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Slide introduction to information ssstem 10th obien chap004 eng

James A. O’Brien

Introduction to Information Systems

1

Chapter

Computer

4

Software

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2001, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights res


James A. O’Brien


2

Introduction to Information Systems

Chapter Objectives
• Describe several major trends occurring in
computer software.
• Give examples of several major types of
application and system software.
• Explain the purpose of several popular software
packages for end user productivity and
collaborative computing.
• Outline the functions of an operating system.
• Describe the main uses of high-level, fourthgeneration, object-oriented, and web-oriented
languages and tools.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill


James A. O’Brien

3

Introduction to Information Systems

Categories of Computer Software
Computer
Computer
Software
Software

System
System
Software
Software

Application
Application
Software
Software



GeneralGeneralPurpose
Purpose
Programs
Programs

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

ApplicationApplicationSpecific
Specific
Programs
Programs

System
System
Management
Management
Programs
Programs

System
System
Development
Development
Programs
Programs


James A. O’Brien

4

Introduction to Information Systems

Trends in Computer Software
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Generation Generation Generation Generation

Fifth
Generation

Trend: Toward Easy-to-Use Multipurpose Network-Enabled Application
Packages for Productivity and Collaboration

User-Written
Programs
Machine
Languages

Packaged
Programs
Symbolic
Languages

Operating
Systems
High-Level
Languages

DBMS
Fourth-Generation
Languages
Microcomputer
Packages

Natural &
Object-Oriented
Languages
Multipurpose
Graphic- Interface
Network-Enabled
Expert-Assisted
Packages

Trend: Toward Visual or Conversational Programming Languages and
Tools

Irwin/McGraw-Hill


James A. O’Brien

5

Introduction to Information Systems

Common General- Purpose Applications







Electronic Mail
Word Processing
Presentation Graphics
Multimedia
Personal Information Manager
Groupware

Irwin/McGraw-Hill


James A. O’Brien

6

Introduction to Information Systems

Web Browsers
Discussion
Groups

Surf the Net

Launch
Information
Searches

Typical uses of a Web
Browser in Internet,
Intranet, and Extranet
Environments

Multimedia
File
Transfer

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

E-Mail


James A. O’Brien

7

Introduction to Information Systems

Database Management Packages
Database
Development

Database
Interrogation
Primary Tasks of
Database Management
Packages

Database
Maintenance

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Application
Development


James A. O’Brien

8

Introduction to Information Systems

Multimedia Technologies
Video
Video Capture
Capture
Card
Card

Authoring
Authoring
Language
Language

Storyboard
Storyboard

Sound
SoundBoard
Board

Key
Technologies
of
Multimedia

MIDI
MIDI
Interactive
Interactive
Video
Video

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Digital
Digital Video
Video
Interactive
Interactive

Compact
Compact Disk
Disk
Interactive
Interactive
Compressed
Compressed
Audio
Audio
Computer
Computer
Edit
Edit System
System
Digital
DigitalAudio
Audio


James A. O’Brien

9

Introduction to Information Systems

Business Enterprise Application Software

Accounting and
Financial
Management
Customer
Relationship
Management

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Human
Resource
Management

Supply
Chain
Management

Business
Decision
Support
Enterprise
Resource
Planning


James A. O’Brien

1
0

Introduction to Information Systems

Functions of an Operating System

User
Interface

Resource
Management

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Task
Management

File
Management

Utilities
and Other
Functions


James A. O’Brien

1
1

Introduction to Information Systems

Categories of Programming Languages
Machine Languages High Level Languages Markup Languages
Use binary coded
Use brief statements
Use embedded
instructions
control codes
1001 1001

First heading
Compute X = Y + Z
1100 1101
(#Item | manuf)>

Assembler Languages Fourth Generation
Object-Oriented
Use symbolic coded Languages
Languages
Use natural statements Define objects that
instructions
LOD Y
ADD Z

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS

contain data and actions

Document.write
(“Hi There”)


James A. O’Brien

1
2

Introduction to Information Systems

Programming Language Translation

IF A := B
THEN

• Compiler
• Interpreter
• Assembler
Language
Translator
Program

1001101
1110101
0010110

Source
Program
Written in
BASIC,
COBOL,
etc.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Language
Translation
Process

Machine
Language
Object
Program


James A. O’Brien

1
3

Introduction to Information Systems

Chapter Summary
• Computer software consists of two major types
of programs: application software that directs
the performance of a particular end user task,
and system software that controls and
supports the operations of a computer system.
• Application software includes a variety of
programs that can be segregated into generalpurpose and application-specific categories.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill


James A. O’Brien

1
4

Introduction to Information Systems

Chapter Summary (cont)
• System software can be subdivided into
system management programs and system
development programs. The former is used to
manage hardware, software, networks, and
data resources. The latter is used by IS
specialists to develop computer programs.
• An operating system is an integrated system of
programs that supervises the operations of the
CPU.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill


James A. O’Brien

1
5

Introduction to Information Systems

Chapter Summary (cont)
• There are 5 major levels of programming
languages. Language translator programs
convert programming language instructions
into machine language instructions.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill



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