viết lại câu
4
3.1.1. Past simple  present perfect
4
3.1.2. Cách biến đổi Although  Despite/ In spite of
6
3.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
7
3.1.4. PASSIVE VOICE
9
3.1.5. INVERSION
12
3.1.6. SUBJUNCTIVES (THỂ GIẢ ĐỊNH)

16
3.1.7. TIME CLAUSES
17
3.1.8. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
17
3.1.9 . SO ADJ/ADV THAT / SUCH AN/AN + ADJ+ N + THAT
19
3.1.10. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE
20
3.1.11. REPORTED SPEECH
20
3.2. MỘT SỐ TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU 24
3.2.1. Dạng chuyển đổi giữa động từ và danh từ chỉ người.
3.2.1. go up/ rise/ increase /fall/ decrease/ decline/drop  N: rise/
increase/fall/ decrease/ decline
3.2.3 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SURPRISE
3.2.4 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ INTEND
3.2.5 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ DIFFICULT
3.2.6 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SUCCEED/ MANAGE/ FAIL
3.2.7 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ LIKELY
3.2.8 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANCE/ OPPORTUNITY
3.2.9 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ POSSIBLE
3.2.10 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANGE
3.2.11. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SEEM
3.2.12. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ MIND
3.2.13. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ NECESSARY
3.2.14. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ EXPECT
3.2.15. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ PREVENT/ STOP
3.2.16. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ WORTH/ POINT/ USE/ WASTE
3.2.17. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SPEND/TAKE TIME
3.3. Bài tập áp dụng
3.4. Đáp Án
III. KẾT LUẬN
TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO

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3. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP, TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT
LẠI CÂU.
3.1. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU
3.1.1. Viết lại câu thực hiện chuyển đổi từ Thì quá khứ đơn sang thì hiện tại hoàn thành
và ngược lại
3.1.1.1. This is the first time S have/has + (ever) + Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv
 S have/ has never Vpp Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv … before
Example:
This is the first time I have seen him.
 I have …………………………………………….
 I have never seen him before.
3.1.1.2. The last time + S + past simple……was + time + ago/ in+ time

S + have/ has + not + Ved/Vpp………for/ since + time
Example:
The last time she visited us was two years ago.
 She hasn't …………………………………………………
She hasn't visited us for two years.
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.3. S + last + past simple …… time + ago /in + time/ when + S + past simple
 S + have/ has + not + Ved/Vpp………for/ since + time
Example:
I last saw him when I was a student.
I have not………………………………………..
 I haven't seen him since I was a student.
Mẫu này có dạng :
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.4. S + began/ started + V-ing/ To V …. in+time/ time+ago/ when S + past simple
 S + have/has + Ved/3…………….. since/ for + time
have/ has + been + V-ing…….
I started / began studying English 3 years ago.
I have…………………………………………………………….
 I have studied English for 3 years. / I have been studying English for 3 years.
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.5. It’s + time + since + S + (last) + past simple
 S + have/ has + (not) + Ved/Vpp…… for + time
Example:
It's ten years since I last met him.
 I have not…………………………………….
I haven't met him for ten years .
3.1.1.6. When did + S + V0…….?

How long
is it since + S + past simple…..?
2


have/ has + S + Ved/Vpp…..?
Example
When did you buy it ?
How long …………………………………………
How long have you bought it?
3.1.1.7. It/this/that is the + Adj (superlative) + S + have + ever + Ved/Vpp

S + have/ has + never + Ved/Vpp + such (a/ an) + Adj + N + (before)
This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever tasted.
 I have …………………………………………
I have never tasted such a delicious cake before.
3.1.1.8. This is the first time + S + have + Ved/Vpp + ……
 S+be + not used to + Ving/N
This is the first time I have seen so many people crying at the end of the movie.
I was not used…………………………………………………………………………………..
I was not used to seeing so many people crying at the end of the movie.
3.1.2. Cách biến đổi Although/Even though/ Though  Despite/ In spite of
Although/ though + Clause
Despite / in spite of + N/ Ving
Các công thức biến đổi từ mệnh đề sang cụm từ như sau:
3.1.2.1. Although/ though + S + V, S’ + V’ (S=S’)
 Despite/ in spite of + Ving, S’ + V’…….
Although Tom got up late, he got to school on time.
 Despite / in spite of …………………………………………………….
Despite / in spite of getting up late, Tom got to school on time.
2.1.2.2. Although/ though + the+N + be + Adj, S’ + V’
 Despite/ in spite of + the adj + N, S’ + V’…….
Although the rain was heavy, they enjoyed their game.
Despite/ in spite of ……………………………………………………
Despite / in spite of the heavy rain, they enjoyed their game.
3.1.2.3. Although/ though + personal Pronoun + be + Adj, S’ + V’
 Despite/ in spite of + possessive adjective + N, S’ + V’…….
Although He was sick,........
=> Despite / in spite of his sickness,.......
3.1.2.4. Although/ though + personal Pronoun + V + adv, S’ + V’
 Despite/ in spite of + possessive adjective + adj+N, S’ + V’…….
Although He behaved impolitely,.....
=> Despite / in spite of his impolite behavior ,.........
3.1.2.5. Although/ though + there be+(a/an)N , S’ + V’
 Despite/ in spite of + a/an + N, S’ + V’…….
Although there was an accident ,.....
=> Despite / in spite of an accident,......
3.1.2.6. Although/ though + it + be + Adj (weather), S’ + V’
 Despite/ in spite of + the adj + N(weather), S’ + V’…….

3


Although it was rainy, .....
=> Despite / in spite of the rain, ……….
Các tính từ và danh từ thường gặp trong mẫu này là:
Foggy => fog ( sương mù )
Snowy => snow (tuyết)
Rainy => rain (mưa)
Stormy => storm ( bão)
3.1.2.7 Phương pháp cuối cùng cũng là phương pháp dễ nhất : thêm the fact that trước mệnh
đề.
Phương pháp này áp dụng được cho mọi câu mà khôgn cần phân tích xem nó thuộc mẫu này,
tuy nhiên phương pháp này không được khuyến khích sử dụng vì suy cho cùng những biến đổi
trên đây là rèn luyện cho các em cách sử dụng các cấu trúc câu, do đó nếu câu nào cũng thêm
the fact that rồi viết lại hết thì các em sẽ không nâng cao được trình độ. Phương pháp này chỉ
áp dụng khi gặp câu quá phức tạp mà không có cách nào biến đổi. Một trường hợp khác mà
các em có thể sử dụng nữa là : trong lúc đi thi gặp câu khó mà mình quên cách biển đổi .
Although he behaved impolitely,................................................
 Despite / in spite of the fact that he behaved impolitely,.............................................
3.1.2.8. Although/ though + S + V + Adj /adv, S’ + V’
 However+ adj/adv +S+V….., S’ + V’…….
Driving at that spees is dangerous although you are an experienced driver or not.
However .................................................................................................................
However experinced a driver you are// you are as a driver, driving at that speed is dangerous.
3.1.2.9. Although/ though + S + V + Adj /adv, S’ + V’
 adj/adv +as/though+S+V….., S’ + V’……………………
I don’t really like her, even though I admire her achievements.
→Much ………………………………………………………....................................
→Much as I admire her achievements, I don’t really like her.
3.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
3.1.3.1. Conditional type 1
a. Nếu câu đề là: (Don’t )V…….or S will/can(not) infinitive :
 If S1 present simple, S2 will/can(not) infinitive
Example:
1. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.
→ If …………………………………….....….………………………………
If you don’t stop talking, you won’t understand the lesson.
2. Don’t be impatient or you will make mistakes.
 If……………………………………………………………………..
If you are impatient, you will make mistakes.
b. S1 will/can infinitive; S2 will/can(not) infinitive :
 If S1 present simple, S2 will/can(not) infinitive
Example: He will pay me tonight; I will have enough money to buy a car.
 If…………………………………………………………………………..
If he pays me tonight, I will have enough money to buy a car.
c. Use UNLESS  IF ……NOT
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EX:
1. If you do not study hard, you will fail the exam.
Unless you study hard, you will fail the exam
2. If you do not like this one, I’ll bring you another
Unless………………………………………………………………………..
d. If S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
 Provided that/ As long as/ So long as S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
1. If we try hard, we can finish it in a week.
Provided …………………………………………………………………
Provided that we try hard, we can finish it in a week.
2. Provided your hand writing is legible the examiner will accept your answer.
As long as the examiner ………………………………………………………..
So long as the examiner ………………………………………………………….
So long as the examiners can read your handwriting, they will accept your answer.
e. If S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
 Should S infinitive, S2 will/ can(not) infinitive
Example:
If you find it necessary, you can contact me on this number.
→Should ……………………………………………………………..
→Should you find it necessary, you can contact me on this number.
3.1.3.2. Conditional type 2
a. S1 present simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 present simple
 If S1 past simple, S2 could/would infinitive
Nếu trong câu có because, so (= that’s why) thì phải bỏ (đặt if vào chổ because , còn so (=
that’s why) thì ngược lại)
Peter is fat because he eats so many chips.
→If ……………………………………………………...…..
If Peter did not eat so many chips, he would not be fat.
b. S1 + present simple, so S2 could/ would (not)/ present simple
 If S1 past simple, S2 could/would (not) infinitive
They don't go to the cinema, so they don't know anything about new movies and actors.
If …………………………………………………………………………………………
If they knew something about new movies and actors, they would go to the cinema.
c. If S1 past simple, S2 could/would (not) infinitive
 Were S1 (+ to V) O….., S2 could/would (not) infinitive
The only thing that makes this job worthwhile is the money.
→Were …………………………………………………………………………………..
→Were it not for the money, the job wouldn’t be worthwhile.
3.1.3.3. Conditional type 3
a. S1 + past simple, so S2 could/ would (not)/ past simple
 If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
My husband didn’t leave the keys, so I couldn’t pick him up at the station.
If my husban……………………………………………………………………….
b. S1 past simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 past simple/ past perfect
 If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
We got lost in the jungle because we didn't have a map.
If we had........................................................................................................
c. - If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
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- S1 past simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 past simple/ past perfect.
- It was N that + past simple+…………..
 But for + N/Ving,……………………………
Had S (not) Vpp/Ved….., …………………..
Example
It was his incompetence that led to their capture.
 If ……………………………………………………………………………….
Had it…………………………………………………………………………………………
But for……………………………………………………………………………………….
 If it had not been for his incompetence, they would not have been captured.
d. Without + Ving/ N, S will/ would/ could + …………………………..
If conditional type 2/ type 3
If he had not helped, I would not have been able to find my way.
Without………………………………………………………………………………..
Without his help, I would not have been able to find my way.
3.1.4. PASSIVE VOICE
3.1.4. 1. Somebody + want/ like/expect + someone to do something
Somebody + want /like/expect + something + to be done
EX:
Our teacher wants us to prepare our lessons carefully.
Our teacher wants our lessons to be prepared carefully.
They expected me to finish my work early.
They expected my work to be finished early.
3.1.4.2
Somebody + agree/arrange/determine/decide + to do something
Somebody + agree/arrange/determine/decide + that something + should be + done
EX:
She decided to rebuild the house.
She decided that the house should be rebuilt.
3.1.4.3 Something + need(s) + doing (also: want+ v-ing/require+v-ing)
Something + need(s) + to be done
(also: want+ to be done/require+to be done)
EX:
The house needs cleaning. (passive meaning) These flowers require watering.
The house needs to be cleaned. These flowers require to be watered.
You don’t need to prepare the lesson (active) The chickens need feeding
The lesson doesn’t need to be prepared. The chickens need to be fed.
The lesson doesn’t need preparing.
3.1.4.4. A. PRESENT MEANING
people + think/expect/believe/estimate/say/report/suppose/hope/declare/rumour + that +
some one + do something (active)
 PASSIVE

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TYPE 1

It is

TYPE 2

S tobe

PASSIVE

thought
expected
believed
estimated
said
reported
supposed
hoped
declared
rumoured

that S + do something

to do something

EX:
1. People think that he drives dangerously. (active)
It is thought that he drives dangerously. (type 1)
He is thought to drive dangerously. (type 2)
2. People believe that he is a good teacher.
It is believed that he is a good teacher. (type 1)
He is believed to be a good teacher. (type 2)
3. People believe that this new teaching method is more effective than the old one.
This new teaching method ……………………………………………………….
This new teaching method is believed to be more effective than the old one.
(Đề thi TN THPTQG năm 2015)
B. PAST MEANING
people + think/expect/believe/estimate/say/report/suppose/hope/declare/rumour + that +
someone + did something (active)
 PASSIVE

TYPE 1

It is

TYPE 2

S tobe

PASSIVE

thought
expected
believed
estimated
said
reported
supposed
hoped
declared
rumoured

that S + did something

to have done something

EX:
People think that he drove dangerously. (active)
It is thought that he drove dangerously. (type 1)
He is thought to have driven dangerously. (type 2)
People believed that he is a good teacher. (active)
It is believed that he was a good teacher. (type 1)
He is believed to have been a good teacher. (type 2)
NOTE:
It’s your duty to do something
You are supposed to do something
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EX:
It’s your duty to lock all the doors.
You are supposed to lock all the doors.
3.1.4.5.
Somebody + see/make/let + someone + do + something (active)
Someone is seen/made + to do something (passive)
Someone is let + do something (passive) but we often say: someone is (not) allowed to do
something
EX:
He made me stay outside yesterday. (active)
I was made to stay outside yesterday.
The teacher let us go home early last week. (active)
We were let go home early by the teacher last week.
often: We were allowed to go home early by the teacher last week.
I saw the thief climb the wall. (active)
The thief was seen to climb the wall.
3.1.4.6.
Somebody + have + someone + do something
Somebody + get + someone + to do something
Somebody + have + something + done
"To get someone to do something" suggests that you talked to the person and convinced him to
do something.
"To have someone do something" simply states that you arranged for someone to do
something, whether or not that person did it voluntarily.
Example
He had his waiter carry the luggage home.
He had the luggage carried home by the waiter.
I got the postman to post the letter for me.
I had the letter posted for me by the postman.
3.1.4.7
Don’t do something (active)  something mustn’t be done
It’s impossible to do something (active)  something can’t be done
It’s possible to do something (active)  something can be done
Example
Don’t touch this switch
 This switch mustn’t be touched
It is impossible to do this
This can’t be done.
3.1.4.8
Somebody + advise/ beg/ urge/ recommend someone to do something (active)
Cách 1: someone is advised/ begged/ urged/ recommended to do something
Cách 2: somebody advise/ beg/ urge/ recommend that something should be done
EX: He advised me to sell the car.
I was advised to sell the car.
He advised that the car should be sold.
3.1.4.9
Somebody + agree/ arrange/ determine/ decide/ is determined/ is anxious +to do
something (active)
8


Somebody + agree/ arrange/ determine/ decide/ is determined/ is anxious + that
something should be done
EX: She decided to rebuild the house.
She decided that the house should be rebuilt.
3.1.4.10
Somebody + insist/ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + doing something (active)
Somebody insist/ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest that something should be done
Example
He suggested selling the radio
He suggested that radio should be sold.
They advised enlarging the garden
They advised that the garden should be enlarged.
3.1.4.11
Mệnh lệnh thức (imperative) + Object  S + should/must + be +P2/ Let+object+be+P.P
Example
Turn on the lights.
 The lights should be turned on.
Open your book, please!
 Let your book be opened, please!
3.1.5. INVERSION
3.1.5.1. Đảo ngữ trong 1 số trường hợp câu phủ định.
( Inversion in nagative sentences)
a. Một số trạng từ phủ định đứng đầu câu.
Hardly (ever)
Barely
Scarcely (ever)
+ Inversion
Rarely
Never again/ before
Never
Seldom
Little
Example:
1. You can hardly/barely/scarcely see anyone wear a hat nowadays.
Barely/ Hardly/ Scarcely…………………………………………………….
 Barely/ Hardly/ Scarely can you see anyone wear a hat nowadays.
2. Such a situation should never be allowed to arise again
--> Never ……………………………………………………………
--> Never again should such a situation be allowed to arise.
3. The thief little realized that the police had thrown a cordon around the bank.
--> Little ………………………………………………………………………….
Little did the thief realize that the police had thrown a cordon around the bank.
4. This remedy rarely failed
--> Rarely did this remedy fail
5. I had never before been asked to accept a bribe.
-->Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe.
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b. Đảo ngữ trong câu bắt đầu bằng “Not”
Not + noun phrase
Not + till + phrase
+ Inversion.
Not + until + clause.
Example
1. She didn’t shed a tear even though the story ended in tragedy.
--> Not a tear did she shed even though the story ended in tragedy.
2.The whole truth didn’t become known until many years later.
--> Not until many years later did the whole truth become known.
3. I didn’t realize how difficult the exercise was until I was half way through it.
--> Not until I was half way through the exercise did I realize how difficult it was.
4. He didn’t realize that he had lost it till he got home
--> Not till he got home did he realize that he had lost it.
Note:
Tuy nhiên trường hợp cụm danh từ bắt đầu bằng “No” hoặc “Not” làm chủ ngữ trong câu thì
không gọi là đảo ngữ.
No example of this word is given in this dictionary.
Mặt khác với “Not until + clause” thì đảo ngừ ở vế cau chính chứ không phải lấy ở vế ngau
sau “Not until”
c. Đảo ngữ với cấu trúc “Not only.............. but also..............”
Not only + clause (đảo ngữ) + but + S + also + V
She dances beautifully and she sings sweetly, too.
--> Not only does she dance beautifully but she also sings sweetly.
Not only do I enjoy classical music, but I also have a season ticket to the symphony
d. Đảo ngữ với các cụm từ co “No”, “Not” đứng đầu câu.
Under no circumstances
In no circumstances
On no condition
On no account
At no time
+ Inversion
Nowhere
In no way
No longer
Example
1. The bus driver can’t be blamed for the accident in any way.
--> In no way can the bus driver be blamed for the accident.
2. The doctor told his patient that he should on no account return to work un til he had made a
complete recovery.
--> The doctor told his patient that on no account should he return to work until he had made
a complete recovery.
3. Remote villages don’t have a regular bus service any longer.
--> No longer do remote villages have a regular bus service
4. The accused never expressed regret for what he’d done.
--> At no time did the accused express regret for what he’d done.
5. This switch must not be touched on any acount
--> On no acount must this switch be touched.
3.1.5.2. Đảo ngữ trong cấu trúc có “Only”
a.
10


noun phrase
Only
prepositional phrase + Inversion
later
(only by, only after, only in this way)
Example
1. You can make yourself heard only by shouting at the top of your voice.
--> Only by shouting at the top of your voice can you make yourself heard.
2. The facts were not all made publicity until later.
--> Only later were the facts all made publicity.
3. He mentioned it to me only yesterday
--> Only yesterday did he mention it to me.
b.
Only

if (clause)
when (clause) + Inversion
then

Example
1. You will understand what true responsibility is only when you became a parent.
--> Only when you become a parent will you understand what true responsibility is.
2. You can enter the competition to meet the cast noly if you purchase a ticket for a show.
--> Only if you purchase a ticket for a show can you enter the competition to meet the cast.
3. We realized, only then, what a mess we had got ourselves in.
--> Only then did we realize what a mess we had got ourselves in.
Note:
Nếu “Only” ám chỉ tình trạng duy nhất thì không sử dụng đảo ngữ.
Example: Only Mary realized that the door was unlocked.
3.1.5.3. Đảo ngữ với các cụm từ thời gian.
Dùng để diễn tả hành động diễn ra ngay sau 1 hành động khác. Thường thì những hành động
đó đêu ở quá khứ.
Hardly/ Scarely/Rarely + Inversion (past perfect) +when +S (past simple)
No sooner + Inversion (past perfect)+than +S (past simple)
Example
1. Immediately after his arrival home a water-heater exploded.
→Hardly ………………………………………………………………………………………..
→Hardly had he arrived home when a water-heater exploded.
2. Tear gas was released as soon as the thieves touched the safe.
No sooner………………………………………………………………………….
No sooner had the thieves touched the safe than tear gas was released.
3. He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to fell drowsy
--> No sooner ……………………………………………………………………………..
--> No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy.
Note:
Đi với các cấu trúc trên có thể dùng cả các thì khác nhưng không nhiều ý nghĩa của các hành
động trong mẫu phải mang tính đối lập.
3.1.5.4. Đảo ngữ trong các nhận xét để diễn đạt sự hợp ý.
Sử dụng các liên từ so/ neither/ nor ............ với đảo ngữ của động từ chính. Chúng được
dùng trong câu trần thuật để rút gọn lời nói, tránh lặp lại các ý kiến đã được đưa ra từ trước.
Cấu trúc:
Statement
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Affirmative sentence
Nagative sentence

(and) so + inversion
neither
+ inversion
nor

Example
1. Jack went out last night and we went out last night, too.
--> Jack went out last night and so did we.
2. He has never been to London and I’ve never been there, either.
--> He has never been to London and neither have I.
The boys cheated and so did the girls.
I’m having a tooth out tomorrow and so is she.
Tom never goes to concert, neither does his wife.
Ann hasn’t any spare time. ~ Neither/ Nor have I.
I didn’t get much sleep last night. ~ Neither/ Nor did I
Hơn nữa “Nor” còn dược dùng để nối 2 câu phủ định với nhau không tính đến nghĩa của
chúng có giống nhau hay không.
3.1.5.5. Đảo ngữ dùng trong mệnh đề chỉ kết quả với “so, such” để nhấn mạnh ý kiến
hơn.
S + V + so + adj/adv + that - clause
S + V + such + that – clause
 So + adj/adv + clause (inversion) + that - clause
Such + clause (inversion) + that - clause
(such = so much/ great)
Thông thường ta hay dùng:
So + adjective ... that' combines with the verb 'to be'.
'Such + to be + noun ... (that)':
Example
1. The snow fall was so heavy that all the train had to be cancelled
--> So heavy was the snow that all the train had to be cancelled.
2. The force of the storm was such that all the trees were uprooted
--> Such was the force of the storm that all the tree were uprooted.
3.1.5.6. Đảo ngữ sau “As”
Được sử dụng nhiều nhất trong ngôn ngữ viết và văn phong có tính xã giao. Nó chỉ dùng có
tính chất phù hoa nên nó phải được dùng như 1 bộ phận trong câu, không thể tách lẻ thành câu
riêng biệt.
I thought, as did my colleagues, that the inflation would be over.
I supposed, as did most people, that I’d be retiring at 60.
3.1.6. SUBJUNCTIVES
3.1.6.1. WISH.
Dạng câu đề thường là
S1 be sorry that S2 + past simple
 S1 wish that S2 + past perfect/ Could/ Would (not) have Vpp/Ved
Example:
It's a pity you didn't tell us about this.
I wish ……………………………………………………
I wish you had told us about this.
I wish I were a boy. (In fact, I am a girl.)
I wish it were not raining. (In fact, it is raining.)
I wish he would come here tomorrow. (In fact, he will not come)
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I wish I hadn't gone to the party last night. (In fact, I went there last night.)
3.1.6.2. Mệnh đề chứa cụm từ IF ONLY.
I’d love to live in Paris for a year
If only…………………………………………………………………..
If only I could live in Paris for a year.
Ex:

If only I could turn back the time. (In fact, I can't)
If only she would attend the meeting tomorrow. (In fact, she will not come)
If only I hadn't met him years ago. (In fact, I met him)
3.1.6.3. WOULD SOONER, WOULD RATHER.
would prefer S + to do st
would sooner / would rather + Sb did st
Example:
We’d prefer you not to smoke.
We’d rather………………………………
We would rather you did not smoke.
3.1.6.4. IT'S TIME, IT'S ABOUT TIME, IT'S HIGH TIME…
It's time / It's about time / It's high time + for sb + to do st
It's time / It's about time / It's high time + Sb did st
Example:
When are the council going to do something about the city’s traffic problems?
It’s high time something……………………………………………………….
It’s high time something were done about the city’s traffic problems.
3.1.6.5. AS IF, AS THOUGH (như thể là…./ dường như….)
Example
The house seemed to have been unoccupied for several months.
It looked…………………………………………………………………………………..
It looked as if the house had not been occupied for several months
3.1.7. TIME CLAUSES
3.1.7.1. Dạng It was not until + time word/phrase/clause that + clause
Dạng viết lại câu này thường có câu đề như sau
a. S+past simple until/till time word/ time phrase/ clause
 Not until time word/ time phrase/ clause + Inversion
Example
1. She didn’t become a teacher until yesterday.
=> It was not until yesterday that he became a teacher.
=> Not until yesterday did he become a teacher
2. He didn’t come home until late in the evening
=> It was not until late in the evening that he came home.
=> Not until late in the evening did he come home.
3. He didn't know how to swim until he was 30 years old.
=> It was not until he was 30 years old that he knew how to swim.
=> Not until he was 30 years old did he know how to swim
4. He did not realize how difficult the task was until he was halfway through it.
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Not until …………………………………………………………………………………
Not until he was halfway through the task did he realize how difficult it was.
(Đề thi TN THPTQG năm 2015)
b. During + N/ Ving, S + V
 While S’ + V, S+ V
Example
During the oil refinery strike, there were enormous petrol queues.
While………………………………………………………………………….
While the oil refinery strike was going on, there were enormous petrol queues.
C. On + N/Ving, S + V
 As soon as/ When S’ +V, S +V
Example:
On receipt of your cheque, we shall send the goods to you.
As soon …………………………………………………………………………………
As soon as we receive your cheque, we shall send the goods to you.
Chú Ý: Phần bài tập Đảo Ngữ và Time Clauses thường có những phần liên quan đến nhau
như: Only when, Not until, No sooner, Hardly………….
3.1.8. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
3.1.8.1 SO THAT / IN ORDER THAT IN ORDER TO / SO AS TO / TO
S + V + so that/ in order that+ S + V  S + V + to + infinitive
Mệnh đề + SO THAT / IN ORDER THAT + S can/could/will/would + V …
Lưu ý: Thông thường nếu không có NOT thì dùng can /could còn có NOT thì dùng won’t /
wouldn’t, trừ những trường hợp có ý ngăn cấm thì mới dùng can’t/couldn’t.
Example
1. I study hard so that I can pass the exam.
 I study hard in order to pass the exam
2. I study hard so that I won’t fail the exam.
 I study hard in order not to fail the exam.
3. The boys stood on the desks. They wanted to get a better view.
 The boys stood on the desks in order that they could get a better view.
Phrase of purpose: Cụm từ chỉ mục đích
Nếu có NOT thì để NOT trước TO, tuy nhiên mẫu TO không áp dụng được trường hợp có
NOT.
Example:
1. I study hard. I want to pass the exam.
 I study hard in order to / so as to /to pass the exam.
2. I study hard. I don’t want to fail the exam.
 I study hard in order not to fail the exam. (đúng)
 I study hard so as not to /to fail the exam. (đúng)
 I study hard not to fail the exam. (sai)
Cách nối câu :
* Dùng SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT :
Trong câu thứ hai nếu có các động từ : want, like, hope... thì phải bỏ đi rồi thêm
can/could/will/would vào
–Nếu sau các chữ want, like, hope…có tân ngữ thì lấy túc từ đó ra làm chủ từ.
I give you the book. I want you to read it.
 I give you the book so that you can read it.
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* Dùng IN ORDER TO/SO AS TO/TO :
– Chỉ áp dụng được khi 2 Chủ ngữ 2 câu giống nhau
– Bỏ Chủ ngữ câu sau, bỏ các chữ want, like, hope...giữ lại từ động từ sau nó.
Example:
I study hard .I want to pass the exam.
-> I study hard in order to pass the exam.
She worked hard to pass.
She worked hard in order to pass.
To reach him, I had to wait for five minutes on the line.
In order to reach him, I had to wait for five minutes on the line.
Before a negative infinitive, we usually prefer in order to.
In order not to miss the train, I started early.
Note the position of ‘not’ in the structure. It goes before to.
In order not to wake up the baby, I tiptoed into the room.
The expression so as to can also be used to express purpose. It carries the same degree of
formality as in order to.
I am planning to move house so as to be closer to my place of work.
Before stative verbs like know, seem, appear, understand, have, etc, it is more usual to use
in order to or so as to:
I talked to them both for half an hour so as to have a thorough understanding of the problem.
I followed her around all day in order to know whether she had any intention of meeting him.

3.1.9 . SO ADJ/ADV THAT / SUCH AN/AN + ADJ+ N + THAT
3.1.9.1 Đổi từ so… that sang such ……that
N + be + so + adj+ that+ clause
 Đại từ + be such (a/an) adj+N+ that clause
Example :
The film is so interesting that I have watched it three times.
It is ...................................................................................................................
It is such an interesting film that I have watched it three times.
* Nếu danh từ là số ít hoặc không đếm được thì không có a, an
* Chú ý: Thường sẽ có bài tập đổi từ such…..that sang so….that.
3.1.9.2. Đổi từ so adj/adv that sang too...to :
S + be +so + adj + that + clause
 S + be + too adj (for sb. to infinitive
Cách làm :
Thêm tính từ vào, bỏ can't, couldn't lấy từ động từ trở đi
Nếu chủ ngữ 2 câu khác nhau thì thêm phần for sb
Nếu tân ngữ câu sau giống chủ ngữ câu đầu thì bỏ Tân ngữ đó đi
Example
The table is so heavy that I can't lift it.
The table is too...............................................
The table is too heavy for me to lift.
- Nếu đổi ngược lại từ too...to sang so…that thì thường dễ sai nhất là việc quên thêm tân ngữ
vào và chia sai thì.
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3.1.9.3. Đổi từ too ...to sang enough:
S + be + too + adj + to infinitive.
S + be not adj enough+ to infinitive
Example
He is too weak to run fast
 He isn't ...................................................
He isn't strong enough to run fast.
Ghi chú :Trong tất cả các cấu trúc trên nếu thay be là V thì ADV sẽ thay cho ADJ
3.1.9.1 Đổi từ so… that / such ……that
S + be such (a/an) adj+N+ that clause /S + be +so + adj + that clause
 So adj tobe S that clause
 Such to be N/S that clause
Example:
They were so excited that they couldn’t sit still.
So …………………………………………………………………….........................
Such …………………………………………………………………….....................
So excited were they that they couldn't sit still.
Such was their excitement that they began to jump up and down.
Note that "so" is followed by an adjective and "such" can be replaced by "so great" (So great
was their excitement that...).

3.1.10. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE
Chuyển đổi câu qua lại giữa so sánh hơn/ bằng/ nhất.
Để làm được phần này ta phải nắm vững công thức của các dạng so sánh tính từ /trạng từ.
Các dạng đề thường cho là :
3.1.10.1. A hơn B B không bằng A
Nguyên tắc :
Nếu đề cho so sánh hơn thì ta đổi thành so sánh bằng + phủ định
Ví dụ :
Tom is taller than Mary
Mary is..... ……………………………………
 Mary is not as tall as Tom
3.1.10.2. không ai ... bằng A A là ...nhất
Nguyên tắc :
So sánh bằng so sánh nhất
Ví dụ :
No one in the class is as tall as Tom
Tom is ..... ……………………………………
Tom is the tallest in the class. Tom cao nhất lớp

3.1.11. REPORTED SPEECH
3.1.11.1 . REPORTED SPEECH: STATEMENTS (Câu trần thuật)
Ta dùng động từ say hoặc tell để tường thuật:
* S + said + (that) + S + V
* S + told + O + (that) + S + V
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He said, “I have just bought a computer today.”
He said that he had just bought a computer that day.
Linda said, “There is someone at the door, Bill.”
Linda told Bill that there was someone at the door.
* LƯU Ý: Các trường hợp KHÔNG thay đổi thì trong câu tường thuật:
a. Câu điều kiện loại 2 và 3
Nếu câu nói trực tiếp là câu điều kiện loại 2 và loại 3, ta chỉ thay đổi các đại từ, tình từ…mà
không đổi thì trong câu.
Ex: “If I were older, I would retire.”, he said.
He said if he were older, he would retire.
“If I had heard the whole story, I would have acted differently”, he said
He said that if he had heard the whole story, he would have acted differently.
b. Câu trực tiếp diễn tả một chân lí, hay một thói quen ở hiện tại.
Nếu câu nói trực tiếp nói về một sự thật, một chân lí hay một thói quen thường xuyên lặp đi,
lập lại ở hiện tại, khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta phải giữ nguyên thì của câu trực tiếp.
Ex 1: Trực tiếp: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the Sun”
Gián tiếp: The teacher said that The earth moves round the Sun.
Ex 2: Trực tiếp: My wife always drinks coffee for breakfast.
Gián tiếp: He said that his wife always drinks coffee for breakfast.
Ex:

c. Động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại đơn, hiện tại tiếp diễn, hiện tại hoàn thành, tương
lai.
Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại đơn, hiện tại tiếp diễn, hiện tại hoàn thành, tương lai,
khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp, ta không thay đổi thì và các cum trạng từ và cụm từ chỉ thời gian và
nơi chốn, mà chỉ thay đổi các đại từ hay tính từ…
Ex: He says/ He is saying/ He has said/ He will say, “The bus is coming.” → He says the bus
is coming.
d. Không thay đổ thì của động từ trong câu gián tiếp nếu có thời gian xác định trong quá
khứ.
Ex. She said, ‘‘I was born in 1980’’
She said that she was born in 1980
e. Các động từ khiếm khuyết: could, would, might, ought to, should thường không thay
đổi trong câu tường thuật.
Ex. He said, ‘I might come’
 He said that He might come’
- Khi tường thuật mệnh đề ước muốn: “wish’
Ex: He said; “I wish I had a lot of money”
 He wishes (that) he had a lot of money
- Khi tường thuật cấu trúc: “It’s (high/ about) time”
Ex: She said; “It’s about time you went to bed; children”
 She told her children that It’s about time they went to bed
3.1.11.2. REPORTED SPEECH: QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi)
a. Yes-No questions: Khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp, ta cần thêm if hoặc whether trước chủ từ
của câu hỏi được tường thuật:
* S + asked + (O) + if / whether + S + V
* S + wondered + if /whether + S + V
* S + wanted to know + if /whether + S +V
Ex:
He said to me, “Are you from Canada?”
He asked me if/whether I was from Canada.
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The man said to her, “Did Bill tell you my address?”
The man asked her if/whether Bill had told her his address.
The girl said, “Do you live near here, David?”
She asked David if/whether he lived near there.
b. Wh – Questions: Các câu hỏi bắt đầu bằng một từ để hỏi như: who, when, where, when,
why, how…,
* S + asked + (O) + wh -word + S + V
* S + wondered + wh - word + S + V
* S + wanted to know + wh - word + S + V
Ex: He said to them, “Where are you going?”
He asked them where they were going.
The teacher said, “When do you do your homework, Tom?”
The teacher asked Tom when he did his homework.
The tourist said to me, “How often does the train get in?”
The tourist asked me how often the train got in.
3.1.11.3. CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ THEO SAU LÀ TO-INFINITIVE
1. Tường thuật mệnh lệnh: told sb (not) to do sth.
“Put your books away,” said the teacher.
 The teacher told us to put our books away.
2. Tường thuật lời yêu cầu: asked sb (not) to do sth.
“Please, don’t smoke in this room,” said the clerk.
 The clerk asked me not to smokr in that room.
3. Tường thuật lời khuyên: advised sb (not) to do sth.
“If I were you, I wouldn’t drink so much wine,” he said.
 He advised me not to drink so much wine.
“You should study harder, Sheila.” he said.
 He advised Sheila to study harder.
“You had better go to school early tomorrow, children. It will likely rain in the early
morning.” the mother said.
 The mother advised her children to go school early the next day as it would likely rain in
the early morning.
“Why don’t you get up earlier?” he said to me.
 He advised me to get up earlier.
4. Tường thuật lời hứa: promised to do sth.
“I’ll give you a hand, if you like,” said Darian.
 Darain promised to give me a hand, if I liked.
5. Tường thuật lời đe dọa: threaten to do sth’.
“Get out or I’ll call the police,” said the woman.
 The woman threatened to call the police if he didn’t get out.
6. Tường thuật lời cảnh báo: warned sb (not) to do sth.
“Don’t touch that wire,” he said.
 He warned me not to touch that wire.
7. Tường thuật lời mời: invited sb to do sth.
“Come for inner with us tonight, will you?” Bill said.
 Bill invited me to come for dinner with them that night.
“Would you like to join us, Paul?” she said
 She invited Paul to join them.
“Would you like to come to my 18th birthday party?” he asked me.

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He invited …………………………………………………………………………
He invited me to come to his 18th birthday party.
(Đề thi TN THPT QG năm 2015)
8. Tường thuật lời nhắc nhở: remindered sb to do sth.
“Remember to post my letter on your way,” Wendy said.
 Wendy reminded me to post her letter on my way.
“Don’t forget to do your homework,” he said to her.
 He reminded her to do her homework.
9. Tường thuật lời động viên: encouraged sb to so sth.
“Go heard, you must enter for the contest, Jill!” said Pam.
 Pam encouraged Jill to enter for the contest.
10. Tường thuật lời khẩn cầu: begged sb to do sth.
“Please, do me a favor,” said the beggar to Carol.
 The beggar begged Carol to do him a favor.
11. Tường thuật lời tự nguyện: offered to do sth.
“Shall I help you with the housework?” said Tim to hiss wife.
 Tim offered to help his wife with the housework.
12. Tường thuật sự đồng ý: agreed to do sth.
“OK, I’ll take you to work in my car, Sue” said Carl.
 Carl agreed to take Sue to work in his car.
13. Tường thuật sự từ chối: refused to do sth.
“I will not accept your view,” he said to her.
He refused to accept her view.
3.1.11.4. CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ THEO SAU LÀ GERUND
1. Tường thuật lời buộc tội: accused sb of doing sth.
“You damaged my new laptop, Dan,”said Susan.
 Suasan accused Dan of damaging her new laptop.
2. Tường thuật lời thừa nhận: admitted doing/having done sth.
“I didn’t tell you he truth, Ron,” said Kim.
 Kim admitted not telling/not having told Ron the truth.
3. Tường thuật lời phủ nhận: denied doing/having done sth.
“I didn’t break that vase,” said Tom.
 Tom denied breaking /having broken that vase.
4. Tường thuật lời xin lỗi: apolozied (to sb) for doing sth.
“I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting,” said Amanda
 Amanda apolozied for having kept me waiting.
5. Tường thuật lời khen: congratulated sb on doing sth.
“Congratulations! You won the game!” said the principal.
The principal congratulated the students on winning the game.
6. Tường thuật lời nài nỉ, khăng khăng: insisted on doing sth.
“I must pay for this damage,” the man said.
 The man insisted on paying for that weekend.
7. Tường thuật lời đề nghị: suggested doing sth.
“Let’s have a picnic this weekend,” Maud suggested.
 Maud suggested having a pinic that weekend.
8. Tường thuật lời cảm ơn: thanked sb for (doing sth).
“Thank you very much for your advice,” he said.
 He thanked me for my advise.
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9. Tường thuật lời cảnh báo: warned sb against (doing) sth.
“Don’t invest in that business,” said my lawyer.
 My lawyer warned me against investing int hat business.
10. Tường thuật lời đỗ lỗi: blamed sb for (doing) sth.
“You are responsible for this failure,” said the director.
 The director blamed his deputy for that failure.
11. Tường thuật lời thú nhận: confessed to (doing) sth.
“It was me who stole the money,” said Jack.
 Jack confessed to stealing the money.
12. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp: (Exclamation in reported speech)
- Động từ tường thuật là: exclaim/shout
Ex: He said, “What a lovely garden they have”
He exclaimed that they had a lovely garden.
- Các hình thức cảm thán bắt đầu bằng “what’ và “how” chuyển sang gián tiếp bằng:
He said that it was … / hoặc He exclaimed that it was …
Ex 1: She said; “What a pity!” (Direct speech) -> She exclaimed that it was a pity
Ex 2: I said; “What a nice horse” -> I exclaimed that it was a nice horse
Ex 3: He said; “How beautiful she is!” -> He exclaimed that she was beautiful!
Ex 4: “What a big egg” he said -> He said that it was a big egg.
Ex 5: “How dreadful!” he said -> He exclaimed that it was dreadful.
3.2. MỘT SỐ TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU
3.2.1. Dạng chuyển đổi giữa động từ và danh từ chỉ người.
Các dạng đề thường cho là : S + V + ADV
=> S +BE + (a/an) ADJ + N (người)
Cách làm :
- Đổi động từ thành danh từ chỉ người
- Đổi trạng từ thành tính từ ,đem đặt trước danh từ
ví dụ :
Tom drives carefully. (Tom lái xe cẩn thận)
=> Tom is.......... ……………………………………
=> Tom is a careful driver. (Tom là một tài xế cẩn thận)
Một số cách đổi động từ thành danh từ chỉ nguời :
Thông thường chỉ việc thêm ER sau động từ, nhưng có một số ngoại lệ sau:
study => student
type => typist
cycle => cyclist
cook => cook (không dùng cooker!)
play guitar => guitarist
Nếu có động từ play + môn chơi thể thao thì đặt môn chơi trước chữ player:
play football => football player
3.2.2. Dạng chuyển đổi giữa động từ và danh từ với một số động từ chỉ sự tăng giảm:
V: go up/ rise/ increase /fall/ decrease/ decline/drop  N: rise/ increase/fall/ decrease/
decline
Cấu trúc thường gặp:
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price/value/cost of N + go up/ rise/ increase/ fall/ decrease/ drop + adv
 There to be/ has been/ have been +a/an + adj + fall/rise/ increase/decline
Example:
1. The value of Sterling had fallen considerably in the past week.
 There has…………………………………………………………………….
There has been a considerable fall in the value of Sterling in the past week
2. House prices have risen dramatically this year.
 There has …………………………………………………………
There has been a dramatic rise in house prices this year.
3. The price of gold has gone up a great deal recently.
 There has been …………………………………………… gold recently.
 There has been …………………………………………… living lately.
There has been a sharp rise in the price of living lately.
4. The cost of living has gone up considerably in the last few years.
There…………………………………………………………………………..
There has been a considerable rise/increase in the cost of living in the last few years.
3.2.3 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SURPRISE
Ta thường gặp động từ(not) expect chuyển sang câu với cấu trúc surprise sau:
to one’s surprise, ……………………………….
Example
The work completely failed and everyone was surprised.
 To everybody…………………………………………………………………
To everybody’s surprise, the work completely failed
It comes as (no) surprise to someone that S+ V
I wasn’t surprised to hear that Harry had failed his driving test.
It came..................... …………………………………………………….
It came as no surprise to me that Harry had failed his driving test.
3.2.4 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ INTEND
S (not) fullly intend to V  S have (no) every intention of Ving
Example:
1. The railworkers do not intend to call off their strike.
 The railworkers have no ……………………………………………..
The railworkers have no intention of calling off their strike.
2. I fully intend to find out who is responsible for the graffiti.
 I had every…………………………………………………………………….
I had every intention of finding out who is responsible for the graffiti.
S not mean to V  S have (no) intention of Ving
Example
1. I'm sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt the conversation.
I'm sorry, I ………………………………………………………………………….
I’m sorry, I had no intention of interrupting the conversation.
S to be determined to V  S have no intention of V (contrast meaning)
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Example:
The Prime Minister was determined to remain in office.
→The Prime Minister ……………………………………………………..
→The Prime Minister had no intention of resigning office.
3.2.5 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ DIFFICULT
S find st difficult/ hard to V  S have/experience difficulty (in) Ving
Example
My father finds maps difficult to follow.
 My father has....................................................................................
My father has difficulty following maps.
S V easily / It to be easy for sb to V  S have no difficulty (in) Ving/ There tobe some
difficulties (in) Ving
Example:
1. It was easy for us to find the house.
→We had ……………………………………………….
→We had no difficulty in finding the house.
2. It wasn’t easy to persuade her to come .
There were some difficulies ............................................................
There were some difficulties (in) persuading her to come .
Exercises
1.The accident victim was having increasing difficulty in breathing.
→The accident victims were increasingly ……………………………………….
→The accident victims were increasingly difficult to breathe.
2. We had not expected that we should have so much difficulty in finding the place.
→The place was ………………………………………………………………….
→The place was much more difficult to find than we had expected.
3. I find his handwriting very hard to read.
 I have ………………………………………………………………………………..
I have (considerable) difficulty (in) reading his hand writing
4. You can ring this number whenever there is any difficulty.
→ Should …………………………………………………………………………..
Should there is any difficulty, you can ring this number.
5. The Police caught the pickpockets easily.
Police had……………………………………………
Police had no difficulty in catching
3.2.6 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SUCCEED/ MANAGE/ FAIL
succeed in Ving/ to be successful in Ving  manage to V/ fail to V/ try in vain to V
Example
1. Sally finally managed to get a job.
 Sally finally succeeded .........................................................
Sally finally succeeded in getting the job
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2. He didn’t succeeded in searching for the stolen car.
 He tried in vain ..........................................................
 He tried in vain to search for the stolen car.
3. John Speck failed to find the source of the river Nile.
 John Speck did not succeed .................................................. ……..
John Speck did not succeed in finding the source of the river Nile

3.2.7 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ LIKELY
It seems that = it appears that = it is likely that
Example:
It seems that he will come late
 It appears that / It is likely he will come late
 He is likely to come late.
It to be likely that S will V  S may/ might V
Example:
It’s very likely that the company will accept his application.
 The company ………………………………………………………………..
The company might/ may accept his application.

3.2.8 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANCE/ OPPORTUNITY
Chance = possibility = (it to be likely that)
Example:
Their chances of success are small.
→It’s not ……………………………………………..
→It’s not likely that they will succeed.
The chances are that the whole thing will have been forgotten by next term.
→In all ……………………………………………………………………………….
→In all probability/likelihood the whole thing will have been forgotten by next term.
take a chance = risk
Example:
You’ll just have to take a chance. (POT)
→You’ll just have to take pot luck. (Take pot luck: ăn thử)
by chance = luck (accidentally)
Example
I met your sister by chance at the airport last week.
I ran ………………………………………………………………………..
I ran into your sister at the airport last week.

3.2.9 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ POSSIBLE

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It to be (im)possible to V  Ving to be (im)possible
It is impossible to learn a foreign language in a week.
Learning……………………………………………………………………..
Learning a foreign language in a week is impossible
It’s (im)possible that S + past simple  S might have Vpp
It’s possible that he didn’t get my letter.
 He might……………………………………………
He might not have got my letter
Can/could (not) = tobe (un)able to = tobe (im)possible to/that
Example:
He can’t walk on his foot
 He isn’t able to walk on his foot
 He is unable to walk on his foot
Couldn’t you have got a bus to the station?
 Wasn’t it…………………………………………………. ?
Wasn’t it possible to get a bus to the station?
3.2.10 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANGE
Change (n)  changeable (adj)/ change (v)
In countries like Britain the weather changes all the time.
 In countries like Britain, the weather is................................
In countries like Britain, the weather is very changeable
The weather is probably not going to change.
→There will ………………………………………………………...
→There will probably be no change in the weather.
change = turn over a new leaf
Example:
Your attitude will have to change if you want to succeed.
→You have to turn ……………………………………………………….
→You have to turn over a new leaf if you want to succeed.
3.2.11. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SEEM
S seem to have Vpp  It look as if/ though S has/ have/ had Vpp
The house seemed to have been unoccupied for several years.
 It looked……………………………………………………..
It looked as if the house had been unoccupied for several years
It seems that S past simple  S seem to have Vpp
Example:
1. It seems that no-one predicted the correct result.
 No-one………………………………...
No one seems to have predicted the correct result.
2. He seemed to be living in the area.
 It seemed …………………………………..
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3. It seemed that he was living in the area.
3.2.12. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ MIND
Mind (n): make up one’s mind= decide/ change one’s mind
Example:
When you do decide what you want to do, please let us know.
 When you make…………………………………………………
 When you make up your mind what you want to do, please let us know.
If you changed your mind, you’ll be welcome to join our club .
 Were you ............................... .................................................. ......................
Were you to change your mind, you’ll be welcome to join our club.
Mind (n): in one’s mind= your thought, your ability to think
We’ve been thinking the matter over and have and have finally come to a decision.
 We’ve………………………………………………………………………………..
We’ve given our mind to think the matter over and come to a decision
I never thought that I would win a prize.
→It had never ……………………………………………………………………
→It had never crossed my mind that I would win a prize.
mind (v): mind + Ving  to be happy/ willing to V
Example
Mary will be happy to give you a hand.
 Mary does not mind…………………………………………..
Mary does not mind giving you a hand.
Would you mind/ Do you mind: politely ask someone’s permission
Example:
1. May I borrow your pencil?
→ Would you mind ……………………………………………
Would you mind if I borrow your pencil?
2. Is it a problem if I open the window a little?
Do you ………………………………………………………………….
Do you mind if I open the window a little?
3.2.13. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ NECESSARY
to be necessary to V  S have/ need to V
Example:
1. It isn’t necessary to finish the work today.
 You don’t………………………………………………….
You don’t have to finish the work today
2. An up- to – date visa is necessary for Andorra.
 You’ll………………………………………………………………
You’ll need to get an up-to-date visa for Andorra

3.2.14. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ EXPECT
S V as adj/adv as S’ expect/hope (v)  come/live up to one’s expectation (n)
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