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A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE COFFEE CULTURE

PHU THO PEOPLE COMMITTEE
HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY

A COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE
COFFEE CULTURE
(So sánh về văn hóa cà phê của người Mỹ và người Việt Nam)

B.A Graduation Paper

Field: Culture study

PHU THO - 2014
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mrs.
Nguyen Thi Thu Hang, my supervisor. This study could not have probably
completed without her enthusiastic supervision and encouragement.
I owe special thanks to all lectures in the Foreign Language Department
at Hung Vuong University for tirelessly devoting time and efforts to enrich,

broaden and deepen my knowledge during my four years at school so that today,
I can finish my graduation paper. My special thanks go to the Foreign Language
Department of Hung Vuong University for giving me the opportunity and
permission to implement this study.
I also would like to show my special thanks to my classmates at K8
English class, who have supported, cooperated and provided me with valuable
suggestions.
Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to my family for their love, great
help and care.

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ABSTRACT
Culture plays a vital role in the existence of a nation and builds up the
national identity. Every society has a different culture where people share
different languages traditions, habits and so on. Culture give people an identity
which makes them unique and different from people of other cultures. However,
the terms of culture are varied in each nation and may include many aspects.
Coffee culture is also very interesting part of culture.
This study therefore aims to research about American and Vietnamese
coffee culture as well as to find out the similarities and differences between
coffee cultures in two countries.
To complete this study, the researcher collects information from many
reliable sources. As the result, the researcher finds that there are two similarities
between two coffee cultures. The first one is the similarity in the purpose to
enjoy coffee. The second one is the similarity in time to drink coffee.
Besides, the researcher also works out the three main differences between
American and Vietnamese coffee cultures. The first one is the difference in types
of coffee. The second one is the difference in the art of making a cup of coffee.
And the last one is the difference in style to enjoy coffee.
The researcher believes that the findings of the study would help all of the
English learners get more information and knowledge about the American and
Vietnamese coffee culture. Hopefully, it would be a helpful material for cultural
lovers who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese culture.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Contents

Page

Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents
PART A: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
2. Previous research

1

3. Research purposes

3

4. Research questions

3

5. Methodology

3

6. Significance of the study

4

7. Scope of the study

4

8. Hypothesis

4

9. Design of the Study

4

2

PART B: MAJOR CONTENT
Chapter 1: Literature Review

6

1.1. An overview on culture

6

1.1.1. The definition of culture

6

1.1.2. The characteristics of culture

7

1.1.3. The significance of culture

12

1.2. Introduction of coffee

13

1.2.1. The history of coffee

13

1.2.2. Health benefits from coffee

16

1.3. Coffee culture

19

1.3.1 The definition of coffee culture

19

1.3.2. Coffee culture around the world

20

Chapter 2: The study on American and Vietnamese coffee culture

25

2.1. American coffee culture

25

4


2.1.1. The history of American coffee culture

25

2.1.2. Types of coffee in America

26

2.1.3. The art of making a cup of coffee in America

26

2.1.4. The style to enjoy coffee of American

27

2.2. Vietnamese coffee culture

27

2.2.1. The history of Vietnamese coffee culture

27

2.2.2. Types of coffee in Vietnam

27

2.2.3. The art of making a cup of coffee in Vietnam

29

2.2.4. The style to enjoy coffee of Vietnamese

30

Chapter 3: A comparison on American and Vietnamese coffee
culture

36

3.1. Similarities

36

3.1.1 Purposes of drinking coffee

36

3.1.2. Time to enjoy coffee

36

3.2. Differences

37

3.2.1. Types of coffee

37

3.2.2. The art of making a cup of coffee

38

3.2.3. The style in enjoying coffee

40

3.3. The reasons of similarities and differences

41

PART C: CONCLUSION
43

1. Main findings
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2. Implications

44

3. Limitations

44

4. Suggestions for further researches

45

References

46

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PART A: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
In the context of globalization throughout the world, culture is considered
as the most vital factor for each nation. It decides the existence of a nation and
builds up the national identity. Whatever it is a developed country or developing
country, we can not deny the importance of culture.
Each society has its own culture which is unique and different from other
cultures. However, the term of culture is diversified and may include many
aspects. Drinking art is also a very exciting part of culture.
Coffee has been drunk for pleasure and health for thousands years. Over
the recent years, coffee has become the beverage of choice around the globe, and
is now the most popular beverages worldwide, next to water! However, coffee
making and drinking is not just a personal or in the same way in the world. Its
culture brings unique identity of each nation. For example, people in some areas
of Africa like drinking coffee with the mint while the Arabs are keen on coffee
mixed with chicory to create strange smell. Differing from other parts in the
world, Italians fancy drinking espresso with sugar while it is coffee with hot
chocolate for German and Swiss people. Unique customs also exist in Mexico –
coffee with lemon juice and in the Middle East countries- coffee usually added
cardamom seeds and pepper.
In Vietnam, coffee had just become popular for more than 100 years. First
coffee plantations on the stretch shaped the letter S also dated from 1888. And
Vietnam now becomes the second’s largest coffee producer and exporter of the
world. Coffee drinking habits deeply rooted in the life of many Vietnamese
people, and the coffee houses appeared in all corners and streets. It is considered
as the distinguished drinking culture after tea culture. In America, it is estimated
that 80% of the population drinks coffee and almost half drinks it everyday.
Americans use coffee entirely depending on their own taste. They drink
comfortably. Wherever at home, school, a public place or anytime, people can
smell the distinct aroma of coffee.
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But like many people in other countries, American and Vietnamese also
have coffee cultures in their own ways. However, American coffee culture and
Vietnamese one may have some similarities and differences about types of
coffee, coffee making and coffee enjoying. More importantly, not many people
know about these similarities and differences. Even American or Vietnamese
may not know and understand what the unique features about coffee culture
their countries have and what their origins are.
Therefore, American and Vietnamese coffee culture contrasting and
comparison can be a good topic to study about. For these reasons, the researcher
of this paper decides to conduct the study with the title: “A comparison of
American and Vietnamese coffee culture”. Hopefully, it would be an useful
material for students learning English as well as for culture- lovers who wish to
discover more about the American and Vietnamese culture.
2. Previous researches
There are many researches related to coffee and coffee culture around the
world. Francis Thurber (1889) had published about Coffee: From Plantation to
Cup, A Brief History of Coffee Production and Consumption. Pendergrast. M
(1999) researched about Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How it
Transformed Our World. Catherine M. Tucker (2011) mentioned to coffee
culture - local experiences and global connections which helps us know unique
characteristics of different coffee drinking styles. Knikker, R. (2005, March 3)
conducted a research about the coffee culture in the USA.
In Vietnam, researches on coffee and coffee culture also are conducted.
Tran Binh Minh (2011) also had a research on coffee- mediate means of the
society. However, it is the first time the topic: “A comparison on American and
Vietnamese coffee culture” has been conducted by a student at Foreign Language
Department of Hung Vuong University in Phu Tho province. This would be an
interesting and new topic to study about.
3. Research purposes
This study aims at the two following main purposes:
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- Study the history, types of coffee, ways to make a cup of coffee and the
style to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese.
- Find out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
coffee culture.
4. Research questions
This study focus on finding the answers for the following questions:
- What are the features of American coffee culture?
- What are the features of Vietnamese coffee culture?
- What are the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
coffee culture?
5. Methodology
5.1. Research methods
In order to study the research problems, the researcher of this paper uses
the following research methods:
- Theoretical study method: By using this method, the researcher can study the
related documents to get information related to the research from different
sources about American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Analysis method: the researcher uses this method to analyze the information
related to the paper. From the data got from many reliable sources, the
researcher makes analysis to have the final results.
- Comparison and contrast method:
This method helps the researcher make a comparison and contrast between
American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
5.2. Research procedure
- Finding out information related to the research from different and reliable
sources about American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Studying features of American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
- Finding out the similarities and differences between American and Vietnamese
coffee culture.
6. The significance of the research
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The study aims to help the readers understand more about the similarities
and differences between the American and Vietnamese coffee culture. It also
provides helpful information about the history, types of coffee, ways to enjoy
coffee as well as the unique features in American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
7. The scope of the research
The research concentrates on the typical similarities and differences
between American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
8. Hypothesis
If the research is successfully completed, it would be an useful material for
students learning English. It would also provide helpful information for culture- lovers
who wish to discover more about the American and Vietnamese coffee culture.
9. Design of the study
The study consists of three parts and references.
PART A: INTRODUCTION
This part introduces an overall view of the research, presents the rationale for the
study, previous research, the aims, research questions, methods and significance of
the study, scope, hypothesis and outline of the study.
PART B: MAJOR CONTENT
This part is divided into three chapters: literature review, the study and
conclusion.
Chapter 1: Literature Review
Three main sections are presented, they are: an overview on culture,
introduction of coffee and coffee culture.

Chapter 2: The study on American and Vietnamese coffee culture

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This chapter presents the important points about American and Vietnamese
coffee culture in terms of the history, types of coffee, the art of making a cup of
coffee and the style to enjoy coffee of American and Vietnamese.
Chapter 3: A comparison on American and Vietnamese coffee culture
It is the main part of this study which points out the similarities and differences
between American and Vietnamese coffee culture
PART C: CONCLUSION
In the conclusion, the researcher will summarize the major findings, limitations
of the study as well as suggestions for further researches.
References

PART B: MAJOR CONTENT
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CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. An overview on culture
1.1.1. The definition of culture
Culture is a modern concept based on a term first used in classical
antiquity by the Roman orator Cicero: "cultura animi" (cultivation of the soul).
This non-agricultural use of the term "culture" re-appeared in modern Europe in
the 17th century referring to the betterment or refinement of individuals,
especially through education. During the 18th and 19th century it came to refer
more frequently to the common reference points of whole peoples, and
discussion of the term was often connected to national aspirations or ideals.
Some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity.
In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a central concept in
anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be
directly attributed to genetic inheritance. Specifically, the term "culture" in
American anthropology had two meanings: the evolved human capacity to
classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and
creatively; and the distinct ways that people, who live differently, classified and
represented their experiences, and acted creatively.
According to Edward Tylor (1871) in his work “primitive culture”, culture
is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs
and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
Franz Boas (1940). Race, Language, and Culture claims that Culture
embraces all the manifestations of social habits of a community, the reactions of
the individual as affected by the habits of the group in which he lives, and the
product of human activities as determined by these habits.
Geert Hofstede (1997) noted that culture can be defined as the cultivated
behavior that is socially transmitted. It involved the accumulation of knowledge,
beliefs, attitudes, experiences, religion, relations, concepts of universe, values,
meanings, roles, notions of time, relations, material possessions and objects
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acquired and a way of life of a group of people throughout the generations.
Therefore, it can be considered as a group of traditional ideas and values that are
attached and followed by all the generations.
As described by Velkley (2002), the term "culture," which originally
meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its later modern
meanings in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who are on
various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of ″ modern liberalism and
Enlightenment". Thus, a contrast between "culture" and "civillization" is usually
implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Two primary
meanings of culture emerge from this period: culture as the folk-spirit having a
unique identity, and culture as cultivation of waywardness or free individuality.
The first meaning is predominant in our current use of the term "culture,"
although the second still plays a large role in what we think culture should
achieve, namely the full "expression" of the unique or "authentic" self.
In conclusion, 'culture' is considered to be a complex term, and a variety of
anthropologists and researchers have defined it in various ways. The way of living,
wearing, singing, dancing, drinking, eating and talking are major parts of a culture.
1.1.2. The characteristics of culture
There are many different opinions about the characteristics of culture. According
to Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) Ph.D, University of Northern Philippines, the
characteristics of culture are shared; group products; symbolic; learned; patterned;
integrated; adaptive; compulsory; cumulative; dynamic and diverse.
1.1.2.1. It is shared
According to Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012), the culture shared by the social
interaction may take in many forms to transmit the beliefs, values and expectation of the
human society. The exchange of social ideas may provide understanding and learning
about the human culture and tradition. The culture works by social dynamism using
language, communication technologies and commercial trade.
a) The use of language as a form of social communications such as group
communication, informal communications, discussion and public speaking. The
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sharing of information is done through the transmittal of knowledge .The use of
language or dialect may transmit information to the group of people that may
later on learn and understand the culture, tradition, beliefs and expectations of a
given society. The common human activities are the grapevine information,
social occasions, and public debates.
b) The use of communication technologies through powerful media tools such as
computers, televisions and cell phones. The modern technologies have gradually
exposed universal culture that can easily transmit with mass media. The ethnic
traditions and cultures are documentarily televised by cable programs such as national
geographic or discovery channels. The modern fashion and fads of the western culture
becomes the basis of global design in clothing for different occasions.
c) The commercial trade and global enterprises provide the better social
exchange through the manufactured goods and services provide in the public
and private enterprise. These technological changes have given the opportunity
to sell products that are now fusing in the modern living of the human society.
The traditional concept of shared culture emphasizes the ethnic traditions,
beliefs, norms and other social activities that may be transmitted by the elders
and parents in the family and the tribe. However, the modern life has changed so
many things in the sharing of the universal culture for all.
1.1.2.2. It is a group product
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) said that the group product is the by- product
of culture shared by the social activities of the society. The group products provide
important knowledge and experiences about the racial and ethnic activities.
It is the result of lifelong social experience made by those living in certain
communities that governed by the family of elders. They formed tribe with their own
cultures and traditions that have been dependent in hunting, fishing, and agriculture.
The culture and tradition are passed on to the succeeding generation by educating the
children from all the social life activities of the tribe. Generally, the group product
usually is done by cultural diffusion, innovation and amalgamation of cultures.

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a) The group product is made through the social interaction among the members
of the group to form a unique life in a given geographical location. The social
life has always imbibed the unique contribution of individual life. This is
adjusted by the geographical conditions to ensure a better life.
b) The group product is multi-dimension activities that provide the understanding and
learning the elements of culture such as values, beliefs, norms, language, folkways,
mores, laws, material culture and technology. The complexities of culture have been
integrated to form part the universal human society.
c) The group products primarily use language and education of the offspring to
ensure the survival of the culture and tradition of the tribe. The transmission of
culture is done by giving informal and formal education.
1.1.2.3. It is learned
According to Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012), the cultural transmission
or enculturation is the best way to describe culture learrned. The people acquire
information about the culture by many ways. This is done by learning the
language and other forms of educational information of the society.
a) The members of the group learn to understand and apply certain values,
expectations, beliefs and traditions to the society.
b) The younger generations readily accept the norms of the society as a part of
their education to sustain the societal system within their family or tribe.
c) The culture is also learned by the language, literature, arts, music and local
history that are passed across generation.
Usually, it is through formal and informal education that the culture is
transmitted across generations. The parents provide the early education of their
children from the way they live in the family and society. The social influence
taken from their friends and relatives including their actual experiences provides
the actual learning on a given societal culture. Modern society learns the culture
by the formal education from varied levels such as the basic education and
tertiary education. However, the advent of modern technology the culture is
easily learned through mass media and internet.
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1.1.2.4. It is symbolic
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) said that the communication process
uses symbols to identify the given actions, attitudes and behaviors of the people.
a) The use of language has varied types of symbols depending on its natural
environment, exposure and education to groups or tribes, the social experience and
influence.
b) The social experiences as a whole provides specific communicative symbols
along arts, music, literature, history and other forms of societal actions.
c) The abstract knowledge is reinforced in the way they understand and learn the
feelings, ideas and behaviors of certain group of people in the society.
1.1.2.5. It is patterned and integrated
According to Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012), the culture is patterned by
specific dimension of social life such as the economic and political activities.
These are the norms of conformity for the human beings to follow in order to
meet the psychological and social needs.
a) The economic activities are patterned by the innovation and inventions of cultural
groups that need to be integrated by the social life of the members of the society.
b) There are activities that we always do such as going to toilet, washing the hands,
cleaning the house, driving the car, going to bedroom and etc. We tend to follow
certain habits that are patterned by specific culture of a given society. Remember that
the American way of life maybe totally different to the Africans and Asian way of life.
c) There are cultural values that are patterned to be followed to live on specific group of
people with unique cultures that individual must also follow to integrated similar social life.
1.1.2.6. Culture is adaptive
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) said that the cultural adaptation is the
evolutionary process that modifies the social life of the people in the given
natural environment.
- The social evolutionary process is created by the condition of the natural
environment that human being constantly adapting on any changes.

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- The biological modifications and adjustments are always flexible to adapt
even in the harsh conditions of the environment.
- The human adaptations uses innovative way to create new cultural dimension
on its way of life from the cultural transformation of clothing, food shelter,
music, arts including the beliefs, traditions and history.
1.1.2.7. Culture is compulsory
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) said that human beings always consider the
harmonious relationship with any of group cultures being grown for a period of time.
- The group members of the conformed with the ways of living within the
bounds of beliefs, expectation, and norms.
- The behavioral conformity is expected to follow any violations within the
norms have specific sanctions as to the provisions of law or even a given set of
norms in the social context.
- The social interaction of man follows the collective activities with common
goals including specific norms, traditions, and beliefs which is followed as a
blue print of its distinct cultural existence in the society.
1.1.2.8. Culture is cumulative, dynamic and diverse
Christopher Fuster Bueno (2012) believed that the cumulative culture may
be passed from one generation to the next generation. Those pertinent
knowledge and culture are gradually built as it is useful to the society. However,
information that is no longer useful to the society may be gradually phased out.
There is continuous change of culture as new ways of life evolved by the
changing conditions of the societal life. There are cultural practices that no longer
useful today.
The culture is different from each other as we must consider the social
experiences, traditions, norms, mores and other cultural ways in the community.

1.1.3. The significance of culture

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Culture is the unique possession of man. Man is born and brought up in a
cultural environment. Man is not only a social animal but also a cultural being.
Man cannot survive as a man without culture. Culture fulfils our needs and
represents the entire achievements of mankind.
Culture is a bond that ties the people of a region or community together.
It is that one common bond, which brings the people of a community together.
The customs and traditions that the people of a community follow, the festivals
they celebrate, the kind of clothing they wear, the food they eat, and most
importantly, the cultural values they adhere to, bind them together.
Culture is seen as a system of social control where people shape their
standards and behavior. The cultural values form the founding principles of one's
life. They influence one's principles and philosophies of life. They influence
one's way of living and thus impact social life. The importance of culture lies in
the fact that it is a link between people and their value systems.
E. B. Taylor (1996) defined culture as "that complex whole which
includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morale, laws, customs and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” and noted that
culture has been fulfilling a number of functions which may be divided into two
- one for the individual and one for the group.
a. Importance to the individual
- Culture distinguishes man from animal. It is the culture that makes the human
animal a man. It regulates his conduct and prepares him for a group life. Without
culture, he would have been forced to find his own way which would have
meant a loss of energy.
- Culture provides solution for complicated situations. Culture provides man a
set of behavior for difficult situations. In the absence of culture, man would have
been baffled even at the simplest situations. A culture defines what we eat and
drink, when to sleep, when to laugh and so on.
- Culture provides traditional interpretation to certain situations. Through
culture, man gets traditional interpretations for many situations according to
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which he determines his behavior. For example, if a cat crosses his way he
postpones the journey.
- Culture shapes personality. No child can develop human qualities in the
absence of cultural environment. Culture prepares man for group life. It is
culture that provides opportunities for the development of personality and sets
limits on its growth.
b. Importance for the group
- Culture keeps social relationship intact. Culture has importance not only for
men but also for the group. Culture prepares man for group life. Group life
would have been poor, nasty, and short if there had been no cultural regulations.
Group solidarity rests on the foundation of culture.
- Culture has given a new vision to the individual. Secondly, culture has given a
new vision to the co-operation of the individuals. Culture teaches him to think of
himself as a part of the larger whole. It provides him with the concepts of family,
state, nation etc. and makes possible the coordination and division of labor.
- Culture also creates new needs, for example, thirst for knowledge and arranges
for their satisfaction. It satisfies the moral and religious interests of the members
of the group.
In conclusion, culture is the unique possession of man. No one can
develop human qualities without culture. Culture distinguishes, leads, changes
the personality of the individual and structure of the group.
1.2. Introduction of coffee
1.2.1. The history of coffee
According to “the history of coffee” (2013) of the National Coffee
Association of U.S.A, coffee is a major part of Ethiopian culture and Yemenite
culture. This cultural significance dates back to as many as 14 centuries ago,
which coffee was (or was not) discovered in Yemen. Followings are the mythical
origins and the documented historical origins of coffee both in Ethiopia and in
Yemen.
Ethiopia's Coffee Origin Myth
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The most popular legend of coffee in Ethiopia usually goes something
like this:
Kaldi, an Abyssinian goat herder from Kaffa, was herding his goats through
a highland area near a monastery. He noticed that they were behaving very
strangely that day, and had begun to jump around in an excited manner,
bleating loudly and practically dancing on their hind legs. He found that the
source of the excitement was a small shrub (or, in some legends, a small
cluster of shrubs) with bright red berries. Curiosity took hold and he tried
the berries for himself.
Like his goats, Kaldi felt the energizing effects of the coffee cherries.
After filling his pockets with the red berries, he rushed home to his wife,
and she advised him to go to the nearby monastery in order to share these
"heaven sent" berries with the monks there.
Upon arrival at the monastery, Kaldi coffee beans were not greeted with
elation, but with distain. One monk called Kaldi bounty "the Devil work"
and tossed it into a fire. However, according to legend, the aroma of the
roasting beans was enough to make the monks give this novelty a second
chance. They removed the coffee from the fire, crushed them to put out the
glowing embers and covered them with hot water in a ewer in order to
preserve them (or so the story goes).
All the monks in the monastery smelled the aroma of the coffee and
came to try it out. Much like the tea-drinking Buddhist monks of China and
Japan, these monks found that coffee uplifting effects were beneficial in
keeping them awake during their spiritual practice (in this case, prayer and
holy devotions). They vowed that from then on they would drink this
newfound beverage each day as an aid to their religious devotions.
However, this story did not appear in writing until 1671 AD and is generally
considered to be apocryphal rather than a true history of coffee's origin.
Yemen's Coffee Origin Myths

20


Similarly, there are two alternate coffee origin myths. One attributes
the discovery of coffee to Yemenite Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin
Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili. The other claims that coffee was 'discovered' by
Sheik Abou'l Hasan Schadheli's disciple, Sheikh Omar, who was living as a
recluse in Mocha, Yemen.
The first myth recounts the origin of coffee as follows:
Al-Shadhili was traveling through Ethiopia, presumably on spiritual matters. He
encountered some very energetic birds that had been eating the fruit of
the bunn plant (known elsewhere as the coffee plant). Weary from his journey, he
decided to try these berries for himself, and he found that they produced an
energetic state in him, as well. This myth is interesting in that it was preserved in
Yemen, but it attributes the origin of coffee to Ethiopia.
The second coffee origin myth from Yemen claims that coffee
originated in Yemen. The story goes like this:
Sheikh Omar, a doctor-priest and a follower of Sheik Abou'l Hasan Schadheli
from Mocha, Ethiopia, was exiled to a desert cave close to the mountain of
Ousab. According to one versions of the myth, this exile was for some sort of
moral transgression. According to another version of the myth, Omar was exiled
because he practiced medicine on the princess in the stead of his master (who was
on his deathbed) and, after curing her of her illness, decided to "keep" her and
was exiled by the king as punishment.
After some time of exile, on the verge of starvation, Omar found the red
berries of the coffee plant and tried to eat them. (According to one version
of the story, a bird brought him a branch bearing coffee cherries after he
cried out in despair for guidance from his master, Schadheli.) However, he
found them to be too bitter to eat raw, so he threw the berries into this fire,
hoping to remove their bitterness. This basic roasting technique hardened
the berries in the fire. They were unsuitable for chewing, so Omar boiled
them to try to soften them. As they boiled, he noticed the pleasant aroma of
the increasingly brown liquid in which they were boiling, and decided to
21


drink this decoction rather than eat the beans. He found the drink to be
revitalizing and shared his tale with others. (In another version of the story,
Omar found the raw beans to be delicious, and decided to make them into a
soup which, when the roasted coffee cherries were removed, became
something closely resembling to the drink we know of as coffee.)
The story of Omar's invigorating drink quickly reached his
hometown of Mocha. His exile was lifted and he was ordered to return
home with the berries he had discovered. Returning to Mocha, he shared
coffee beans and the drink of coffee with others, who found that it 'cured'
many ailments. Soon, they hailed coffee as a miracle drug and Omar as a
saint. A monastery was built in Mocha in Omar's honor.
1.2.2. Health benefits from coffee
According to the research “Coffee and health: a review of recent
human research” (2006) of Higdon J.V and Frei B.,Linus Pauling Institute,
Oregon State University, Portland, there are some health benefits of coffee
consumption.
1.2.2.1. Staying awake and remaining alert throughout the day
Coffee is the best way to prevent sleep. Coffee acts as a stimulant to your
body and increases blood pressure. Downing a cup of coffee dilates your blood
vessels and allows more O2 to get to your brain providing a boost of energy.
Coffee’s key ingredient is caffeine; once it reaches the brain it can block or
control sleep receptors.
1.2.2.2. Containing high source of antioxidants
Many people probably don’t realize that coffee is one of the highest
sources of antioxidants. Antioxidants are dietary substances (such as
carotenoids, flavonoids and selenium) that can help prevent damage to your
body cells or repair damage all ready there. This tasty drink contains
quinines — an antioxidant that can help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes
and aid in tissue repair. But not only that, this clever compound can also
help give your immune system an extra boost. As the cold and flu season
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comes into full swing, this added benefit may just be your best line of
defense.
1.2.2.3. Preventing Parkinson’s disease
Another great reason to reach for that cup of coffee is that regularly
consuming the drink can significantly delay the onset of Parkinson’s
disease. Those who drink more than four cups of coffee a day have an 80
percent less chance of developing the disease in the first place. This added
health benefit can also be of aid for those who are already diagnosed with
Parkinson’s disease, calming muscle tremors and restoring motor function.
This discovery is a great reason to keep coffee in your diet.
1.2.2.4. Helping fight depression
As the weather begins to change, many people find themselves
suffering from the winter blues. But the good news is that coffee may help.
Caffeine not only gives your body a jolt, but it also acts a mild antidepressant, boosting certain neurotransmitters in your brain responsible for
happiness.
1.2.2.5. Preventing cancer
A comprehensive review published in 1997 by the American Institute
of Cancer Research, in Washington and the World Cancer Research Fund in
London found that coffee was not carcinogenic. The findings indicated that
coffee may help to prevent cancer of the colon. The risk of colon cancer
was lowered by 24% for those that drank four cups of coffee a day among
people observed in various studies spanning several years. The analysis
was comprised of 17 studies from 1960 to 1990 on colorectal cancer and
coffee. Japanese researcher reported in 2005 that people who drank coffee
everyday over 10 years were half as likely to get liver cancer as those who
didn’t drink it at all. It is not clear whether caffeine is the responsible for
the reduction in cases. Coffee is the leading source of antioxidants in the
diet. Antioxidants have been linked to various health benefits, including
protection from cancer and heart disease. Fruits and vegetables are packed
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with more antioxidants and are a higher nutritional benefit than coffee but
the problem is that most consumers are not eating enough of them. Experts
say that drinking one to two cups of coffee a day does appear to provide a
health boost because of these antioxidants.
1.2.2.6. Defeating diabetes
Studies link frequent coffee consumption (4 cups per day or more)
with a lowered risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Scientists suspect that
antioxidant compounds in coffee - cholorogenic acid and quinides - may
boost cells' sensitivity to insulin, which helps regulate blood sugar. While
most of the research didn't assess whether the brews were caffeinated,
decaf may be even better, since other studies have found that caffeine tends
to blunt the insulin-sensitivity boost.
1.2.2.7. Having hearty benefits
A recent Japanese study has found that coffee has got amazing
benefits to the heart as the quantity of caffeine in one cup of coffee
improves the work of the micro blood vessels.
According to the American Heart Association’s annual meeting in
Dallas, caffeine improves blood flow at 30% through the micro vessels.
The micro-vessels enhance the circulation of blood in the circulatory
system and the body tissues.
There might be a strong link between drinking coffee and minimizing
the risk of heart attack and other heart illnesses. Also, it was proven that
caffeine may make better the role of larger arteries of our hearts.
1.2.2.8. Having a better liver
Though the research is limited at best, it appears that the more coffee
people drink, the lower their incidence of cirrhosis and other liver diseases.
One analysis of nine studies found that every 2-cup increase in daily coffee
intake was associated with a 43 percent lower risk of liver cancer. Possible
explanation: caffeine and antioxidant chlorogenic and caffeic acids in
coffee might prevent liver inflammation and inhibit cancer cells.
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In conclusion, numerous benefits have been attributed to coffee.
Upon the expansion of scientific research in this field; more and more facts
have accumulated testifying to the connection between moderate coffee
consumption and lower chances of suffering from wide variety of diseases.
However, in this study, some main advantages of coffee are introduced.
1.3. Coffee culture
1.3.1. The definition of coffee culture
Coffee culture describes a social atmosphere or series of associated
social behaviors that depends heavily upon coffee, particularly as a social
lubricant, according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee_culture.
The term also refers to the diffusion and adoption of coffee as a widely
consumed stimulant by a culture. In the late 20th century, particularly in
the Western world and urbanized centers around the globe, espresso has
been an increasingly dominant form.
The formation of culture around coffee and coffeehouses dates back to 14th
century. Coffeehouses in Western Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean
were traditionally social hubs, as well as artistic and intellectual centers.
For example, Les Deux Magots in Paris, now a popular tourist attraction,
was once associated with the intellectuals Jean- Paul and Simone de
Beauvoir. In the late
London became

popular

17th

and 18th

meeting

places

centuries, coffeehouses
for

artists,

writers,

in
and

socialites and were also the center for much political and commercial
activity. Elements of today's coffeehouses (slower paced gourmet service,
tastefully decorated environments, or social outlets such as open
mid nights) have their origins in early coffeehouses, and continue to form
part of the concept of coffee culture.
In the United States in particular, the term is frequently used to
designate the ubiquitous presence of hundreds of espresso stands and
coffee shops in the Seattle metropolitan area and the spread of franchises
of businesses such as Starbucks and their clones across the United States.
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