1. Background of the study
English is an international language and has been widely used in so many
countries in the world. In Vietnamese, is also considered as the most important
foreign language which has been taught as a compulsory subject for many years.
There are three important components in a language, namely pronunciation,
grammar and vocabulary. One of the most important aspects of English is
grammar which is considered as a challenge for many teachers and students of
English at schools. Especially for tenses, the play an important part in English
grammar, they are always put in tests and exams for students of high schools.
However, many students often use tenses incorrectly, especially for present
tenses. They are often confused with using present tenses so they make meaning
of the sentences change and make them wrong in grammatical rules.
In learning languages, using present tenses cause lots of difficulties for
learners of English as a foreign language. It is also one of the basic factors to
complete grammatical and lexical meaning in a sentence. Therefore, using
present tenses correctly is very necessary to students learning English.
However, there is a fact that English learner in general and students of
grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High school,Vinh Phuc province in particular
still do not know how to using present tenses in English in a correct way. They
make many mistakes when using present tenses in tests and exams. Finding the
common mistakes in using present tenses will help teachers find out good way
to correct those mistakes for students. For main reason above, I choose the
subject: “Common mistakes in using present tenses of grade 10 students at
Ngo Gia Tu High school,Vinh Phuc province: the current situation and
solutions” for my graduation paper.
2. Previous Research
2.1. In the world
There are many linguistics studying English in general and the grammar
of English in particular such as Vinh Ba, Le Huy Tuong, Micleal, A.J Thompson
and so on. They make a great contribution on studying English grammar to
learner. Not only has one aspect of English grammar been studied but all
structures of English grammar as well.
A study on simple past tense errors is “ L1 influence in simple past tense
errors – the case of Mandarin and Tamil ESL learners” by Mike Tiittanen.
This study investigated the types of errors which Tamil and Mandarin L1
ESL learners made in obligatory contexts for the use of the simple past tense on
a fill-in-the-gap task and on two oral tasks. The results of the study indicate that
both L1 groups made similar types of mistakes in such contexts (e.g. – the
base form). Although learner developmental factors plausibly account for many
of the errors, the frequency of some of the types of errors appears to have been
influenced by the learners’ L1 as well.
2.2. In Viet Nam
A study on tenses is “Tenses in English and temporal markers in
Vietnamese” by Huỳnh Ái Linh at Ho Chi Minh City University of Education (
English-Vietnamese Comparative Linguistics 2010). This paper is a slight
discussion on the issue of some tenses and common temporal markers.Further
research is certainly required in order to better diagnose students’ mistakes and
provide solutions to these problems.
2.3. In Hung Vuong University
This is the first time the research “ Common mistakes in using present
tenses of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High school,Vinh Phuc province:
the current situation and solutions” is carried out in Hung Vuong University.
With this research, the researcher hopes that students can understand more
clearly about the present tenses in English and have better results in tests exams.
3. Research Purpose
This study is intended to help students understand the usages of present
tenses in English. On the other hand, the researcher wants to reduce student’s
mistakes when using present tenses in English.
This study aims to:
- Studying the usages of present tenses in English
- Giving the current situation and identifying common mistakes on using
present tenses in English of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu high
school,Vinh Phuc pronvince
- Suggesting some possible solutions
4. Research questions
The study will find the answers for the following questions:
- What are common mistakes made by grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu
High School in using present tense?
- Which solutions should be done to minimize these mistakes?
5. The methods of research
1.5.1. Theoretical research method
The study was based on some theoretical researchers on English tenses in
general and the usages of present tenses in particular. By theoretical method the
researcher will in the literature study section to get the basis for the research.
1.5.2. Statistical method
To make statistics about common mistakes in using present tenses of
grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High School. The researcher uses some tools to
This research paper was conducted at Ngo Gia Tu High School.
Questionnaires were designed for the students to get basic information about
situation of teaching and learning present tenses at school.
Besides questionnaires, the researcher also use personal interview to get
more reliable information about common mistakes of using present tenses of
grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High School.
Tests were designed for the students to find common mistakes on using
present tenses of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High School.
1.5.3. Analysis method
From the results collected, the researcher analyzed to identify common
mistakes on using present tenses in English of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu
high school,Vinh Phuc province and provide some solutions.
6. The significance of the research
- Firstly and foremost, the paper studies the current situation of using
present tenses of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High School to find out
common mistakes and then the researcher give out some solutions to help
students reduce these mistakes.
- Secondly, The result of this research will help teachers and students at
Ngo Gia Tu High School in teaching and learning English Grammar effectively.
- Lastly, the finding of this research may be used as reference for readers
who conduct a research in this field.
7. The object of the research
The object of the research will primarily on analyzing the common
mistakes of using present tenses: simple present tense, present continuous tense,
present perfect tense. The researcher will get data and information from 3
classes with 150 students at Ngo Gia Tu high school. Additionally, the research
aims at giving out some solutions to correct those mistakes.
The researcher bases on the usage of present tenses, finding common
mistakes of grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu High School, the causes for these
mistakes and application of proposed solutions will help students to understand
and use present tenses in English correctly. Their knowledge of how to use
present tenses correctly will help reduce and overcome their mistakes in using
present tenses and improve the results of their English learning.
9. Design of the study
The study consists of 3 parts and references
This is the chapter that introduces an overall view of the research.
Chapter 1: Literature Review
Literature review of English grammar, present tenses, and mistakes in
using present tenses are provided in this chapter
Chapter 2: The study
This chapter analyzes the data collected from students survey
questionnaires and an interview for the teachers on teaching and learning present
tenses, collected a written test to find out common mistakes made by students of
grade 10 at Ngo Gia Tu high school. After that the researcher finds the causes
for students’ mistakes.
Chapter 3: Suggestion some solutions
In this chapter, the researcher provides some solutions, which follows
these causes in chapter 2.
A conclusion of the study gives a summary of the whole research,
provides limitations of the research and suggestions for further research.
1.1. English Grammar
1.1.1. Definition of Grammar
According to Ur (1996 : 75) grammar is defined as “ the way words are
put together to make correct sentence” or “a set of rules that define how words
(or parts of words) are combined or changed to form acceptable units of
meaning within a language”.
According to David Crystal, in “Word and Deed” TES Teacher, April 30,
2004, grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves.
The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning
and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster
precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in
English. And it can help everyone not only teachers of English, but teachers of
anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.
1.1.2. The importance of Grammar
1.2. English Tenses
1.2.1. The definition of Tenses
The term "tense" is derived from the Latin translation of the Greek word
for "time" (Lyons, 1968: 304). The etymological meaning is not much different
from the definitions presented in many dictionaries and grammar references.
Generally, most lexicographers and grammarians today define tense as the verbform denoting time (Hornby and Parnwell, 1979; Urdong, 1968; Guntram 1985;
swan, 1980; Hodges et al,1990).
In grammar, the students are provided with many rules of a language.
One of them is tense. Hornby (1995:123) states that tense is a verb form or
series of verb forms used to indicate the time of the action or state. It is
important for the students to learn tenses since they have great influence in
forming the meaning of sentences. Tense may indicate whether an activity or
state is, was, or will be completed or whether it is, was, or will be in progress
over period of time. In learning English as a foreign language, it is very
important to know the rules of tenses as part of grammar. By knowing the rules
of tenses, the students are believed to be able to construct good sentences in
English communication. In other words, it is believed that by mastering the
tenses as one aspect in English grammatical structure, the students will be able
to communicate in English correctly.
1.2.2. The classification of Tenses
1.3. Present Simple Tense
According to Krohn (1971), simple present tense is tense denoting an
action happening in this time. This tense is used to talk about things in general.
We are not only thinking about now, but it is used to say something is true in
1.3.3. Spelling notes
1.4. The present continuous tense
1.5. The present perfect tense
1.6. Distinguishing Present Simple, Present Continuous and Present Perfect
1.6.1. The Present Simple Tense and the Present Continuous Tense
1.6.2. The Past Simple Tense and the Present Perfect Tense
1.7. Mistakes in English
1.7.1. What is a mistake?
According to Norrish (1982 : 138), mistake is a non - systematic code
indicating in complete learning. A mistake refers to a performance errors that is
random guess or a slip. In that it is failure to utilize known system correctly.
Besides, Corder (1994) says that a mistake occurs when learners fail to
perform their competence, that is, it is a result of processing problems that
prevent learners from accessing their knowledge of a target language rule and
cause to fall back on some alternative, non- standard rule that they find easy to
1.7.2. Common mistakes in English Grammar Tenses
According to the webside: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/commonmistakes-english-grammar-tenses-13375.html (23/5/2008), the English language
has a more complex tense system than many languages do, and it can be difficult
for non-native and even native speakers to master. Several common errors in
English grammar stem from the way that English conjugates verb tense that is,
the way it changes verbs to communicate past, present and future action.
Multiple past-tense markers
Incorrect Tense with a temporal adverb
Incorrect Tense with irregular verbs
Incorrect sequence of Tenses
THE COMMON MISTAKES IN USING PRESENT TENSES
2.1. An introduction of grade 10 students and teachers of English at Ngo
Gia Tu High School
The study was conducted with participation of a total of 150 students of 3
classes at grade 10 in Ngo Gia Tu high school. Most of them have been studied
English for six or seven years at elementary and secondary school and they are
now at the second term of the the school year.
Although the students have been studied English for six or seven years,
the fact that they do not really acquaint to basic grammar and main skills in
English. Besides, they have not been studied each of the aspects carefully and
done variety of exercises. Moreover, classes of English as other subjects are
large, there are frequently 45 to 50 students in a class. Thus, time for students
practicing is limited.
Besides, the textbook of 10th grade is designed following with many
communicable topics. The textbook includes 16 units, each of which covers 5
parts such as: Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing and Language Forcus. Each
unit has a part of the grammar and this is followed by a set of practice exercises.
For example, in unit 3, the student will be revised about the present simple and
the present progressive. And in unit 4 about “special education”, the present
perfect will be presented.
Being a young teaching staff, they give students enthusiasm and
responsibility in training and educational career. Besides, they also give new
methods to make students more interested in the English class. However, due to
effect of old teaching methods, some teachers have not met demand of students
yet and students have not played center role in the class.
2.2. Data collection
2.2.1. The survey questionaires.
22.214.171.124. Causes for choosing the survey questionnaires
126.96.36.199. Description of the survey questionnaires
188.8.131.52. Causes for choosing the test
184.108.40.206. Description of the test
220.127.116.11. Causes for interviewing
18.104.22.168. The description of interviews
2.3. Data analysis, Discussion and Findings
2.3.1. Data analysis
22.214.171.124. Data collection from survey questionnaires
After giving and collecting the survey questionnaires for students, the
following result of students’ response were collected:
Table 2.1. The results from survey questionnaires for students
120 = 80 %
12 = 8 %
12 = 8 %
21 = 14 %
93 = 62 %
36 = 24 %
45 = 30 %
42 = 28 %
33 = 22 %
30 = 20 %
30 = 20 %
27 = 18 %
78 = 52 %
15 = 10 %
15 = 10 %
21 = 14 %
84 = 56 %
30 = 20 %
75 = 50 %
42 = 28 %
21 = 14 %
12 = 8 %
56 = 36 %
63 = 42 %
21 = 14 %
12 = 8 %
126.96.36.199. Data collected from interviewing the teachers
The aim of interviewing the teachers gets more information of current
situation. The researcher designed 4 questions to get information from 7 teachers
at Ngo Gia Tu high school. (For more details, see Appendix 2)
Question 1: How long have you been teaching English?
Question 2: Do your students have problems in distinguishing Present
Question 3: What kind of mistakes do they often make?
Question 4: What do you do to help them overcome these problems?
From the data collected, the researcher understood more about the current
situation of teaching and learning Present Tenses in grade 10 at Ngo Gia Tu high
school and the common mistakes made by students. This is the useful
information for the researcher finding out causes for theses mistakes and giving
some solutions to improve this situation.
188.8.131.52. Data collected from the test
The participants of the study are 150 students from 3 classes of grade 10
and 3 tests. Therefore, the researcher got 450 tests from 150 students. And then,
the researcher would count the total of mistakes. The table below show common
mistakes made by students of grade 10 at Ngo Gia Tu high school when using
Table 2.2. Common mistakes made by students of grade 10
Kinds of mistakes
Mistakes of omission
Mistakes about subject and verb
Number of mistakes Percent
Mistakes of confusion in the usages
Mistakes of spelling
Total number of the mistakes
After giving and collecting the test, the researcher found out 4 common
mistakes made by students of grade 10 when using Present Tenses. These
mistakes belong to three tenses: the present simple tense, the present continuous
tense, the present perfect tense. The number of mistakes most is (36%) about
omission (omission of –s/es in the present tense, omission of to be “am/is/are” or
verb “ing” in the present continuous tense, and omission of “have/has” or past
participle verb in the present perfect tense). Besides, the mistakes about subject
and verb agreement is 24% and 22% is the mistakes of confusion in the usages.
Lastly, there are 18% about the mistakes of spelling.
2.3.2. Discussion and Findings
After carrying out the survey, the interview and analyzing data, the
researcher found that the teachers at Ngo gia Tu high school used effective
methods to transform necessary knowledge in the textbook to the students,
delivered them some exercises to practice and gave necessary correction for
their common mistakes. However, they did not really focus on students’
understanding; they only concentrated on quantity of knowledge which they
conveyed to the students. The teachers are lack of delivery extra exercises to
Besides, the students were usually neglected their study in the class; they
did not pay attention to teacher’s lectures. In addition, they were very lazy doing
exercises at home. A large number of students did not do their homework or
exercises given by the teachers. For extra exercises in the reference books, very
few students did them. When having difficulty in doing exercises, the students
often did not ask the teachers or their friends and they sometimes passed these
exercises. Because most of the classes at Ngo Gia Tu high school are very large,
teachers had a lot of difficulties to notice andn take care of all students in the
class. It was not easy for teacher find out and correct mistakes for all students.
Thus, a lot of students made mistakes without being corrected; these mistakes
were seen in written tests or examinations. This current situation came from
many different reasons, both subjective and objective elements.
184.108.40.206. Common mistakes made by students of grade 10
After giving the written test to the students, collecting and analyzing the
results, the researcher found out 4 common mistakes made by students of grade
10 when using Present tenses.
+ Mistakes of omission
Based on the sentences using present tenses, it has been found that the
mistakes made by the students in using present tenses (simple present tense,
present continuous tense and present perfect tense) are mistake of omission
(omission of s/es, to be or verb “ing”, and “ have/ has” or past participle verb).
+ Mistakes about subject and verb agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement is an agreement in which there is a matching
relation between subject and verb (Leech, 1996:33). The main rule of SubjectVerb Agreement is simple. It is said an agreement if both subject and verb show
the same kind of inflection. In other words, singular subjects go with singular
verb. And plural subjects go with plural verbs. But many students made mistakes
about subject and verb agreement.
+ Mistakes of confusion in the usages
The students usually have the mistakes of confusion in the usages
between Present Teses in general and other tenses in particular.
+ Mistakes of spelling
The mistakes of spelling is also one of the common mistakes of the
students in using Present Tenses.
2.4. Causes for students’ mistakes
2.4.1. Interference of Mother tongue.
According to Achara Wongsothorn (1983), interference from Vietnamese
language to English learning is considered to be the main sources of errors for
Many Vietnamese students beginning to study English have much trouble
learning English grammar. One of the problems they usually have is handling
English aspect. This may be because verbs are not marked for tense and aspect
in Vietnamese. As a result, students usually transfer non-conjugated verbs and
implied tense and aspect into English.
From the result in this study, the researcher think that interference from
Vietnamese language to English learning is the main cause for student’s
mistakes. For example, they did not change the form of verb “to have”or verb
past participle after verb “to have” in present perfect tense.
2.4.2. Difficulties in the usages and forms of Present Tenses.
Almost students of grade 10 at Ngo Gia Tu high school had learnt English
at secondary school, thus, they have been learnt basic knowledge of English.
English tenses are not easy to remember all their usages for non native English
speakers, especially secondary students. Moreover, there are 12 tenses in
English system and tense actually relates to times: present, past, and future.
Therefore, students feel difficult to remember and understand deeply about
tenses in general and Present Tenses in particular. In addition, the students have
not done and practice a variety of exercises at school. When they have started
studying at high school, they usually forgot some usages, verb forms and
spelling notes of the Present Tenses and had confusion when using them.
2.4.3. Inadequate practice
For each of subjects, to understand major knowledge in the lesson, not
only students learn theory only, but also practice plays an important role to
become master, especially in learning foreign language. English tense is a
difficult part of grammar, especially present tenses are very various in usages
and verb forms and it is very easy to make mistakes when using them. At school,
each period of language forcus had only 45 minutes to teach grammar,
pronunciation and skills. Thus, the time for students practicing is not much.
Moreover, the students only did exercises in the textbook, seldom practiced
doing exercises given by their teacher or extra exercises in the reference books
at home. The more students had little practice, the more they misunderstand in
doing exercises. Harmer (1998) explained that the students acquire language
through practice. Although children are better at studying language than adult
learners, they might easily forget the rules if they do not use them. Hence, the
students still made mistakes even if their teacher corrected before. This is one of
the major causes leading to students’ mistakes when using Present Tenses.
SOME SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS
To deal with this current situation, the researcher provided some
suggestions that highlight on this language area are presented in the chapter to
help teachers as well as students for reducing those mistakes which made by
students of grade 10 at Ngo Gia Tu high school.
3.1. Suggestions for reducing mistakes by interference of Mother tongue
My first suggestion is to help the students overcome this interference
mistakes. When the teacher teaches about forms of present tenses, the teachers
should give two sentences with equivalent meaning– one Vietnamese sentence and
one English sentence. Then, the teachers will compare these sentences to indicate
the difference between them about the usage of verbs.
Besides, teachers should help students practice the three tenses in more
varied contexts, such as picture descriptions, information gap activities,
authentic listening activities, storytelling, and games. For example, the teacher
may give students pictures of somebody’s daily routine. The teacher asks them
to make sentences about that person’s daily activities using the present tenses.
The teacher can also ask some of them to show some pictures of their family
members’daily routines to the class, and other students make sentences by using
the present tenses. Another example is to ask students to listen to some sounds
on a tape and make sentences about what is happening with the sounds on the
tape using the present tenses. The teacher can also ask some volunteers to show
some actions in front of the class, and other students make sentences about the
actions using the present tenses. By practicing sentences in contexts such as
these, students may become more aware of how to use the two aspects.
3.2. Suggestions for reducing mistakes by difficulties in the usages and
forms of Present Tenses
3.2.1. For teachers
The teacher should emphasize the usages and forms of present tenses.
For example, teachers should emphasize that verbs in present perfect tense form
must take the aspect " have or has + past participle of main verb". Teachers
should teach their students first what subjects use with have or has and then
teach them the past participle of main verb both regular and irregular form. And
then, the teacher should show students additional sentences containing the present
perfect tense such as: “I have been here since last week” or “Our parents have
lived in London for many years”. Or teachers should teach their students first
what subject can a sentence take (i.e. First, second or third person) an explain
that only third person singular subjects can take “s/ es” into verbs in the present
simple tense or subjects use with “have or has” in the present perfect tense and
then teach them both regular and irregular verb forms.
Moreover, the most frequent mistakes that occurred in this study were
omission, misspelling, confusion in the usages and subjects and verbs
agreement. Teachers should try to reduce these mistakes by doing the following:
- Students must be encouraged to list the verb forms of the present tenses
with third person singular subjects and another list consisting the same verb
forms of the present tenses with first and second person singular subjects.
- Teacher should teach about how to use the auxiliary verb “do/ does”with
the subject in present simple tense, "have / has" in present perfect tense, and “ to
be ” in present continuous tense.
- Students must be encouraged to apply the drill practice (LarsenFreeman, 1986) in learning the present tenses in English. They first are advised
to list the adverbs of time in present tenses (e.g. always, often, sometimes, etc in
present simple tense) in their notebooks or to draw a chart in order to remind
them whenever they are not confident in writing words as learning a new
language is a process of habit formation. In other words, students could learn
language through repetition and drill practicing is an activity which is very
useful for them.
- Teaching “subject and verb agreement” is another areathat teachers
should give emphasis to. Not only concentrating on the pronoun subjects but
also subjects in other different forms such as noun phrase, noun clause, and
noun with adjective clause should also be taught as well. After teaching the
particular rule with regard to the present tenses, the student should apply and
practice that particular grammatical rule in a context.
3.2.2. For students
+ Reading the theory and self-study
In fact, athough the teachers taught clearly about tenses in general and the
Present Tenses in particular, the students still forgot a lot of them. Therefore,
reading the theory and self- study is very necessary. Many English grammar
books can provide essential knowledge of the Present Tesnses. If the students
can not understand any aspect, they may ask the teachers for explanation at
class. In short, reading the theory and self- study help students understand and
+ Practicing exercises at class and at home carefully and frequently
It is useless for any learners to study a foreign language without
practicing, especially for English grammar. Students must be encouraged to
apply the drill practice (Larsen-Freeman, 1986) in learning the present tenses in
English. They first are advised to list the adverbs of time in present tenses (e.g.
always, often, sometimes, etc. in the simple present tense) in their notebooks or
to draw a chart in order to remind them whenever they are not confident in
writing words as learning a new language is a process of habit formation. In
other words, students could learn language through repetition and drill
practicing is an activity which is very useful for them.
After memorizing the adverbs of time in present tenses and the
problematic words, the students should have given more chances to practice
writing. This is due to the fact that the students might easily forget the words and
the structures if they have few chancesto write them. According to Madsen
(1983:112-113), dictation is considered to be one of the easiest methods for
practice and testing. Thus, dictation might be a useful writing exercise for the
students. Dictation may be done during class session, either at the beginning of
the class or at the end, for both of individual words and/or of sentences in
3.3. Suggetions for reducing mistakes by inadequate practice
In fact, there are 45 minutes in each period (40 minutes available) at the
high schools. It is not enough time for both studying theory and practicing.
Therefore, the researcher gives some suggestions below for teachers:
- Organizing pair – work or group – work in class
- Delievering and collecting hand-out exercises.
- Practicing exercises of students
Moreover, teachers should suggest some useful techniques to help
students realize the mistakes in using Present Tenses. The teachers may follow
some ways to correct:
- Seft correction
When students make mistakes, they can sometimes correct themselves.
This is a technique of the aspects of giving feedback that activates their brain to
find down their mistakes by themselves. They could realize their mistakes and
correct them by themselves. This is the good way to improve their English
without making them feel badly.
- Peer correction
Not all students can check and correct all mistakes by themselves, the
teachers should invite the other students to help each other before providing the
correct answer, and peer- correction is necessary. This technique encourages the
students to be responsible for each other, allows them to share ideas and help
them avoid the similar mistakes from their friends. It also draws the attention
and involvement of the whole class.
- Teacher correction
In some cases, the students can not correct themselves, the teachers can
help them correct exercises by recalling the basic theory and giving correct
answers. This technique is often applied in case of correcting common mistakes
from the students’ exercises. The teachers point out the mistakes, and give more
explanation of what is wrong with their exercises, how they should be
corrective. Besides, the students can ask questions for the the teachers’ answers.
This solution creates an interactive atmosphere in the language class. This is
useful to make the students more involved and motivated. Moreover, both the
teachers and the students will be closer with each other.
In this part, the researcher first provides a summary of major findings of
the study, the implications of the study are described next, followed by a number
of limitations and suggestions for further study. This part ends with a conclusion
to the whole study.
1. Major findings
This study is about the common mistakes in using present tenses of grade
10 students at Ngo Gia Tu high school. Firstly, the study had overview about the
tenses in general and the present tenses in particular. Then, it found out the
current situation and the common mistakes in using present tenses. Finally, the
researcher suggested some solutions for these problems.
By analyzing the mistakes made by the students in using the present
tenses, the researcher could find out the current situation for grade 10 students at
Ngo Gia Tu high school. Besides, the researcher can understand more about
causes of these mistakes such as: inference of Mother tongue, difficulties in the
usages and forms of Present Tenses, etc and identify the kinds of mistake made
by students. There are four common mistakes: mistakes of omission, mistakes of
subject- verb agreement, mistakes of confusion in the usages, and mistakes of
spelling. From these mistakes, the researcher suggested some solutions, were
given for both the teachers and the students to reduce these mistakes.
In short, the findings and suggestings would help the students understand
clearly and do exercises about present tenses easily.
This section provides some implications for teaching and learning
literature on the basic of the major finding described in the previous section.
The findings show that the study is very helpful because it helps learners
have more understanding about the common mistakes in using present tenses
and identify the kinds of mistake. Therefore, it recommends that distinguishing
present tenses is not difficult if students have attitude toward it. In class, they
must co-operate with teachers and partners by paying attention and taking part in
all activities of lessons enthusiastically. At home, they should spend more time
to do exercises given by the teachers and prepare next lessons. They should
study hard to improve the result of their English learning and avoid these
mistakes in using present tenses.
In addition, the findings of this researcher will help teachers and students
at Ngo Gia Tu high school have the good ways in teaching and learning English
Finally, the researcher hope that the result of this research may be used as
reference for readers who conduct a research in this field.
3. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further study
Although the researcher tried his best to carry out this research, it is
unavoidable for the reseach to have limitations as below:
Firstly, the researcher could investigate the current situation with 150
students of grade 10 and did not carry experimental teaching. Therefore, the
researcher was not applied with all grade 10 students at Ngo Gia Tu high school
and the assessment was not exactly.
Secondly, because of the limitation of time, analyzing these mistakes may
not be as deeply as expected.
Lastly, that was the first time I had done the research at a high school. As
a researcher, I was not experienced in doing it at all. Thus, the researcher herself
hopes that other aspects which have not been mentioned here will be completed
fully in further studies.
In conclusion, the significance of the research is to find out the common
mistakes in using present tenses in English and distinguish between them. It is
clear that students can realize their mistakes and then the researcher give out
some solutions to students avoid or reduce these mistakes.The researcher hope
that this study will help students to understand more and use present tenses in
English correctly. Their knowledge of how to use present tenses correctly will
help reduce and overcome their mistakes in using present tenses and improve the
results of their English learning.