Phân tích tầm quan trọng của xây dựng chiến lược cho doanh nghiệp
To answer the above question, first of all, we should understand what strategic
management is, the role and importance of strategy for the success or failure of a
Before regionalization and globalization trends of economy in the world, businesses of
every country are facing the business environment which is more complicated, volatile
and potentially continuous variables appear unexpected incidents, including threats and
opportunities and challenges for every business, every organization in every economy.
Therefore, managers at all levels must always find new solutions to help organizations
adapt to the conditions of the operating environment in order to maintain and enhance the
competitiveness to achieve effective long-term targets and essential needs when
performing their business.
When performing strategic management, leaders of enterprises or organizations need to
identify the importance of the business environment or operating environment, clearly
identify the factors inside and outside which will influence to the operations, to
determine the tasks to be completed, the objectives to be achieved; simultaneously, to
decide the right strategy for implementation to ensure that the business or organization
surviving and developing in long term effectively.
Today, strategic management has become central tasks, creating a breakthrough in
business administration of many companies and many leading economic corporations of
the developed countries in the world and in the global market. It also helps the newly
industrialized countries the gap compared with developed countries quickly; at the same
time, it is also a tool to help businesses of these countries have been increasingly strong
position in the world and global market. On the other hand, strategic management plays
an important role in helping the economy of developing countries may rise to rapid
integration into regional and the global markets in future.
In fact, every business, every organization, every economy has its own characteristics,
there are strengths and certain weaknesses than its competitors and is influenced by
environmental factors the tendencies and different levels... So, depending on the specific
situation, the strategic management of each enterprise or each organization based on
specific characteristics to strategic management in a flexible manner. Any rigid
machinery in strategic management are brought to the failures.
What is Strategic Management?
Depending on the aspect of interest, the researchers launched their own definition of the
concept of " strategic management ", from my opinion, in the business, Strategic
management is the process of environmental analysis, the development of general
direction of the organization, choosing the appropriate strategy, implementation and
evaluation of decisions to help organizations adapt to the environment always.
In the field of business administration, the concept clarifies the definition of strategic
management process, including the basic stages that managers need to make when
deciding to invest in production - business in the national or international market:
+ Analysis of business environment
• Analyze the opportunities and the risks or potential risks of the external environment.
• Analysis of strengths and weaknesses in internal organization compared with each
+ Forms of business strategy
• Develop general direction of the organization as: Form a business philosophy,
determine standards of ethics and social responsibility in strategic management, define
the organization's mission and long -term goals, the growth target.
• Decide to choose strategies to adapt to the environment inside and outside the
+ Strategy implementation
• Establishing organizational structure adapts to the chosen strategy.
• Development of policies and action programs.
• Operations strategy implementation process.
• Develop a sustainable organizational culture.
+ Strategy evaluation and adjustment:
• Identification of strategic adaptation to the environment.
• Supervise direct or indirect activities.
• Measure and evaluate the results of the process.
• Make adjustments as needed.
Although strategy management including the mentioned above basic stages: but in
reality, each stage in the process is not independent, they have close relationships with
each other or perform intertwined, any replacement a step change in particular will also
affect the other stages in the process.
Management strategies include decisions and activities to help organizations to form and
maintain appropriate benefits to the business environment. Therefore, the strategic
management should promptly evaluate changes in the strengths and weaknesses of the
business compared to competitors and in relation to the change of the opportunities and
risks the external environment. The maintenance of adaptation between business
conditions demand environment is needed to maintain competitiveness in the market. So,
when the environment inside and outside are changing, managers need to adjust their
content needed in the process to ensure operational adaptability in strategic management.
Strategic management right will bring many benefits to organizations and businesses,
according to my personal opinion, there are three basic benefits below of strategic
In recent decades, strategic management has been widely implemented in many types of
organizations, many different types of businesses in developed countries, the newly
industrialized countries and started spreading to developing countries development on a
world scale. The main reason of this problem is the management of the organization, the
types of businesses realize the benefits of strategic management for the survival and
long-term development of the organization. Some basic benefits of strategic management
+ Strategic Management helps organizations clearly oriented strategic vision, mission
and long-term goals.
Indeed, want strategic management effectively, organizations must manage information
systems environment and business operating environment. Based on this platform,
administrators can predict the trends of environmental factors and determine where the
company should go to in the future, what can be done to achieve lasting success.
When developing clear direction and goals of the organization, the management and
executive levels easy mutual understanding, and implementation efforts to achieve the
task desired. In fact, this was much senior executives of companies in the industrialized
countries discussed in several workshops. For example, since the early 1990s, the senior
executives of the company, Rockwell International has said that management strategies
for managers at all levels and members of the company proficient in their business on the
world market, we need to know where they go in the long term, to know how to identify
the task amid fierce competition taking place on the global market...
+ Strategic Management helps managers proactively in the decision to exploit
opportunities in time and prevent or limit the risks of the external environment and
promote the strengths and reduce the weaknesses in internally.
The business environment is always unexpected changes, can create opportunities or
risks for the operation of the business. If strategic management, the environment will be
closely monitored, administrators have the ability to make proactive decisions. For
example, when forecasting opportunities appear likely, administrators preparing plans to
capture the situation allows; or predicting the likelihood of risk, administrators can
proactively impact on the environment to reduce risk or initiative to dodge. On the other
hand, the strengths and weaknesses always exist in organizations; if not strategic
management, the members of the company easy to be satisfied with what existing
strengths will quickly become weak and at risk of exploitation competition. Conversely,
if strategic management, information systems organizations are reviewing strengths and
weaknesses to the facility administrator has strengths to take advantage of increased
competitiveness, while reducing plan weaknesses in order to minimize risk. For example,
decentralization, decentralization extensively in strategic management process will create
conditions for developing the creative abilities of the members of the organization, or
strategies and use rational treatment workers basis to attract talent, promote employee
loyalty to the organization.
At the same time, the strategic management process, managers will monitor the changes
of business environment and adjust strategy as necessary. Therefore, strategic
management will help companies always have a good strategy, adapt to the environment;
this is particularly important in the context of the business environment is increasingly
complex, constantly changing and fiercely competitive place on a global scale.
+ Strategic Management helps enterprises achieve economic efficiency - high society
than no management strategy.
The study shows that in the U.S., the company implemented strategic management often
achieve profitability, high market shares than the company strategic management. At the
same time, productivity and efficient use of resources increases over time. This may
prove to be so in the process of strategic management, business environment is always
monitored, administrators conditional decisions are effective and adaptable environment.
Practical examples of success in strategy management of Vinamilk.
During 2010, over a range of mass media information about the outstanding success of
the Vietnam Dairy Products Joint Stock Company (Vinamilk): is the first representative
of Vietnam in the top 200 Asian business in 2010 voted by Forbes Asia magazine.
Vinamilk also ranked by Vietnam Report (VNR) as top 5 largest private enterprises in
Vietnam. In addition, Nielsen Singapore have also been classified as one of 10 brands
consumers love most Vietnam - which if alone Vinamilk beverage industry is ranked No.
Many awards, a lot of success, but why Vinamilk achieve outstanding development?
There are many factors, but high achievement throughout Vinamilk than it is to identify a
right investment strategy and reasonable steps from the beginning time of establishment.
Investment in technology and products development
Ms. Mai Kieu Lien, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, said Vinamilk, established in
1976 to nearly 35 this year Vinamilk development and branding. From 3 factories
specialized in producing milk “Thong Nhat”, “Truong Tho”, “Dielac”; Vinamilk has not
stopped building distributed systems and products. To date there are over 200 items
Vinamilk milk and dairy products such as milk, milk powder for children and adults,
nutrition powder, fresh milk, flavored milk, yogurt, soy milk, cream or cheese - cheese,
fruit juice, soft drinks... With proper orientation, dairies: Hanoi, Binh Dinh, Can Tho,
Saigon, respectively Nghe An introduction to processing, production of milk.
Thanks to business reputation, basically, dairy products Vinamilk far has covered market
in the country from urban to rural and mountainous areas. Motto namely, to make a good
product, high quality, scientifically tested and the fact that will persuade consumers. To
achieve this purpose, Vinamilk ongoing effort to ensure at the same 3 core issues, such as
quality - price - service style. Can confirm that, namely, Vinamilk is one of domestic
firms but the investment in production and processing technology as good as other
leading dairy enterprises in the world.
Orientation in time to come, expected in August 2011 Vinamilk will bring the plant into
operation in Da Nang with an investment of $ 30 million, there are two items yogurt and
milk. At the end of 2012, there are 2 huge plants: water milk factory in Binh Duong
Province with an investment of $ 120 million (an initial capacity of 400 million liters per
year, phase 2 is 800 million liters), and plant milk powder for children with a capacity of
55,000 tons / year with an investment of over $ 100 million (end of 2012 will go into
operation). The objective end of 2011, Vinamilk will become the company $ 1 billion
revenue target by 2017 and Vinamilk will make the top 50 largest dairy companies in the
world with revenue of $ 3 billion / year.
Investment in brand building and market expansion
This is the area 's outstanding performance, the most effective of Vinamilk. Vinamilk
always pay attention to studies of regional markets, each consumer habits, each age,
gender, to grow its retail network and promote each item for each item in each area, local
In 2010, Vinamilk production increased to 35 %, revenue reached more than 16,000
billion dong. This is achieved by applying Vinamilk business reforms, reorganizing the
market. Vinamilk factors make successful business strategy and government are
controlled retail outlets. Not only in the domestic market, Vinamilk also reaches overseas
markets, including the difficult markets such as the USA, Australia, Cambodia, Laos,
Philippine, Middle East... Vinamilk is one of the joint stock company doing the most
effective, holding nearly 40 % market share of the milk market in Vietnam.
Practical examples of failure lessons in strategy management of Kodak
For years, the Kodak name is synonymous with the image but after 131 years, Eastman
Kodak preparing to fade in history. What happened? The recent report shows that the
situation is bleak and bankruptcy may be inevitable. So in essence, what Kodak made a
Failure 1: Kodak missed the era of information technology
It can be said that the most important step in any strategy is the strategic choice of the
first method. Right from the early stages in the company's history, Kodak has applied
rational thinking strategies for the production and sales of cameras and film. Kodak uses
razor blades strategy: companies with low price to sell cameras and film fueling growth
and profitability of the business that Kodak became heavily dependent on high profits
from the movie and more at attention to the device.
Difficulty arose in 1984 when the Japanese company Fuji Kodak invasive market share
with customers switching to their products after launching Fuji color film cheaply than
20 % of Kodak. Kodak 's response is " they do not believe the American people will buy
a different kind of movie."
Second, the late 1980s ushered in a new outlook on business for Kodak, the company has
failed to recognize the changes ahead. Instead, Kodak almost committed suicide with by
sticking with a business model is no longer effective in the post- digital era. And when
change occurs, the problem is too little too late Kodak Daniel A. Carp, Kodak's CEO at
that time there were moments that smoothly analysts derided at the time as " strategic
plan sudden epiphany " launched in late May 9/2003 to replace the silver-coated film, the
core business of Kodak, with digital technology is now fully fledged development.
Kodak lacks innovation strategy leads to misinterpretation and workflows that their
careers are not company activities that capture the fundamental shift towards the digital
era. Instead of venturing into a promising new field, to preserve his company with the
processes and policies that uphold the old profit.
Failure 2: The pivotal key requires measures
Even when building business strategies still differ about how to make the best strategic
change. Change is the only thing that happens in life and not stop so managers need
accurate measures capture how to implement strategic change. Kodak 's case
demonstrates the application of wrong can be devastating ability to adapt to changing
Kodak's market became alert to early 1981 when Sony Mavica statement released, digital
camera film can not display images on the TV screen and the photos can be printed out
on paper. Although management is more interested in the life of silver - halide
technology and "it brings fear to the company ", many people still find it hard to believe
in something that does not bring much profit as drama systems.
Kodak CEO agreed that the pace of technological change requires faster action but
Kodak still believe in the future of where technology Kodak silver - halide can "fit with
the new technology."
Digital era has shaken the industry to take pictures but Kodak failed to make decisive
changes. After working 35 years and 5 years to Kodak CEO Daniel A. Carp evident
implicitly acknowledged that although he has identified a critical threat from digital
technology with 131 -year-old company, he acted too slowly and too late.
Failure 3: The Paradox between Market & Human Resources in strategy
What is the true source of competitive advantage? A company have to re- position
themselves or not to understand the advantage of a changing market and should adhere to
their natural resources. The organization should analyze the diverse aspects of the
relationship between resources and activities exist in a business.
Kodak has failed to reference his strategy with that.
The problem seems simple, capable Kodak film and paper, chemical and processing
images but new technology era was different: it is based on technology. It was not the
first time Kodak tried to find a future for himself beyond the core business of their
movies. By adopting market-based perspective, Kodak expanded product selection in an
effort to slowly convert the company into a new digital era.
As markets change quickly around Kodak, the company began considering which
functions should be developed to support the new demands of the market based on
consumers. Market structure has changed and Kodak, along with the other traditional
film production to have been a part of the segment end user.
With more than half of the companies applied traditional financial razor model quickly
disappeared with the strong decline in revenue from the movie continuity, new silver halide post- technological world which depends on convincing the mass market to print
hard copies of digital photos. The result is the screens production (eg HP, Canon, Epson,
Dell, Lexmark), the competitors internet 1(like Snapfish and Shutterfly) and the
traditional photo developing (Fuji, Agfa, Konica Minolta) must compete to establish the
leading position in the digital movement in the market in 2005.
The method is based on the market in this new era is heavily dependent on winning a
competition is not consistent with competitiveness and flexibility of the company on the
market. While the traditionally pictures pie is divided between Kodak and Fuji who holds
a majority, still has more than a dozen other companies with the financial capacity / size
of the array of technical and other professionals seeking to capture market share from the
opportunity to wash digital photos.
Failure 4: Competition and Cooperation: Headache M & A Issues of Kodak
How should an organization respond to competitors is a paradox between competition
and cooperation. The use of Kodak's strategic network has been expanded. Kodak were
busy in an effort to reorganize radically and develop new capabilities through
acquisitions and divestments.
Only in 2004, Kodak has completed the acquisition of Scitex Digital Printing and saled
of remote sensing systems for ITT Industries.
Kodak also established strategic partnerships with Verizon Wireless under which Kodak
Mobile service providers are always available for Verizon Wireless. Later, the company
also acquired the right to vote in Chinon Industries, through its Japanese affiliate, and
also completed the acquisition of two business units from Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
with a 50% stake in stake in half of NexPress Solutions and Heidelberg digital.
Kodak photo array was not neglected after signing a financing agreement with GE
Global in August 2004. During an attempt to cope with the era of mobile communication
technology, Kodak reached an agreement with Cingular Wireless and Nokia to develop
services for mobile phones with cameras and acquisitions Algotec System,...
Each one of the different organizations have been acquired in an effort to adjust or
rebuild capacity in the new areas that the company is important to future industry image.
However, the desire and the rapid changes in their prices. The natural reaction after
Kodak announced that the company will pursue the digital era has gone too far into a
waste spend big to absorb as many new features as possible. This not only dented cash
flows and reduce the attractiveness to investors, but also is typical for a foolish measures
in the market to catch up.
Frenzy M & A efforts of Kodak has led the company never know should partner with
who is needed and the complexity of the restructuring has led to Kodak's slow pace in
confirming its presence on the market.
The decline and collapse of Eastman Kodak is the failure of leaders in the development
of appropriate buffer areas to sustain the competition from unsuitable imitation and
copying its strategy and to fit efficiently with the resources and their capacity for new
opportunities - a business failure eventually led to the collapse and bankruptcy
Through two above examples, we can see clearly the role and importance of business
strategy for the success or failure of any enterprise. The wise entrepreneur can visualize a
clear and focused on an ideal business would look like in the future. This has been
demonstrated through the development of powerful economic groups in industrialized
countries and in the emerging economies of Asia such as South Korea, Singapore,
Taiwan, Hong Kong... time today, many developing countries are adopting the principles
of strategic management in many areas, especially in the economic field in order to
create competitive advantage before the trend of regionalization and globalization of the
economy world economy, developing and maintaining long-term survival of the
organization as well as the nation. In addition, government organizations, non-profit
organizations in many countries also conduct strategic management to "product or
service" its always meet the needs of society, supporting industries facilitate economic
development on national and international.