PART A: INTRODUCTION
In the context of globalization throughout the world, culture is considered as
the most vital factor for each nation. It decides the existence of a nation and builds
up the national identity. Whatever it is a developed country or developing country,
we can not deny the importance of culture.
Each society has its own culture which is unique and different from other
cultures. However, the term of culture is diversified and may include many aspects.
Drinking art is also a very exciting part of culture.
Coffee has been drunk for pleasure and health for thousands years. Over the
recent years, coffee has become the beverage of choice around the globe, and is
now the most popular beverages worldwide, next to water! However, coffee
making and drinking is not just a personal or in the same way in the world. It's
culture brings unique identity of each nation. For example, people in some areas of
Africa like drinking coffee with the mint while the Arabs are keen on coffee mixed
with chicory to create strange smell. Differing from other parts in the world,
Italians fancy drinking espresso with sugar while it is coffee with hot chocolate for
German and Swiss people. Unique customs also exist in Mexico – coffee with
lemon juice and in the Middle East countries- coffee usually added cardamom
seeds and pepper.
In Vietnam, coffee had just become popular for more than 100 years. First
coffee plantations on the stretch shaped the letter S also dated from 1888. And
Vietnam now becomes the second’s largest coffee producer and exporter of the
world. Coffee drinking habits deeply rooted in the life of many Vietnamese people,
and the coffee houses appeared in all corners and streets. It is considered as the
distinguished drinking culture after tea culture. In America, it is estimated that 80%
of the population drinks coffee and almost half drinks it everyday. Americans use
coffee entirely depending on their own taste. They drink comfortably. Wherever at
home, school, a public place or anytime, people can smell the distinct aroma of
But like many people in other countries, American and Vietnamese also have
coffee cultures in their own ways. However, American coffee culture and
Vietnamese one may have some similarities and differences about types of coffee,
coffee making and coffee enjoying. More importantly, not many people know
about these similarities and differences. Even American or Vietnamese may not
know and understand what the unique features about coffee culture their countries
have and what their origins are.
Therefore, American and Vietnamese coffee culture contrasting and
comparison can be a good topic to study about. For these reasons, the researcher of
this paper decides to conduct the study with the title: “A comparison of American
and Vietnamese coffee culture”. Hopefully, it would be an useful material for
students learning English as well as for culture- lovers who wish to discover more
about the American and Vietnamese culture.
2. Previous researches
There are many researches related to coffee and coffee culture around the world.
Francis Thurber (1889) had published about Coffee: From Plantation to Cup, A
Brief History of Coffee Production and Consumption. Pendergrast. M (1999)
researched about Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How it
Transformed Our World. Catherine M. Tucker (2011) mentioned to coffee culture local experiences and global connections which helps us know unique
characteristics of different coffee drinking styles. Knikker, R. (2005, March 3)
conducted a research about the coffee culture in the USA.
In Vietnam, researches on coffee and coffee culture also are conducted. Tran
Binh Minh (2011) also had a research on coffee- mediate means of the society.
However, it is the first time the topic: “A comparison on American and Vietnamese
coffee culture” has been conducted by a student at Foreign Language Department
of Hung Vuong University in Phu Tho province. This would be an interesting and
new topic to study about.
3. Research purposes
This study aims at the two following main purposes:
- Study the history, types of coffee, ways to make a cup of coffee and the style
to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese.
- Find out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
4. Research questions
This study focus on finding the answers for the following questions:
- What are the features of American coffee culture?
- What are the features of Vietnamese coffee culture?
- What are the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
5.1. Research methods
In order to study the research problems, the researcher of this paper uses the
following research methods:
- Theoretical study method: By using this method, the researcher can study the
related documents to get information related to the research from different sources
about American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Analysis method: the researcher uses this method to analyze the information
related to the paper. From the data got from many reliable sources, the researcher
makes analysis to have the final results.
- Comparison and contrast method:
This method helps the researcher make a comparison and contrast between
American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
5.2. Research procedure
- Finding out information related to the research from different and reliable sources
about American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Studying features of American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Finding out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
6. The significance of the research
The study aims to help the readers understand more about the similarities
and differences between the American and Vietnamese coffee culture. It also
provides helpful information about the history, types of coffee, ways to enjoy
coffee as well as the unique features in American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
7. The scope of the research
The research gives the typical similarities and differences between American
and Vietnamese coffee culture.
If the research is successfully completed, it would be an useful material for
students learning English. It would also provide helpful information for culturelovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese coffee
9. Design of the study
The study consists of three parts and references.
PART A: INTRODUCTION
This part introduces an overall view of the research, presents the rationale for the
study, previous research, the aims, research questions, methods and significance of the
study, scope, hypothesis and outline of the study.
PART B: MAJOR CONTENT
This part is divided into three chapters: literature review, the study and conclusion.
Chapter 1: Literature Review
Three main sections are presented, they are: an overview on culture, introduction of
coffee and coffee culture.
Chapter 2: The study on American and Vietnamese coffee culture
This chapter presents the important points about American and Vietnamese coffee
culture in terms of the history, types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and
the style to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese.
Chapter 3: A comparison on American and Vietnamese coffee culture
It is the main part of this study which points out the similarities and differences
between American and Vietnamese coffee culture
PART C: CONCLUSION
In the conclusion, the researcher will summarize the major findings, limitations of
the study as well as suggestions for further researches.
PART B: MAJOR CONTENT
1.1. An overview on culture
1.1.1. The definition of culture
'Culture' is considered to be a complex term, and a variety of anthropologists and
researchers have defined it in various ways. The way of living, wearing, singing,
dancing, drinking, eating and talking are major parts of a culture.
1.1.2. The characteristics of culture
There are many different opinions about the characteristics of culture. According to
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) Ph.D, University of Northern Philippines, the
characteristics of culture are shared; group products; symbolic; learned; patterned;
integrated; adaptive; compulsory; cumulative; dynamic and diverse.
1.1.3. The significance of culture
E. B. Taylor (1996) defined culture as "that complex whole which includes
knowledge, beliefs, art, morale, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society” and noted that culture has been fulfilling a
number of functions which may be divided into two - one for the individual and one
for the group.
1.2. Introduction of coffee
1.2.1. The history of coffee
According to “the history of coffee” (2013) of the National Coffee Association
of U.S.A, coffee is a major part of Ethiopian culture and Yemenite culture. This
cultural significance dates back to as many as 14 centuries ago, which coffee
was (or was not) discovered in Yemen.
1.2.2. Health benefits from coffee
According to the research “Coffee and health: a review of recent human
research” (2006) of Higdon J.V and Frei B.,Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon
State University, Portland, there are some health benefits of coffee
consumption. They are containing high source of antioxidants, preventing
Parkinson’s disease, helping fight depression, preventing cancer, defeating
diabetes, having hearty benefits and having a better liver.
1.3. Coffee culture
1.3.1. The definition of coffee culture
1.3.2. Coffee culture around the world
This part introduces the typical coffee cultures in the world such as Italy,
Ethiopia, Mexico, French, Turkey and Greece.
THE STUDY ON AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE
2.1. American coffee culture
2.1.1. The history of American coffee culture
2.1.2. Types of coffee in America
The typical coffee is Americano coffee. It is fast coffee for busy and moving
people. Essentially, it is a shot of espresso mixed with hot water
2.1.3. The art of making a cup of coffee in America
Americano is American-style coffee made with espresso using coffee machine.
An Americano coffee is a shot of Espresso coffee infused with hot water. An
Americano coffee is as intensive as drip coffee, but has a different flavor.
2.1.4. The style to enjoy coffee of American
In the U.S, people often drink coffee several times a day, especially in the
morning because they considered coffee as “a catalyst” that keeps them awake
while working. Americans often have a habit of visiting a roadside store to buy a
cup of coffee and go immediately. They have no time to enjoy coffee in the
coffee shop. They usually put their cup of coffee in the car for convenience, are
driving and drinking.
2.2. Vietnamese coffee cultures
2.2.1. The history of Vietnamese coffee culture
2.2.2. Types of coffee in Vietnam
The traditional Vietnamese coffee and its favorite variations are mostly
Robusta and made in absolutely different ways – with a ‘filter’ (or ‘dripper’),
and are named based on their characteristics and/or ingredients. The most
popular Vietnamese coffees include:
18.104.22.168. Coffees using filter
* Black coffee
It is bitter, very strong and bold.
* Milk coffee (or Brown coffee)
The coffee drips through a filter onto a layer of condensed milk in the cup.
Before drinking, drinkers must stir well until the coffee turns caramel-colored.
* “Bac xiu” coffee
“Bac xiu (Bạc xỉu)” has origin from Chinese, “bac” is white and “xiu” is a little.
Just like milk coffee, but “bac xiu” coffee contains more coffee and condensed
milk or fresh milk plus a little of cocoa.
* Egg coffee
This much-loved newbie is becoming very popular among the youth. Boiling water
is added into the filter after putting coffee powder in it. Egg yolk is whipped until it
gets foamy then poured over a little coffee in a cup. It is super creamy, tastes a bit
like caramel and chocolate.
22.214.171.124. Instant coffee
Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee and coffee powder, is a beverage
derived from brewed coffee beans. Instant coffee is commercially prepared by
either freeze-drying or spray drying, after which it can be rehydrated. Advantage
of instant coffee is the speed of preparation (instant coffee dissolves instantly in
2.2.3. The art of making a cup of coffee in Vietnam
Vietnamese coffee is best brewed and served as a strong, short cup of coffee;
for which the Phin (filter) is perfect. The traditional phin is the perfect space saving
coffee accessory. Used widely across Vietnam, these compact single serving filters
create an individual cup of rich, velvety Vietnamese coffee; perfect brewed over a
glass mug to watch the beautiful brewing process. These filters create an incomparable
coffee flavor yet requiring no expensive machinery.
2.2.4. The style to enjoy coffee of Vietnam
It is no doubt that Vietnamese coffee is the strongest and thickest
Coffee is usually served while still brewing. It is meant to be enjoyed
at leisure, never in a rush. Part of the experience is seeing the coffee slowly
drip into a clear glass. An amazing utility of coffee is that it make people
relaxed. Consequently, towards a cup of coffee, a knight- errant become
good-natured person, people who is angry becomes gentle one, people who
is bored become funny and people who is tired become strong. Coffee is
very much a social and cultural thing for Vietnamese people. They drink
coffee as a means to catch up with friends and talk about life in general.
Coffee is part of the culture now, just as much as food is.
Trend of coffee culture is gradually changing. In Vietnam, besides
spending hours on enjoying black and milk coffee using filers, more and
more people are enjoying instant coffee and others now because they are
exceptionally convenient to prepare.
A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE
After collecting and studying materials from reliable sources, the researcher
finds out two main similarities in coffee culture of the two countries.
3.1.1 Purpose of drinking coffee
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Therefore, the
similarity point of American and Vietnamese coffee culture is the purpose of
drinking coffee. Both American and Vietnamese consider coffee a catalyst for
keeping them awake while working. According to recent researches, around
98% people depend on coffee to help stay awake and remain alert throughout the
day. Professor Andrew Scholey from research centers and cognitive
neuroscience Northumbria University (Britain) have studied and concluded that
coffee increases the ability to think, to help you really lucid and more
concentrated in intellectual activities.
In addition, both American and Vietnamese drink coffee because of its
health benefits. Caffeine in coffee not only gives the body a jolt, but also
acts as a mild anti-depressant, boosting certain neurotransmitters in the
brain responsible for happiness. Coffee also is a good source of antioxidants
and helps keep the blood healthy, as well as preventing people from having viral
attacks, reducing the risk of developments of diabetes and maintaining the
correct sugar level of the body.
3.1.2. Time to enjoy coffee
Both American and Vietnamese drink coffee several times a day depending
on their favorites. But they drink mostly in the morning. After having breakfast, both
American and Vietnamese often enjoy coffee for the higher concentration, relaxation
and flexibility. Cafe helps boost morale and job performance. The active ingredient
in coffee - caffeine stimulates the brain activity and help people get sober and lucid
on their jobs. It also increases the speed and creative thinking. Therefore, drinking
coffee has become popular for office staff and students in each morning as well as in
anytime they want.
3.2.1. Types of coffee
Vietnam has a deep-rooted coffee culture dating back to French colonial
times. Nowadays, Vietnam is one of the largest coffee exporters in the world.
Coffee is very common for every people. Each region has its own types of coffee.
But generally, coffee is divided into two main types according to four different
ways to enjoy coffee: coffee using filter (black coffee, milk (brown) coffee, “bac
xiu” coffee and egg coffee) and instant coffee.
Black coffee refers to coffee served as a beverage without cream or
milk. It is bitter and very strong.
Milk coffee in Saigon, or brown coffee in Hanoi – different names but
the coffee is basically the same. The coffee drips through a filter onto a layer
of condensed milk in the cup. Before drinking, people stir well until the
coffee turns caramel-colored.
Just like milk coffee, but “bac xiu” coffee contains more coffee and
condensed milk or fresh milk plus a little of cocoa.
Egg coffee- this much-loved newbie is becoming very popular among the
youth. Boiling water is added into the filter after putting coffee powder in it. Egg
yolk is whipped until it gets foamy then poured over a little coffee in a cup. It is
super creamy, tastes a bit like caramel and chocolateInstant coffee is,
essentially, ground coffee that has been freeze-dried. When rehydrated with hot
water, it makes a beverage that is somewhat similar to coffee brewed from
ground, roasted beans.
In other hand, the typical coffee in America is Americano. It is fast
coffee for busy and moving people. Coffee drinkers rarely drink in coffee
shops, people often carry out their drinks when they are walking or driving to
the company. It’s very convenient in terms of time and space for everyone .
Additionally, Americans also like enjoying less caffeine - coffees such as
cappuccino, latte, mocha and macchiato. They are actually the combination of
espresso with fresh milk or cream.
3.2.2 The art of making a cup of coffee
Making coffee is a science, and also an art. Traditionally, Vietnamese
coffee is often brewed in something known as a phin (from filter, with the ‘l’
pronounced as an ‘n’), a simple device that’s essentially a single cup metal strainer.
With the advantages such as flexible, easy operation and good quality coffee,
enough for the needs of a person enjoy, filter coffee has become a method for the
preparation of all very popular and it becomes a cultural of Vietnamese coffee.
Vietnamese filters do not use lining paper. Vietnamese filters using osmosis
method, the coffee itself both a raw material and a tool to engage in the process of
refining. Choosing the suitable coffee, with a sufficient amount on the filter, using
lid tuck slight pressure with a medium pressure, then boiling water according to
demand and waiting osmosis take place. Boiling water layer will start penetrating
the coffee slowly, coffee helps achieve sufficient maturity to extract. Extraction
process is very natural, not forced slowly like Espresso.
The coffee grounds are placed at the bottom of the cup and pressed down
firmly with a perforated tamp before the metal canister is filled with boiling water.
The liquid slowly percolates through the tamp, through the grounds, and trickles
into the cup below. The slow, drip-drip-drip allows the hot water to fully extract the
flavor and caffeine from the beans, resulting in a thick, jet-black liquid. So drinking
coffee which make by filter will always feel fresh and very easy to drink. Darkness
of the coffee can be adjusted dynamically according to the taste of each person.
Rather than adding fresh milk, cream or sugar, Vietnamese coffee is enhanced
solely with a few spoons of sweetened condensed milk straight from the can. The
condensed milk is added to the base of the glass before the coffee is dripped on top,
remaining separate until given a swift stir to combine the two ingredients. The
combination can be ordered in both hot and cold form, but the cold version, served
with a cup of ice cubes on the side, is the prominent local favorite.
Americano is American-style coffee made with espresso using coffee
machine. An Americano coffee is an Espresso-based coffee drink with no special
additions. Actually it is a shot of espresso with hot water poured in it. A well
prepared Americano has the subtle aroma and flavor like espresso, but a lighter
body and less bitter. The most important part of the brewing is that the hot water
is poured on the espresso and not the espresso poured onto the hot water.
3.2.3. The style of enjoying coffee
Firstly, Vietnamese like enjoying the strongest and thickest coffee species.
Secondly, drinking coffee in Vietnam is a big part of the people’s morning ritual
before going to work. Walking along the streets of Vietnam early in the morning, one
will find the locals settled on little chairs on the sidewalks enjoying coffee while
reading the paper or just chatting with friends. Coffee houses are idea for having
gossip, meeting old friends, talking to pass time of day, stealing precious moments for
romantics. People can spend much time on these activities. Coffee is very much a
social and cultural thing for Vietnamese people. They drink coffee as a means to catch
up with friends and talk about life in general. Coffee reflects part of the Vietnamese
culture which is very laid-back, relax, and casual.
Waiting coffee to extract from the filter is also the time to relax, slowly to
enjoy the moments of a full meaningful time. At the same time this is also the time to
the temporary people back to think about what you're doing and making a plan for
your future - Enjoying coffee by that is called "setback philosophy" in Vietnam.
On the contrary, Americano coffee is poured into Styrofoam cups so that
people can conveniently carry wherever they go. It is called “take- away” or
“fast” coffee for busy and moving people. They have no time to enjoy coffee in
the coffee shop. They usually put their cup of coffee in the car for convenience,
are driving and drinking. In other words, coffee drinkers do not sit to enjoy and
it’s very convenient in terms of time and space for everyone.
3.3. Reason for these similarities and differences
Both American and Vietnamese have the same purpose and time to enjoy
coffee because of the major effect of coffee. Having more than just a jolt of
energy in the morning to keep them awake at work, coffee is a real obsession in
America. They drink coffee because it means something to them. Between the
rich flavors and sense of lifestyle, it serves as a way to socialize and boost
productivity in this constantly moving society- an industrial country.
Vietnam also has speeded up the process of industrialization and modernization.
People have to work with the higher pressure. Therefore, coffee is considered a
catalyst for most Vietnamese to help them lucid and awake.
However, because of the differences between the Western culture and the
Eastern culture, two nations also have some differences in terms of types of
coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style to enjoy coffee.
American is one of the industrial powers with the working style: fast and
convenient. So they use coffee machines. These machines are set programs to
run through night so that coffee cups are ready in the morning. This way helps
American save time to make coffee. American usually drinks Americano coffee
– a bland type, not strong one as Vietnamese. They considered coffee as “a tool”
just keeping them awake and gain high productivity and working efficiency.
In contract, coffee was imported to Vietnam by French. Initially, this
drink was reserved for the nobility, the French officials and the urban intellectual
elite. Gradually, coffee became the popular drink in people's lives. French drinks
coffee leisurely. Therefore, coffee in Vietnam is enjoyed at leisure, never in a
rush, similar to the French drinking. In addition, Vietnam is an agricultural
country with about 70% of the population engaged in agriculture. Farmers now
just use 40% of the time for agricultural production, the remaining 60% idle
time. So they have time to wait coffee extracted from the filter. It is also the time
for Vietnamese to relax, slowly to enjoy the moments of a full meaningful time,
have gossips, meet old friends and talk to kill the time of day.
In conclusion, in this chapter, the researcher points out the similarities and
differences of American and Vietnamese coffee culture. The similarities consist
of the similarity in the purpose to enjoy coffee and the time to drink coffee. In
addition, the three differences are also presented in this chapter. They include the
differences in types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the
difference in style to enjoy coffee.
PART C : CONCLUSION
1. Major findings
This study focuses on studying about American and Vietnamese coffee
culture as well as finds the similarities and differences in the purpose and time to
enjoy coffee, types of coffee, the art of making a cup of coffee and the style to
enjoy coffee. To complete this study, the researcher collects information from
many reliable sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, and online
documents in a long time. Then the researcher has studied and selected the
essential details related to the study in order to mention in the study.
In the study, the literature review related to the research such as culture,
coffee and coffee culture is mentioned. Coffee culture in some different
countries is reviewed as well. The researcher finds that there are two similarities
between American and Vietnamese coffee culture. The first one is the similarity
in the purpose to enjoy coffee. The second one is the similarity in term of time to
Besides, the study also points out the three main differences between
American and Vietnamese coffee cultures. The first one is the difference in types of
coffee. The second one is the difference in the art of making a cup of coffee. And
the last one is the difference in style to enjoy coffee.
Both American - the world largest coffee-consuming nation and Vietnam,
one of the biggest coffee exporters in the world have unique and interesting coffee
cultures. However, those features are always not easy to see. Passion and the desire
to discover new things should be paid to two coffee cultures. In addition, people
who want to understand deeply American and Vietnamese coffee culture should not
only concentrate on the similarities and differences but also find out the reasons
why there are these ones and explore coffee philosophy through American and
Vietnamese coffee culture.
The researcher believes that the findings of this research would help all of
the English learners get more information and knowledge about American and
Vietnamese coffee culture. Hopefully, it would be a helpful material for cultural
lovers who want to discover the American and Vietnamese culture.
In spite of some limitations, the study has made its contributions to studying
culture of the country.
In order to have better result in teaching English in general and studying
culture in particular, the teachers should have knowledge about cross-culture to
meet the demand of the learners. Moreover, the teachers should apply different
measures to search and improve their students’ ability.
Being fully aware of the importance of culture in studying a language,
students must pay attention to the lessons. At the same time, they should study
the culture of this country from other resources such as books, internet and
3. Limitations of the research
Although the research has been seriously studied, this research cannot
avoid some shortcomings. The following limitations are still inevitable.
Firstly, the study has been conducted in limited time. The researcher
therefore has little time to collect information fully and study it carefully. As the
result, the study only focuses on analyzing some similarities and differences of
American and Vietnamese coffee culture. The study cannot cover all of the
similarities and differences between them.
Secondly, it is the fact that the researcher of the paper when implementing
this research had no chance to go to America and directly find out American
coffee culture. Therefore, this study is completed by mainly depending on
information from books, newspapers, magazines and online documents.
Last but not least, the researcher admits that her knowledge and experience
are still limitations; therefore, minor mistakes are inevitable.
However, with all the effort on collecting and analyzing data, the
similarities and differences of American and Vietnamese coffee culture are
pointed out quite clearly. The researcher believes that this study could be a
valuable and reliable one.
4. Suggestions for further research
In this study, the researcher has studied about American and Vietnamese
coffee culture. However, due to the limited one, knowledge and materials as
well as little experience, the researcher only focuses on some similarities and
differences. The study cannot cover all aspects of the similarities and
differences. Hopefully, in the future, there will be a research conducted to work
out more similarities and differences about American and Vietnamese coffee
culture. Besides, in the hope of having much further studies doing in cultural
field, many sides can be researched such as:
- A comparison of tea culture in Britain and Viet Nam
- A comparison of daily eating habits in America and Vietnam
- A comparison of party eating habits in America and Vietnam
1. Catherine M. Tucker ( 2011). Coffee Culture - Local Experiences and Global
Connections. New York.
2. Christopher F.B (2012), characteristics of culture, Ph.D. University of
3. D’Costa, K. (2011, August 11). The Culture of Coffee Drinkers |
Anthropology in Practice, Scientific American Blog Network . Retrieved
4. Higdon J.V and Frei B.(2006). Coffee and health: a review of recent human
research. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Portland.
6. Pendergrast, M (1999). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How
it Transformed Our World. New York.
7. Thurber F. (1889). Coffee: From Plantation to Cup, A Brief History of
Coffee Production and Consumption. American Grocer Publishing Association.
8. Tran Binh Minh (2011). Cà phê - Phương tiện giao tiếp trung gian của xã hội.
Hanoi University of Culture.
9. Tylor, E. B ( 1996). Primitive culture. John Murray, London.
PHU THO PEOPLE COMMITTEE
HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY
TRẨN THỊ HẬU – K8 ENGLISH
THE SUMMARY OF GRADUATION PAPER
A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE
(So sánh về văn hóa cà phê của người Mỹ và người Việt Nam)
B.A Graduation Paper
Field: Culture study
PHU THO - 2014
PHU THO PEOPLE COMMITTEE
HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY
TRẨN THỊ HẬU – K8 ENGLISH
THE SUMMARY OF GRADUATION PAPER
A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE
(So sánh về văn hóa cà phê của người Mỹ và người Việt Nam)
B.A Graduation Paper
Field: Culture study
Supervisor: Nguyễn Thị Thu Hằng, M.A
PHU THO - 2014