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Test bank for global business 3rd edition by pen

TEST BANK FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS 3RD EDITION BY PENG

1. A multinational enterprise is a firm that engages in foreign direct investment by directly managing
value-added activities in other countries.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 4
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

2. The term “emerging markets” refers to all markets other than the developed markets.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy

NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

3. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by resident firms, households, and
governments operating in an economy.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

4. Majority of the global GDP is contributed by the emerging markets.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

5. Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a conversion that determines the equivalent amount of goods and
services different currencies can purchase.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

6. Purchasing power parity (PPP) is calculated as the sum of value added by resident firms, households,
and governments operating in an economy.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1


KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

7. Emerging markets contribute about 26% of global GDP without adjusting for purchasing power parity
(PPP).
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

8. More than half the GDP produced by emerging markets comes from outside the BRIC countries.


ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

9. On the global economic pyramid, the Triad refers to developed economies consisting of North
America, Western Europe, and Japan.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

10. All the countries of the BRIC belong to the top tier of the global economic pyramid.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

11. The second tier of the global economic pyramid is made up of countries with a per capita annual
income of more than $20,000.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

12. The emerging markets of the world are placed at the top of the global economic pyramid.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

13. The global economic pyramid does not represent countries that have a per capita annual income of less
than $2,000.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

14. The term "base of the pyramid" represents economies where individuals make less than $2,000 a year.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

15. Reverse innovations are innovations that are adopted first in the Triad-based multinationals and then
diffused around the world.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

16. Reverse innovation is an example of bottom up innovation.
ANS: T

PTS: 1

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate


REF: p. 10
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

17. The Group of 20 includes the European Union (EU)—a regional bloc.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 11
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

18. Globalization has driven up the salaries of low-level jobs.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 12
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

19. An international premium is a significant pay raise awarded to expatriate employees working abroad.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 12
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

20. Approximately 80 million people worldwide are employed by foreign-owned firms.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 13
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

21. Overall, the focus on firm performance around the globe defines the field of global business more than
anything else.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 15
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

22. An institution-based view suggests that the success and failure of firms are enabled and constrained by
business norms of the host nation.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 15
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

23. Formal institutions include laws, regulations, and rules.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 15
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

24. The institution-based view places emphasis on the external factors that could affect a firm.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic


25. Focusing on a firm’s internal resources and capabilities is the main emphasis of the resource-based
view.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

26. Liability of foreignness is the inherent disadvantage experienced by foreign firms in host counties
because of their non-native status.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

27. Most opponents of globalization view globalization as a long-run historical evolution since trade
began.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: pp. 18-19
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

28. According to the pendulum view of globalization, globalization is a relatively new phenomenon
triggered by the information revolution of early 1990s.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 19
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

29. Scenario planning is a technique to prepare and plan exclusively for high risk scenarios.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 20
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

30. Standardization of markets would lead to a state of semiglobalization.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

31. Semiglobalization is primarily caused by the practice of total isolation.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

32. The current state of globalization around the world is that of semiglobalization.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

33. Semiglobalization calls for adopting one way of doing business for all conditions.


ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

34. The strategy of treating the entire world as one market is known as localization.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

35. A dragon multinational is a name given to MNEs from emerging markets.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 22
OBJ: LO: 1-5
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The term "emerging economies" has replaced the term _____.
a. developed countries
b. developing countries
c. Triad markets
d. first-world markets
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

2. The _____ is measured as the sum of value added by resident firms, households, and governments
operating in an economy.
a. gross national product
b. gross national income
c. gross domestic product
d. national reserve
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

3. A conversion that determines the equivalent amount of goods and services that different currencies can
buy is known as _____.
a. purchasing power parity
b. foreign exchange rate
c. country's deficit
d. gross domestic product
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 5
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

4. The gross domestic product plus the income from non-resident sources abroad gives the ____.
a. gross national product


b. per capita income
c. purchasing power parity
d. net national income
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 6
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

5. Without adjusting for PPP, emerging economies contribute about 26% of the global GDP. Adjusting for
PPP, they now contribute approximately 45% of the global GDP. The reason there is a huge difference
between the two measures is because:
a. the cost of living in emerging economies tends to be lower than that in developed
economies.
b. the purchasing power parity is much higher in emerging countries.
c. the population in emerging economies is much higher than that in developed economies.
d. the deficit spending in emerging economies is much larger than that in developed
economies.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Diversity

6. Which of the following countries would be characterized as an emerging economy?
a. Brazil
b. USA
c. Germany
d. Japan
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

7. Which of the following groups is primarily composed of emerging economies?
a. The Triad
b. BRIC
c. Group of Eight (G8)
d. NAFTA
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

8. Which of the following countries is included in BRIC?
a. Belgium
b. Russia
c. Italy
d. Canada
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

9. More than half of all GDP of emerging economies comes from _____.
a. the Four Asian Tigers (Hong-Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan)


b. MIKT (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey)
c. the Commonwealth of Independent States
d. BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China)
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 7
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

10. People who live in the Triad countries comprise the _____ of the global economic pyramid.
a. top tier
b. second tier
c. base
d. outlier
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

11. Viewing the global economy as a pyramid, the Triad refers to _____.
a. Taiwan, Hong Kong, and South Korea
b. US, the EU, and China
c. Brazil, India, and China
d. North America, Western Europe, and Japan
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

12. Which of the following countries is represented in the Triad of the global economic pyramid?
a. India
b. China
c. Japan
d. Russia
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

13. Which of the following regions in the global economic pyramid would comprise developed nations?
a. The base
b. The Triad
c. The second tier
d. The outlier
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

14. People who earn _____ a year comprise the base of the global economic pyramid.
a. between $2,000 to $20,000
b. less than $2,000
c. between $20,000 to $40,000
d. more than $40,000
ANS: B

PTS: 1

DIF: Difficulty: Easy


REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

15. Which of the following is true of economies in the base of the global economic pyramid?
a. They are composed of developed economies.
b. They are composed of people from North America, Western Europe, and Japan.
c. They are largely ignored by MNEs.
d. They attract the largest FDI from MNEs.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

16. A _____ is defined as an innovation that is adopted first in emerging economies and then diffused
around the world.
a. reverse innovation
b. reverse-engineered innovation
c. top down innovation
d. traditional innovation
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

17. Which of the following would be an example of a top down innovation?
a. Lowering prices and features of existing products to meet emerging market needs
b. Launching a product in and for emerging economies
c. Adopting an innovation first in emerging economies and then diffusing it around the world
d. Introducing products from emerging markets into developed markets
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

18. Which of the following would be an example of a product undergoing reverse innovation on the global
economic pyramid?
a. Triad nation to Triad nation
b. Triad nation to second tier nation
c. Second tier to base tier nation
d. Base tier nation to Triad nation
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 9
OBJ: LO: 1-1
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

19. Which of the following is true of the Group of 20 (G-20)?
a. It only has 19 member countries.
b. It doesn’t represent any European nation.
c. It meets annually to discuss environmental issues.
d. It includes many regional blocs.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 11
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic


20. Approximately _____ people are employed by foreign-owned firms throughout the world.
a. 80 million
b. 40 million
c. 18 million
d. 1 million
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 13
OBJ: LO: 1-2
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

21. Which of the following does the institution-based view of global business lay emphasis on?
a. Acquiring resources that belong to the host nation
b. Consolidating the internal assets of a firm
c. Focusing on the capabilities of the firm’s headquarters
d. Understanding the laws and values of the firm’s host nation
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 15
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

22. The _____ view suggests that the success and failure of firms are largely determined by their
environments.
a. institution-based
b. stakeholder-based
c. resource-based
d. capability-based
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

23. The _____ view of global business focuses on external factors that affect a firm’s performance.
a. resource-based
b. asset-based
c. capability-based
d. institution-based
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

24. The resource-based view of global business differs from the institution-based view of global business
in that the resource-based view _____.
a. postulates the ideology of localization
b. supports the ideology of total globalization
c. focuses on the internal strengths on the firm
d. advocates adopting a single method for achieving globalization
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic


25. The _____ view of global business focuses on internal factors that can help a firm overcome its
external environment.
a. resource-based
b. industry-based
c. socio-cultural
d. institution-based
ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

26. The liability of foreignness is the inherent disadvantage faced by _____.
a. domestic firms against other domestic firms that have engaged in global business
b. foreign firms in host nations due to their non-native status
c. domestic firms from foreign firms setting up in their country
d. foreign firms from their home country governments
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 16
OBJ: LO: 1-3
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

27. Which of the following is true of globalization according to the “new force” perspective?
a. It is a process of trade integration that has both advantages and disadvantages.
b. It is a phenomenon that is technologically out of sync.
c. It is a historical aspect of human trade.
d. It is a western ideology focused on exploiting and dominating the world through MNEs.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: pp. 18-19
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

28. Which of the following is true of globalization according to the “pendulum view” perspective?
a. Globalization is being interrupted by artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services,
capital, and knowledge.
b. Globalization is a Western ideology focused on exploiting and dominating the world
through MNEs.
c. Globalization is a not a one-directional phenomenon.
d. Globalization is a recent phenomenon of human trade.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 19
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

29. The _____ of globalization suggests that globalization is neither recent nor one-directional.
a. new-force view
b. long-run historical view
c. pendulum view
d. colonial view
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 19
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic


30. The concept of _____ suggests that barriers to market integration at borders are high, but not high
enough to completely insulate countries from each other.
a. localization
b. technocapitalism
c. semiglobalization
d. total globalization
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

31. Which of the following is true of semiglobalization?
a. It is a type of globalization that adopts a strategy of treating the entire world as one
market.
b. It is a type of globalization that lies between total isolation and total globalization.
c. It is a form of globalization that treats each country as a unique market.
d. It is a form of globalization that considers each nation in isolation when conducting
business.
ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

32. The strategy of treating each country as a unique market and in total isolation is referred to as _____.
a. total globalization
b. standardization
c. semiglobalization
d. localization
ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

33. _____ is the strategy of treating the entire world as one market.
a. Total isolation
b. Semiglobalization
c. Standardization
d. Localization
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Easy
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

34. Which of the following would lead to the standardization of world markets?
a. Semiglobalization
b. Localization
c. Total globalization
d. Total isolation
ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: p. 21
OBJ: LO: 1-4
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

35. Which of the following would be regarded as a dragon MNE?


a.
b.
c.
d.

MNEs from developed countries
MNEs belonging to the Triad economies
MNEs coming exclusively from the European Union
MNEs from emerging markets

ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: p. 22
OBJ: LO: 1-5
KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

ESSAY
1. What is the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and purchasing power parity (PPP)?
ANS:
The IMF uses the United States as benchmark in PPP calculation. PPP is a conversion that determines
the equivalent amount of goods and services different currencies can purchase. For example, one dollar
spent in Mexico can buy a lot more than one dollar spent in the United States.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by resident firms, households, and
governments operating in an economy. To compare two countries' GDP, a conversion based on PPP is
necessary.
The PPP between two countries is the rate at which the currency of one country needs to be converted
into that of a second country to ensure that a given amount of the first country's currency will purchase
the same volume of goods and services in the second country. Without adjusting for PPP, emerging
economies contribute about 26% of the global GDP. But after adjusting for PPP, emerging economies
contribute about 45% of the global GDP.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-1

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 5-7
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. The global economy may be viewed as a pyramid. The growing number of opportunities at the base of
the pyramid highlights the role this bottom tier will play in the years to come. How can MNEs take
advantage of this often-ignored level?
ANS:
The global economy can be viewed as a pyramid. The top of the pyramid consists of one billion people
with per capita annual income of $20,000 or higher. The second tier consists of another billion people
making $2,000 to $20,000 a year. The vast majority of the world's populations, representing
approximately five billion people, live at the base of this pyramid, making less than $2,000 a year.
Marketers have focused on the top two levels and end up ignoring the bottom tier. An increasing
number of countries located in this bottom tier are demonstrating economic and marketing
opportunities as they move from low- to middle-income levels. It is much easier to market to
consumers with higher incomes. In the emerging world, marketing is different. There is no guarantee
media choices will be available or that one’s product will be a success.
The challenges in the bottom of the pyramid require innovation, such as identifying special price
points, as well as long-term commitment. Many consumers at the base of the pyramid may be illiterate,
but they are brand conscious. Companies need to think outside the box and identify win-win strategies
for this emerging consumer market.
Although individuals living in developing economies have less purchasing power than their
counterparts living in the developed countries, they still have needs and wants. Global firms capable of
fulfilling these needs will make a profit and emerge as global marketers.
PTS: 1

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate

REF: pp. 8-9


OBJ: LO: 1-1

NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

3. How is reverse innovation helping emerging economies?
ANS:
One interesting recent development out of emerging economies is reverse innovation —an innovation
that is adopted first in emerging economies and then diffused around the world. On the global
economic pyramid, traditionally, innovations are generated by Triad-based multinationals with the
needs and wants of rich customers at the top of the pyramid in mind. When such multinationals entered
lower-income economies, they tended to simplify the product features and lower the prices. In other
words, the innovation flow is top down. The reverse innovation movement suggests that emerging
economies are no longer merely low-cost production locations or attractive new markets. They are also
sources of new innovations that may not only grow out of bottom-of-the-pyramid markets, but also
have the potential to go uphill to penetrate into the top of the global economic pyramid.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-1

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 9-10
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

4. Explain the benefits of gaining international business experience and working as an expat.
ANS:
Answers may vary.
People skills and greater understanding of the complexity of the global business environment are
valuable assets for current and future top MNE executives. Expatriates have a unique opportunity to be
hands-on managers exposed to the corporation's global organizational dynamics.
Top-level jobs, especially those held by expats, are both financially rewarding and secure. Expats often
command a significant premium in compensation, which usually includes a premium pay raise when
accepting overseas assignments. Other benefits include more favorable job security in times of
downsizing. Managers who have positioned themselves strategically with international business
experience have a better chance at continued employment.
When the expat returns from a global assignment, if the current company does not provide attractive
career return opportunities, the expat has the skills and expertise to consider other global firms. In most
cases, the expat will not have a difficult time identifying other employment opportunities and
commanding a higher premium. Expats gain a competitive advantage by accepting global business
assignments as it increases their opportunities for upward mobility.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-2

DIF: Difficulty: Challenging
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: p. 12
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

5. Explain the success and failure of global firms based on institution- and resource-based views.
ANS:
Global firms can gain success in today's competitive global market by focusing on the institution- and
resource-based perspectives. The first factor from an institutional perspective focuses on how
companies can earn greater success by understanding the external business environments in
international business. MNEs quick to acquaint and internationalize themselves with an understanding
of the external environment, such as host country market rules, cultural norms, and policies, will
increase their success.


The resource-based view focuses on an MNEs' internal resources, which are firm specific resources
and capabilities. Competitors in the same environment do not share these internal capabilities;
therefore, a company possessing unique firm-specific capabilities develops a competitive advantage in
marketing their products or in the value creation process. Global companies that best utilize their
internal strengths will increase their opportunities for business success.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-3

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 14-16
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

6. Elaborate on the three prevalent views of globalization.
ANS:
Globalization is generally seen in three perspectives:
· a new force sweeping through the world in recent times
·a long-run historical evolution since the dawn of human history
·a pendulum that swings from one extreme to another from time to time
The first view sees globalization as a new phenomenon beginning in the late 20th century, driven by
recent technological innovations and a Western ideology focused on exploiting and dominating the
world through MNEs. The second view contends that globalization has always been part and parcel of
human history. The third view suggests that globalization is the “closer integration of the countries and
peoples of the world which has been brought about by the enormous reduction of the costs of
transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods,
services, capital, knowledge, and (to a lesser extent) people across borders.”
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-4

DIF: Difficulty: Moderate
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 18-19
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Explain the pendulum view of globalization.
ANS:
The pendulum view probably makes the most sense because it can help us understand the ups and
downs of globalization.
The current era of globalization originated after World War II with the major Western nations
committing to globalization. From the 1950s through the 1970s, political unrest in the Communist
countries formed a different view of globalization. Non-communist countries, such as Mexico and
Brazil, focused on protecting their domestic industries. In contrast, the Four Tigersthe developing
economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwanparticipated in the global economy.
Both the emerging and developed markets benefit greatly from globalization. However, seen in a
historical context, globalization never continues in one direction, hence the view of globalization as a
pendulum. In the 1990s, globalization was on the fast track. However, globalization proponents
witnessed significant backlashes and setbacks. This rapid growth in globalization led to an inaccurate
view that globalization was new, which created many negative perceptions. This new globalization
created fear, and competition posed a direct threat to countries' culture and values.
More recently, globalization has once again come to be considered a positive, offering contributions to
worldwide economic growth. Globalization has both a rosy and dark side, and it changes over time. In
some areas, it has resulted in job creation with tremendous outcomes, while in other areas it has
resulted in job losses and hardship. How globalization has affected you or your family will influence
your perceptions and viewpoints.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-4

DIF: Difficulty: Challenging
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 19-20
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension


8. Explain the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in globalization.
ANS:
Many of the opponents of globalization are nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) such as
environmentalists, human rights activists, and consumer groups. Ignoring them will be a grave failure
when doing business around the globe. Instead of viewing NGOs as opponents, many firms view them
as partners. NGOs do raise a valid point when they insist that firms, especially MNEs, should have a
broader concern for the various stakeholders affected by the MNEs’ actions around the world. At
present, this view is increasingly moving from the peripheral to the mainstream.
PTS: 1
OBJ: LO: 1-5

DIF: Difficulty: Challenging
NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic

REF: pp. 23-24
KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension



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