PHÂN TÍCH VAI TRÒ CỦA XÂY DỰNG CHIẾN LƯỢC TRONG DOANH
1. Definition and features of strategy in business
Strategy was defined in the ancient Greeks. This term is used widely in the
military; it comes from "Strategos", which means the role of commander in the
army. Then it is evolved into "Art of generals" that refers to the behavior skills and
psychology of generals. By the year 330 BC, the Great Alexander used “the
strategy” to indicate the management skills to harness the force, crush the enemy
and to build global system of domination. In human history, many military
theorists such as Sun Tzu, Alexander, Clausewitz, Napoleon, Stonewall Jackson,
and Douglas MacArthur mentioned and wrote about strategy on different angles.
The basic argument of a strategy is that the opposing side can crush opponents,
even stronger, crowded rivals - if they can guide the match and put opponents into
the facilitated battlefield for carrying out their own ability.
Currently, there are many different definitions of strategy but we can
understand the strategy as action program, action plan that is designed to achieve a
specific goal, which is a combination of long-term goals and the measures, the
way, the path to reach that goal. In military, strategy differs from tactics because
tactics refers to the conduct of a battle, while strategy refers to how to link the
battles together. This means that we have to coordinate the fight to go to the final
Either way, the nature of business strategy is the sketched picture of the future
image of the company in the operating field and the ability to exploit. Although
strategy is understood in many ways, the term “business strategy” is used under
three most common meanings:
- To establish long-term goals of the business.
- To take out the general plan of action.
- To select the action plan, to allocate resources to achieve the objective.
In these three factors, we need to notice that resources are limited and the task
of strategy is to figure out method of using these resources so that we can achieve
the objectives in the most effective way.
The features of strategy
Although there are many opinions and different approaches to strategy
categories, the basic features of the strategy business is relatively uniform concept.
These basic features are:
Business strategy is the overall maps of the development of businesses; it
determines the relationship of the business and the objective environment. The
overview of business strategy is shown in three aspects:
- Business strategy must be consistent with the global of trend development of
- Business strategy of the company must be consistent with the development
trend of the country in terms of economic, technical and social in a particular
- Business strategy of the enterprise must be consistent with the trend of
economic integration of the world.
The overview of business strategy requires considering all parts of the
company, analyzing the situation of the entire company, national circumstances and
international circumstances. Without a global perspective, there can not be a good
Previously, many businesses without strategic plan did what they saw,
followed the movement so they worked hard and inefficiently. One of the reasons
of this situation is due to not grasp the development trend of the business.
Therefore, a company wanting to build a right business strategy needs to make
forecasts about the development trend of economic, social and technical. A
successful business strategy is often a strategy based on correct forecasts.
Without competition, it is not necessary to build and implement business
strategies. Therefore, competitive is the basic nature of business strategy. In the
current period, there is no business operating in an uncompetitive environment. So
business strategy must study how businesses get competitive advantages over
competitors and thereby earned the victory in that competition.
Business strategy is the development planning of the business in the future but
the survival environment of the company is uncertainty may change. The longer
process of strategy is, the more uncertainty factor of objective circumstances is,
and the greater the uncertainty is, the larger risk of the strategy is.
The professionalism and creativity
The small and medium enterprises can base on real ability to choose their own
field of business that fit their fortes and strengths, avoid industries where large
enterprises have the strength to hold exclusive position. The majority of businesses
which do this well are successful with the development and the prosperity. But
technical advances and market competition is not limited. Therefore, small and
medium enterprises must constantly import or develop appropriated advanced
Business strategy of the company must be relatively stable in a given period.
If not, it will have no direction meaning to the operation of the company. Objective
environment and practical activities of the company is a constant process. Business
strategy must also have the ability to adjust in accordance with objective
The features of business strategy are expressed on five sides.
• Business strategy is the expression of the competitive position of businesses
• Business strategy of a company is a business model of the company
• Business strategy is the expression of the views in value of a company
• Business strategy is the creation in corporate management
• Business strategy is a plan of action of a company
2. The benefits of a right strategy
In the current market mechanisms, the establishment and implementation of
the business strategy have important implications for the survival and development
Strategy and implementation are equally important but strategy is first
because as soon as the company has the ability to implement well, it will not
succeed if it has the wrong strategy. For example, if you are sitting on a leaky boat,
and you try to repair this defect by quickly scooping water out of the boat, you will
not be able to keep the boat floating long, because your strategy is not true.
This strategy has only targeted to the current state of problem (water in boat)
rather than considering the cause (hole in the boat). The right strategy is to find the
hole and fill it first. If not, whether how fast you slap the water, the boat is still
punctured and will eventually sink. But you also need the ability to implement this
strategy very well, which means you have to find the hole and fill it quickly.
Business is also similar. When the strategy is wrong, if the implementation is
perfect, the company is still failure. At the international business forum in 2006,
Ram Charan - a master of strategy implementation - used Toyota and Dell to show
the great accomplishments of effective implementation. We also agree that two
companies have done very well, but we need to say that these companies succeed
because of the right strategy and excellent implementation.
Toyota's strategy is to build a popular product lines having high quality, with
JIT production method (just-in-time: right product - right amount - right place right time). The key point is that the science of coordinating the entire production
process is implemented in the following way: The car is made when necessary and
the component parts should only be brought to the production line when needed. It
was Toyota's strategy (this strategy has now been implemented).
Dell's strategy to dominate the personal computer market with the use of
direct sales channels to reduce distribution costs then the company can offer
customers high quality products at low prices.
So what is the relation between the success of Toyota and Dell and strategy? It
relates much including the construction of right strategy through differentiation.
Toyota was the first car manufacturer in the world to use JIT production
method. This helps them succeed and molt into a leading brand. Dell was also the
first computer company (and only) in the world that sells their products directly to
end-users, this is the launch pad put them become No. 1 in the market and exist in
place for many years. If you want to build a strong brand, you need to have the
right strategy and the right execution of that strategy.
Benefits of a proper strategy for businesses are shown on three basic benefits
Be a guideline for all activities of the company
Business strategy helps businesses identify goals, its direction in the future
and it is the guideline for all activities of the business. Business strategy orients in
long-term operation of the business, it is a solid basis for the implementation of the
operations. The absence of strategy or strategy is not clearly built with any strong
arguments will make the operation of the business disoriented. In addition, there
are many arising problems that are only in sight but are not associated with longterm or it just find local without seeing the role of the local in the entire operation
of the company.
Language Link (LLV) is the brand of foreign education specializing in
English language training. Since came to Vietnam since 1996, the business strategy
of LLV was to become the leading brand of general English training with the target
customers are pupils. LLV was successful with this business objective in term of
the brand awareness, it has always been known as famous English center for
After 2000, the market appeared a new trend. A large number of young people
started learning English for the purpose of enhancing their abilities to study abroad
or study at international universities in Vietnam. Foreseeing this trend, Language
Link rapidly build a comprehensive training program for intensive English course
to equip full knowledge from early age for the long-term purpose in the future of
the students .
To realize this new business strategy, brand identity and brand communication
strategy of LLV have been changed accordingly. New Slogan uses two languages
"Học ở đây. Graduate anywhere” replaces the old slogan" The Internaltional link to
success". The message of a new slogan implies that the target customers (pupils &
students) will have a chance to succeed in the new environment (especially
overseas study) when they are trained intensive English at LLV. Logo of Language
Link also been tweaked with a new look that better fits the target customer group
(symbol of three students has more mature image than the image of children as
Through a system of goals, measures, and policies that were established in the
planning process, business strategy will draw up a comprehensive picture of the
company that the managers expect to harvest in the coming year in terms of size,
competitive position, profitability and corporate image. The strategy also sets out a
framework to guide all actions aimed at the ultimate goal.
Help the company respond well to the opportunities and
Business strategy helps companies understand and take advantage of business
opportunities as well as have proactive measures to deal with the risks and threats
in the market.
Your organization needs to respond effectively to the arising challenges,
including the difficulties and opportunities. For example, public expect the increase
in the standards and the availability of services. In return, the organization is
looking forward to providing services focusing on appearance - a fundamental shift
from traditional key that focuses on internal issues. At the same time, the greater
chances for reforming may emerge from advances in information technology,
communication and the supported financial resources as Invest to Save Budget. In
many cases, the response to the difficulties and opportunities will:
- Need a constant concern of senior management
- Impact on most or the entire organization
- Have long-term impact
- Need large resources
- Be associated with other problems and the other continuous events
An example of success thanks to the contribution of strategy is the
contribution of William Dearden for Hersey Food Company. During the 1980s,
Hersey brought annual profit of 22% to the company's shareholders. He said: "We
have a strategic management process. Long-term planning for the future has been
firmly established to strengthen further, we base on this process to grow forward. "
The strategy helps an organization to be more positive rather than passive in
defining its own future; it allows an organization to be proactive and cause impacts
on environment that it operates rather than just react weakly. Therefore, it can take
advance all its ability to control the environment and beyond the prejudices.
Help the company develop continuously and sustainably
Business strategies contribute to improving the efficiency of using resources,
strengthen the position of the business and ensure the company to have continuous
and sustainable development.
Not only the new business should build strategy, but any organization that
wants to operate continuously and sustainably also needs strategies. The school is
an organization and it needs to identify the right strategy.
A school wants to have sustainable development needs to build a strategic
plan for development. A strategic plan will help the school reflects the way to
achieve the key goals that it has set out; specifies the relationship between the
different objectives and the ways to implement them. It can be seen that the
construction of a strategic plan for the school is like creating a bridge between the
goal that school achieve and the methods for each school to implement that goal.
If a school does not build a development strategy, it only knows to do ahead
work, it does what it knows, it does what the higher levels told. It is possible that it
achieves some certain success, but it is only temporary, basically it has no concept
of evolution and direction of the development, it has passive reaction before the
evolution of the new changes. By some ways, that school can be stronger, but it
will not know how to use and exploit the available and potential resources, it
squanders opportunities, unforesees challenges and risks and it will not be the
ultimate winner. Conversely, a school knows to build strategic plans, which means
it knows how to set the goals to be achieved and the desired goals. That school will
focus on the evolutions and trends of long-term development; it knows to
accumulate, exploit, mobile and develop the available and potential resources, to
dominate and prepare the necessary conditions to achieve the key position and
objectives in short-term and long-term time. And the fact of many developed
countries has shown that the school which won the highest position must be one of
the schools having the best strategic plan.
I think that, the strategic planning is not only for aspiring school which
occupies the highest throne, or the school has " strong "brand, but it is also
necessary for any schools which has the purpose to participate in the development
of education. Especially, for a school that is newly established or has been
established for many years but it is not conscious for building a development
strategy plan; for a school wanting to survive and grow, it is indispensable to
define clearly the mission and the goals of the school in a long-term development
In summary, if the school wants to manage the changes, wants to maintain its
competitive advantage in the integration trend, wants their school to develop in
long-term and sustainable, it needs to determine the position and the roles of
constructing a development plan. This is the first premise, the prerequisite of
cognitive problems before approaching the technical problems to build a
development strategic plan for the school. I hope that the school will be successful,
soon asserts its position in particular and the honor of Vietnamese education in
general on the international education market.
There was a significant increase in the number of companies and
organizations that apply strategies to make effective decisions. Weekly plan
magazine statistics that more than 75% of companies use strategic management
techniques, which corresponds with 25% in 1979. However, having strategy is not
sure to have success. It could lead to the disruption of the functional parts if the
company organizes clutter. Strategy has brought the Rockwell Group, Colombia
Gas Supply Corporation and Ogden great successes. Mr. Waterman, a famous
American economist, after a period of research on the reason of success and failure
of the domestic and foreign enterprises, went to a new discovery about the benefits
that strategy bring for IBM as follows, "I was swept away when talking to John
Akers, the Deputy of IBM Corporation. After thoroughly studying about the
strategic management system, which is very sophisticated and efficient, I
understand that IBM, they consider strategy not only as a plan, but also as the way
they communicate with each other. And strategic management becomes important
because it produces information and helps you communicate". It is the
development of strategic systems in IBM that brings them such knowledge, so
IBM excels and becomes a giant in providing personal computers, servers and
communications equipment all over the world.
Due to the internationalization trend along with the increase in scarcity of
resources, the stormy development of technology and changes in market demand,
the business environment is increasingly complex and frequently volatile. In such
business environment, it requires businesses to have the right strategy to capture
new opportunities, avoid risks as well as ensure stable and sustainable
development of the company.
Characteristics of Vietnamese economy today:
Market economy is newly formed. It is volatile and does not have
consistency in macroeconomic management.
Market scale is fast-growing and competition is becoming fiercer.
WTO brings not only opportunities but also many challenges:
transparency in business
Capital market: Investors require a clear and feasible business
Building business strategies is becoming more urgent in the current
situation of Vietnam.
1. Website: Quantri.vn –address:
2. Website: VOER- address:
3. Hoang Van Hai – Strategic management- National University Publisher,
4. Website: Thebusiness - address:
5. Website: Research and consulting - address: