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NGU PHAP TIENG ANH TOM LUOC – BAI 25 SO SANH

Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG

NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH TÓM LƯỢC – BÀI 24

COMPARISONS – SO SÁNH

1) So sánh bằng: (SIMILARITY)
EX: - He is as tall as his friend.
- John drives as carefully as Tom.

AS + adj/ adv + As

2) So sánh không bằng:
Not . . . So + adj/ adv + As

EX: - He is not as tall as his friend.
- John doesn’t drive so carefully as Tom.

As

S + V + the same + (noun) + as + {noun/ pronoun}

3) So sánh hơn: (COMPARATIVE)
EX: - He is taller than his friend.
- John drives more carefully than Tom.

Short adj/adv + -ER
-----------------------------

+ THAN

MORE + long adj / adv

4) So sánh kém: (LESS COMPARATIVE)
LESS + adj/ adv + THAN

EX: - Today is less hot than yesterday was.
- John drives less carefully than Tom.

5) So sánh nhất: (SUPERLATIVE)
Short adj/ adv + -EST
THE + -----------------------

EX:- Spring is the most beautiful season of the year.
- This is the longest river in the world.

MOST + long adj/ adv

Short adj/ adv ( Tính từ ngắn/ trạng từ ngắn) : đọc chỉ có một am tiết. (Ex: tall, hot, fast,…)
Long adj/ adv ( tính từ dài/ trạng từ dài ) : đọc có từ hai âm tiết trở lên. (Ex: useful, beautiful,.)
6) So sánh kép : ( DOUBLE COMPARISON )
1- So sánh kép trong bản thân một sự vật , hiện tượng : ……..càng ngày càng ……..
A- Tính từ ngắn : ( Short adjectives )
COMPARATIVE AND COMPARATIVE

Adj –er
and
Adj-er
Ex: - Tom is growing fast. He is getting taller and taller
- The weather is getting hotter and hotter
b- Tính từ di ( long adjectives ) hoặc trạng từ ( adverbs ) :
S + V + more and more + Adj / Adv


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Ex : - Computers are becoming more and more complicated
- Jenny is becoming more and more beautiful
2- So sánh kép liên quan đến hai hay nhiều sự vật , hiện tượng : .... càng …càng …

The + tính từ so sánh bậc hơn + S + V, The + tính từ so sánh bậc hơn + S + V
( comparative )
,
( comparative )
1 The more money you make, the more you spend
2 The harder you work, the better result you will get
3 The more expensive petrol becomes, the less people drive

Ex:

Một số chú ý trong so sánh hơn và so sánh nhất:
1. Tính từ ngắn :
a. Tận cùng là một phụ âm, đứng trước nó là một nguyên âm ( a, e, i, o, u ) -> thì ta
gấp đôi phụ âm cuối.
Ex: Hot
-> Hotter
-> The hottest.
b. Tận cùng là –E thì ta chỉ thêm –R hoặc –ST.
Ex: Large
-> Larger
-> the largest.
c. Tận cùng là –Y, đứng trước nó là một phụ âm thì ta đổi –Y -> -I.
Ex: Dry
-> Drier
-> The driest.
2. Tính từ có hai âm tiết: tận cùng là – Y, -LE, -OW, -ER thì được dùng như tính từ
ngắn
(tức là thêm –ER hoặc –EST ).
Ex: -Happy
-> Happier
-> The happiest
( hạnh phúc)
-Simple
-> Simpler
-> The simplest
( đơn giản)
-Narrow
-> Narrower -> The narrowest ( hẹp)
-Clever
-> Cleverer
-> The cleverest
( khéo léo)
Một số bất qui tắc trong so sánh hơn và so sánh kép:
- Good/ well
- Bad/ badly
- Much/ many
- Little
- Far
-> Further

-> Better
-> Worse
-> More
-> Less
-> Farther

-> The best
-> The worst
-> The most
-> The least
-> The farthest
-> The furthest

(tốt)
( xấu, tệ)
( nhiều)
( ít)
( xa)

Sentence Transformation :
1. So sánh hơn -> So sánh không bằng:
S1 + V +

short adj/adv –ER

+ THAN + S2

MORE + long adj/ adv
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Ex:

a-Love is more important than money.
-> Money …………………………….
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b-I can’t cook as well as my mother does.
-> My mother cooks …………………….
c-A horse stronger than a dog.
-> A dog isn’t …………………………...
Note:
d-Mr Phan drives more carelessly than he used to.
-> Mr Phan doesn’t ……………………………….
2. So sánh hơn -> So sánh nhất:
Ex:

a-No-one in the group is younger than her.
->She ……………………………………….
b-Tom is the tallest pupil in the class.
->Tom ……………………………………...
c-Jack is the best football player in the team.
->No-one in the team is ………………………...
d-Have you got a cheaper carpet than this ?
->Is this ………………………………you have got ?

I/ EXERCISES OF COMPARISONS
1. My English this term is ___________ than that of last year.
A. good
B. gooder
C. better
2.

D. best

Her math result is __________ than her English result.
A. bad
B. badly
C. worse

D. well

Detective books are __________ than science fiction ones.
A. more interesting B. interestingly
C. interestinger

D. interesting

4.

Lan is __________ than her sister.A. lazy

C. lazier

5.

He feels __________ than last year because his study results are __________.
A. happy / good
B. happier / gooder C. more happy/more good
D. happier/better

6.

He is __________ at Maths than at any other subjects.
A. better
B. more good
C. goodlier

D. gooder

Phuong can speak English __________ than Minh.
A. more fluent
B. fluently
C. fluent

D. more fluently

3.

7.
8.

D. lazilier

Her voice is __________ than her sister’s.
A. beautiful

9.

B. lazily

B. more beautiful

C. beautifully

D. more beautifully

Her literature result is much __________ than it was last year.
A. good
B. well
C. more well

D. better

Cinderrella danced __________ than any other girls at the ball.
A. more graceful
B. gracefuler
C. gracefully

D. more gracefully

11.

I like geography__________ than biology.A. good

C.well

12.

Chemistry is __________ than physics.A. easy

13.

Rabbits run __________ than tortoises. A. fast

14.

Nam is bad at art but Minh is even __________.
A. badder
B. bad
C. worse

10.

B. more
B. easily
B. fastly

D. gooder

C. easier D. more easily
C. fastlier

D. faster

D. worser
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15.

Lan is her ________ sister.A. old

B. elderly

C. elder

D. oldly

16.

She can pronounce English words __________ than she could last term.
A. correctlier
B. more correct
C. more correctly
D. correcter

17.

The country is _________than the city.A. quieter B. more quiet

C. more quietly D. quietlier

18. In this class, the students are talking __________ than the teacher.
A. loudly

B. more loud

C. loudlier

19. We shouldn’t be __________ on any subjects.
lazilier

D. louder

A. lazy B. lazier

C. lazily

D.

20. I can learn a subject __________ if I like it and __________ if I don’t like it.
A. good/bad
B. better/worse
C. better/badlier
D. gooder/worse
21.

This summer is hotter and more wind than last summer.
A B
C
D

22.

She works hardlier and gets better results this year.

A
23.

B

C

This book seems more bored and longer than that one.

A
24.

B

C

B

B

C

D

The teacher looks happily with the students’ better results.

B

C

D

She cannot speak Germany very good at the moment.

A
29.

D

She can read much quickly now than in the past.

A
28.

D
D

C

A
27.

C

It is often hotter and dryer in summer than in spring.

A
26.

B

He learns English well and harder now than he did last year.

A
25.

D

B

C

D

She hardly works hardly on Science and gets worse result than ever.

A

B

C

D

30.

I like Geography more than History because it is more easier and more interesting
A
B
C
D

31.

Summer is often hotter and humider than autumn.
A
B
C
A

32. I learn History badlier than Maths and often get bad marks because I am very bad at learning by
heart.
A
B
C
D

33. My elder sister is taller and thiner than I am.
A

B

C

D

34.

I like Maths more than Literature because it is more short and more interesting.
A
B
C
D

35.

Physics is difficult than so I like Chemistry more than Physics.
A
B
C
D
She is more happier with the results this year than last year because she gets higher marks.
A
B
C
D

36.

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37.

This year I work harder and play less so I get more good results than last year.

A

B

C

D

38. (Teacher say to pupils): My children! Keep quiet and don’t talk noisy in class. Listen more attentively
to me.
A
B
C
D
39. A good English speaker should speak fluently and clearly but not too fastly.

A
40.

B

C

D

You should learn harder and practise English oftener to be a better speaker of English.

A

B

C

D

41. It/learn/Literature/difficult/Maths/is/than/less/to.
A. It is less difficult to learn Maths than Literature.
B. It is less than difficult to learn Maths Literature.
C. It is difficult to learn Maths less than Literature.
D. It is difficult to learn less Maths than Literature.
42.

43.

44.

45.

Now/ can/better/football/team/play/used/than/they/Vietnamese/to/the.
A. Now the Vietnamese football team can better play than they used to.
B. Now the Vietnamese football team better can play than they used to.
C. Now the Vietnamese football team can better than play they used to.
D. Now the Vietnamese football team can play better than they used to.
hard/is/than/which/the/it/say/city/or/is/to/bigger/other.
A. It is hard to say which bigger city is than the other.
B. It is hard to say which city is bigger than the other.
C. It is hard to say bigger city than which the other.
D. It is hard to say city which is bigger than the other.
hotter/summer/is/and/weather/ in/becoming/hotter/the.
A. The weather is becoming hotter in summer and hotter.
B. The weather is hotter and hotter becoming in summer.
C. The weather is becoming hotter and hotter in summer.
D. The weather is hotter and becoming hotter in summer.
more/lessons/last/are/the/year/difficult/this/year/those/than.
A. The lessons this year are more difficult than those last year.
B. The lessons this year are difficult more than those last year.
C. The lessons this year are more those difficult than last year.
D. The lessons this year are more than difficult those last year.

46. Zidane/score a goal/beautiful/than/Ronaldo.
A. Zidane scores a goal more beautifully than Ronaldo.
B. Zidane scores a goal beautifully than Ronaldo.
C. Zidane scores a goal more beautiful than Ronaldo.
D. Zidane scores a goal beautiful than Ronaldo.
47. Life/countryside/quiet/life/city/the.
A. Life in the countryside is quiet than life in the city.
B. Life in the countryside is more quiet than life in the city.
C. Life in the countryside is quieter than life in the city.
D. Life in the countryside is more quieter than life in the city.
48. She/speak English/fluent/last year.

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A.
B.
C.
D.

She can speak English fluent than last year.
She can speak English more fluent than she could last year.
She can speak English fluently than last year.
She can speak English more fluently than she could last year.

49. Next time/you/prepare/lesson/careful/this time.
A. Next time, you should prepare the lesson more careful than this time.
B. Next time, you should prepare the lesson more carefully than this time.
C. Next time, you should prepare the lesson carefully than this time.
D. Next time, you should prepare the lesson careful than this time.
50. I/run/fast/my brother.
A. I can run fast than my brother does.
C. I can run more faster than my brother does.

B. I can run more fast than my brother does.
D. I can run faster than my brother.

II/ EXERCISE: Supply the correct forms of words in brackets
1. This chair is………………… than that chair (comfortable)
A. more comfortable B. comfortabler C. the most comfortable D. comfortable
2. Your flat is……….than mine ( large)A. more large B. more larger C. larger
D. large
3. This dress is…………………..than that one (pretty)
A. prettier
B. more pretty
B. more prettier
D. prettier than
4. The………………city in Canada is Toronto. (large)
A. largest
B. most large
C. most largest
D. larger
5. The Nile is the………………river in the world (long)
A. most longest
B. longest
C. most longgest
D. longgest
6. My mother’s cooking is………………than my mother’s (good)
A. gooder
B. more gooder
C. better
D. better good
7. My father’s cooking is………………..than my mother’s (bad)
A. worse
B. worst
C. badder
D. bad
8. I think good health is the……………….. thing in the life (important)
A. importantest
B. most important C. more important
D. the most important
9. Mt. Everest is………………………mountain in the world. (high)
A. higher
B. the highest
C. the most highest D. most highest
10. Canada is……………………...the United States in area. (big)
A. biggest
B. bigest
C. the biggest
D. the most biggest
11. Peter finished his work…………………… of all (fast)
A. fastest
B. the most fastest
C. the fastest
D. the more fastest
12. You can write…………………. than I can (well) A. better
B. worse
C. more
well D. weller
13. Mary sings………………….Susan does (beautifully)
A. beautifully
B. more beautifully C. the most beautifully D. more beautifully
than
14. Ted speaks English……………………..of all (fluently )
A. more fluently
B. most fluently
C. the most fluently D. fluently
15. Sally got………………….. food on the menu for dinner last night (expensive).
A. the most expensive B. most expensive C. more expensive D. expensive
16. The Wilsons arrived at the party………………….. of all (early).
A. earliest
B. the earliest
C. the most early
D. earlier
17. Ali speaks……………………..than I do (loudly)A. loudlier
B. more loudly
C.
loudly D. louder
18. My sister works………I do (hard)A. harder B. more hard C. more harder thanD. harder than
19. February is …………………..month of the year. (short)
A. the shortest
B. the most shortest C. shorter
D. shorter than
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20. In my opinion, Harry’s Steak House is………………….. restaurant in the city ( bad).
A. the worst
B. the worse
C. the bad
D. the most
III/ DOUBLE COMPARATIVE

I. In this exercise you have to use the structure: (double comparative) : …… and …..
Example : It’s becoming harder and harder to find a job . ( hard )
It’s becoming more and more difficult to find a job . ( difficult )
21. As I waited for my interview , I became ………more and more nervous………… ( nervous )
22. That hole in your pullover is getting ………bigger and bigger…………………… ( big )
23. The suitcase seemed to get ………heavier and heavier…………………as I carried it along the
road .( heavy )
24. As the day went on , the weather got ………worse and worse……………… ( bad)
25. As the conversation went on , he became …more and more talkative…………… ( talkative)
26. Traveling is becoming …………more and more expensive……………………… ( expensive)
27. Since he has been in Britain , his English has got …better and better………… ( good )

II. In this exercise you have to complete the sentences , using the structure: (double
comparative) : The + comparative + s- v , the + comparative + s-v
Example:The hotter it is , the more miserable I feel .
The sooner you leave , the earlier you will arrive .
1. They get fat . They feel weak .
The fatter they get, the weaker they feek
2. He trained hard . He felt strong .
The harder he trained, the stronger he felt
3. The lesson is difficult .We try hard
The more difficult the lesson is, the harder we try
4. The house is large . It is expensive .
The larger the house is, the more expensive it is.
5. New Year comes near . People are busy .
The nearer New Year comes, the busier people are.
6. We produce much rice . It is cheap .
The more rice we produce, the cheaper it is.
7. The play was interesting . It attracted many people .
The more interesting the play was, the more people it attracted.
8. We plant many trees .we preserve much soil .
The more trees we plant, the more soil we preserve
9. The workers built good roads . They needed much equipment .
The better roads the workers built, the more equipment they needed.
10. The soil was poor . The farmers tried hard .
The poorer the soil was, the harder the farmers tried.

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