Tải bản đầy đủ

LUẬN án tóm tắt TIẾNG ANH đánh giá tiềm năng và định hướng sử dụng đất sản xuất nông nghiệp bền vững huyện chợ đồn,

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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY

NONG THI THU HUYEN

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIALS AND ORIENTATIONS
FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL LAND USE
IN CHO DON DISTRICT, BAC KAN PROVINCE
MAJOR: LAND MANAGEMENT
CODE: 9.85.01.03

DISSERTATION ABSTRACT

THAI NGUYEN - 2018


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This dissertation was completed at:
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY - THAI
NGUYEN UNIVERSITY


Supervisors: 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Ngoc Nong
2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Thai Bat

Opponent 1:........………………………………………………….
Opponent 2: .…………………………………………………………
Opponent 3: .…………………………………………………………

The dissertation will be reported to the University - Level
Dissertation Reviewing Board at University level
Held at UNIVERSITY O F AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
On the………..day of……………….2019 at…….h…..

This dissertation can be found at:
- Vietnam National Library
- Thai Nguyen University Learning Resources Center
- The Library at University of Agriculture and Forestry
Nguyen University.

- Thai


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PUBLICATIONS
1. Nong Thu Huyen, Nguyen Ngoc Nong, Le Thai Bat, Le Van Tho
(2017), “Physical and chemical properties of main soil cetegories
in Cho Don District, Bac Kan Province”, Vietnam Journal of Soil
Science, No 51 (2): 11-16.
2. Nong Thi Thu Huyen, Nguyen Ngoc Nong, Le Thai Bat, Pham
Van Tuan, Le Van Tho (2017), “Suitability Unit Mapping for
Land Use Planning in Cho Don District, Bac Kan Province”,
Vietnam Journal of Soil Science, No 52 (20): 122 - 128.


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INTRODUCTION
1. Research Problem
Cho Don is a district located in the west of Bac Kan Province
and away from Bac Kan city about 46 km. The district lies on
mountainous terrain, hills and valleys and accounts for a small area


of agricultural production land. Local people are facing chellenges in
crop cultivation, unsustainable development of crops and even poor
planning of agricultural production. This led to poor, unproductive
and unstainable yields in rice and other crops.
Thus, the research and assessment of land potential of Cho
Don district is a reliable and practical basis to develop this valuable
resource and ensure food security and social security in the area. The
results of this research are of great significance for managers in
formulating policies on investment in agro-forestry production
development in Cho Don district, Bac Kan province.
As a result, this resulted in developing and formulating this study:
“assessment of potentials and orientations for sustainable
agricultural land use in cho don district, bac kan province”
2. Research Objectives
Assessing the land potential of Cho Don district is to
determine the suitability of land with different types of land use
(LUT) because it used as the basis for the proposed use of
agricultural land from an ecological and sustainable development
perspective for the district in the coming time.
3. Significance and Applications of the Study
This thesis aimed to:
- Scientific Significance: contribute to the finalization of the
assessment methodology of land potential in mountainous districts in
particular and the Northeast region of Vietnam in general.
- Practical applications: provide scientific basis for the
sustainable use of land for agricultural production, for value-added
benefits, and for income improvement for local people.
+ Proposed land use options for the agricultural development
of Cho Don district as reference materials for other mountainous
districts with similar conditions.


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4. Major Areas of Contributions
This thesis has:
- Assessed quantitatively the land potential in Cho Don district,
Bac Kan province based on a systematic and cross-sectoral approach;
- Proposed the integration of land suitability results with multiobjective optimal solvers to determine the land suitability area for
LUTs, sustainable land use patterns, and improvement the feasibility
of the proposed approach.
- Chosen and proposed some models and solutions for
developing agricultural land effectively and sustainably in
accordance with specific conditions of Cho Don district, Bac Kan
province.
Chapter 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. Significance and basis on land assessment
and sustainable land use for agricultural production
1.1.1. Background of Agricultural Land
* Classification of Agricultural Land
Agricultural land includes: agricultural production land; forest
land (LNP); land for aquaculture (NTS); land for salt production
(LMU); and other agricultural land (NKH). As a mountainous
district, there are only 4 types of regular agricultural land in Cho
Don, with no salt land.
* Significance of Agricultural Land
Land is a critical condition for human being to survive and
maintain successive generations of humankind. Land is involved in
all economic sectors of society. However, land plays different roles in
each economic entity.


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1.1.2. Basis on land potential assessment and
evaluation
1.1.2.1. Background of Land Evaluation
According to FAO (1976): Land evaluation is the process of
comparing, calculating the properties of land areas and to be
assessed against the soil properties required by the land use type.
1.1.2.2. Overview of Land Potentials
* Land potential assessment: is the process of determining the
quantity and quality of land in relation to the purpose of its land use.
The classification of land into groups based on the advantages or
limitations of land such as slope, soil thickness, rocky slope, erosion,
and dry. This basis therefore can help us to choose the appropriate
types of land use (Đỗ Đình Sâm và cs, 2005).
1.1.3. Concept of sustainable development and perspective
1.1.3.1. Concept of Sustainable Development
According to WCED: "Sustainable development is a
development that can meet the needs of the present without
compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations".
1.1.3.2. Principles and Criteria on Agricultural
Land Use
According to FAO (1993), a sustainable land use system
should ensure the prosperity of economic, social and
environmental sustainability.
1.1.4. Effective use and assessment indicators of
land use
1.1.4.1. Concept of Effectiveness
Efficiency is defined as the reflection of the correlation
between the return value and the resource, which can be measured in
absolute or relative terms. With a view to modern development,
efficiency needs to be assessed comprehensively in three dimensions:
economic, social and environmental (Lê Thanh và cs., 1993).
1.1.4.2. Indicators System for Land Use
Effectiveness Assessment
a. Economic Effectiveness


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This indicator is assessed based on total Product Value (GO),
mixed income (NVA), additional income and operation cost (IC), etc.
b. Social Effectiveness
Social performance is analyzed by the indicators on the levels of
labor attraction, employment opportunity, job creation and income.
c. Environmental Effectiveness
Indicators that are used to assess: level, people’s awareness of
fertilizer and pesticide applications; soil improvement and coverage, etc.
1.2. Practical basis on land potential assessment
and sustainable land use
1.2.1. Potential Assessment of Land Use
Worldwide
Countries in the world have studied soil and land classification
at a macro to micro-scale, from the general assessment of the
country’s soil to detail evaluation of certain specific areas, and each
specific type of land use. The land is divided into various groups
according to each specific condition and evaluation objectives.
1.2.2. Land Use Assessment - Framework of
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation
(FAO)
The FAO method of land evaluation is based on the Land
suitability classification. The principle of this approach is to compare
and make contrast the degree of appropriateness between land use
type requirements and soil quality and characteristics of the land
mapping unit in combination with an analysis of the economic, social
and environmental aspects associated with land use to select the best
land use option.
1.2.3. Potential Assessment of Land Use in Vietnam
1.2.3.1. Land Resources in Vietnam
Vietnam has a total area of 33,096,700 hectares, of which
30,619,800 hectares has been used for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, accounting for 92.52% of the total area;


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2,476,900 ha of unused land, accounting for 7.48% of the total area
(Vietnam General Statistics Department, 2016).
1.2.3.2. Potential Assessment of Land in Vietnam
The Vietnam State and Party always emphasizes on the
importance and effective assessment of land potentials. The land
evaluation and assessment of land potential has been reflected in the
legal documents such as Land Law 2003, 2013, Decree, Circular.
1.3. Research literature on land potential assessment for
sustainable agriculture development
1.3.1. Land potential evaluation research in
Vietnam
In Vietnam, many land potential evaluation research has been
done over the past few decades such land use efficiency,
identification of land units, land suitability types, land use systems
and optimal land use patterns. These studies also proposed effective
and sustainable land use strategies, and the research has applied
advanced methods such as Ales, MCE, AHP, GIS, analysis and
assessment of sustainability in land use.
However, the main constraints of these projects have unclearly
estimated the quantitative effects of the environment and failed to
develop sustainable environment indicators systems. Assessing and
proposing alternative solutions to land use responses to climate
change are not specific and useful. The optimization of land use is
understudied. Proposing the optimal land use structure in the
direction of efficiency and sustainability is also constrained by the
land use planning approach. Few land evaluation studies were done
to develop systematic, integrated and cross-cutting approaches.
1.3.2. Some sustainable agricultural land use
models in northern mountainous region of Vietnam
Some local governments have proposed and alternative
farming practices to increase crop productivity and economic benefits
based on the characteristics of each economic zone, different climate,
terrain and soil conditions. It focuses on a number of rotational and
intercropping models of high economic value such as rice-fish model,


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cassava-watermelon model, Japanese sweet potato model, rubber
model in the Northwest, litchi model, etc.
1.3.3. Some applied research and technological
development on native crops and herbs in Bac Kan
province
Over the past four years, Bac Kan province has implemented
62 scientific projects; out of these schemes, 34 were in the field of
agriculture and forestry, accounting for 54.8%, contributing to the
advancement of science and technology into production, bringing
about economic efficiency and raising incomes for people. The
significance of these projects was to develop indigenous crops such
as seedless pink, taro, and shan tuyet tea.
1.3.4. Some optimization mathematical models
in land management in Vietnam
The application of optimization mathametics in science,
management and land use planning has been applied experimentally
in both theory and practice. For land management, the optimal model
is applied in three aspects: land use planning, land use efficiency and
rational crop structure development.
1.4. The general assessment of research and thesis directions
Studying and evaluating land potential based on the
classification of land suitability for LUT, and land use patterns play a
major role in sustainable land use, which is a necessary tool for
sustainable agricultural use planning. This research process is
proposed for one area and district including: the assessment of land
use status, the selection of highly sustainable land use type, and the
type associated with the existing land use type in the area or types,
effective land use in areas with similar ecological conditions but
applicable in the study area. Evaluating the potential land can
develop and propose suitable land use types for agricultural
production. In their research, the author would apply the FAO land
evaluation method, the content of the sustainability assessment of the
LUT, the land use type will apply the optimal problem to identify and


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select the LUT, sustainable land use for land use planning.
Up to now, there are no research papers published in land
potential assessment to serve as a foundation for sustainable land use
in Cho Don District, Bac Kan province. Also, this research project
considered different aspects of economic condition, environmental
sustainability and social benefits attached with land use efficiency
using morden land assessment approaches. Thus, this study is
crutially important and would potentially benefit Cho Don district in
its agricultural development strategy and land use policies.
Chapter 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1. Subject and Scope of the Study
2.1.1. Subject of the Study
The potential of land in Cho Don district include land use
types for agricultural production.
2.1.2. Scope of the Study
Agricultural land, Cho Don district, Bac Kan province, and
auxiliary data between 2010 and 2016.
2.2. Research Content
2.2.1. Soci-economic Background, Cho Don
District
2.2.2. Current Land Use Assessment in Cho Don District, Bac Kan
Province
2.2.3. Potential Assessment of Land Use in Cho
Don District, Bac Kan Province
2.2.4. The monitoring results of some typical land use models
2.2.5. Planning on sustainable agricultural land use for Cho Don district
2.3. Research Methodology
2.3.1. Data Collection
2.3.2. Approach for Identifying Study Sites
2.3.2.2. Investigative Approach
Each sub-region chooses two pilot communes, which have


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characteristics of land, terrain, farming practices and cropping
systems that characterize the three subregions of the district.
2.3.2.3. Household survey approach
The household family chooses partially randomized options.
Each sub-region surveyed 60 households, and its total is 180
households being surveyed.
2.3.3. Assessment approach based on socieconomic and environment effectiveness
The assessment of land use efficiency is based on the regulation
and principle of guidelines of Ministry of Rural and Agricultural
Development under TCVN (Vietnam Standard) 8409 - 2012.
2.3.4. Supplement survey approach and
mapping adjustment
The soil map of Cho Don district was clipped from Bac Kan
soil map at scale 1:50000 in 2005. We have re-examined the accuracy
of the soil map and investigated the properties of the main soil types
in the district.
The survey approach followed the TCVN 9487:2012.
2.3.5. Soil analysis approach
This study applied the sample analytical principles of Vietnam
Soil-Fertilizer Institute.
2.3.6. Land Evaluation Method
Used the FAO land evaluation method in combination with TCVN
8409:2012 "Land Evaluation Process for Agricultural Production"
published by the Ministry of Science and Technology in 2011.
2.3.6.1. Mapping
Used the Microstation SE Software for digitizing and
building map layers, and ArcGIS 10.2 was used to overlay
individual map layers into a single specialized map for making the
land unit map of the district Chợ Đồn.
2.3.8. Sustainability assessment in agricultural
land use
2.3.9. Data Analysis
2.3.10. Optimization Modelling


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Chapter 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Background information of natural, economic and social
conditions of Cho Don district, bac Kan province.
3.1.1. Natural Conditions
Cho Don is a mountainous district, located in the west of Bac
Kan province, with a total area of 91,135.65 hectares, accounting for
18.75% of the total area of Bac Kan province. The district has 21
communes and 01 town, and this geographical position is relatively
favorable for socio-economic development. The elevation of the
district decreases from north to south and from east to west.
The district is generally affected by the northen climate zone of
Vietnam. This is therefore formed from a tropical zone and the
replacement of large seasonal fluctuations, combined with
topographic conditions, cold winter, low air temperature, dry, frosty;
hot, humid summer.
These climatic conditions facilitate the cultivation,
diversification of crops and seasonal crops. It is, however, noted that
the local governments and farmers should actively prevent
agricultural loss from floods and droughts.
3.1.2. Soci-Economic Background
Agricultural production is constantly growing; grain output would
increase from 26,043 tonnes in 2011 to 31,118 tonnes in 2015; average
food output in 2011 would increase to 610 kg / person / year from 532
kg / person / year, reaching 117.3% of the given plan.
Population and labor: a total population of 50,528, Cho Don has
7 ethnic groups: Kinh, Tay, Nung, Dao, Mong, San Chi and Hoa.
3.2. The status assessment of land use for agricultural production
in Cho Don District, Bac Kan Province
3.2.1. Current Land Use in Cho Don District, Back
Kan
Cho Don has a total area of 91,135.65 hectares, of which
agricultural land has the largest area of 85,391.78 hectares (accounting
for 93.7% of the total area), 1.170,46 ha of unsed land (accounting for


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1.28% of the total area), of which unused plain land is 669.78 ha and
unused hill land is 152.08 ha, so there should be solutions specifically to
maximize the use of this land fund in the future.
3.3.2. Current Agricultural Land Use in Cho Don,
Bac Kan
As of 31/12/2016, agricultural land of the district has an area
of 85,391.78 hectares, of which forestry land occupies the largest
area 92.22% of agricultural land, land for agricultural production
accommodates only 6.131 98ha, mainly annual crops such as rice,
maize, sweet potato, cassava, tobacco, etc. And perennial crops are
citrus fruits and perennial industrial plants; land for aquaculture is
small (0.59%), mainly small scale fishponds; other agricultural land
has a negligible area. In general, the current status of agricultural land
use in the district is not reasonable, not fully maximized the potential
of the land and development of effective crops.
3.2.2. Types of Land Use for Agricultural Production in
Cho Don District, Bac Kan Province.
Table 3.5. Types of land use for agricultural production in Cho
Don
Unit: ha
Main
LUT
1.
Annual
crops

LUT
1.1.
Rice
(LUT1)

Land Use
1. Spring
seasonal
cultivations

rice


rice

2. Early rice season
1.2. seasonal
rice (LUT2)

1.3. Seasonal
crops
(LUT3)

3. Spring rice –
seasonal rice
– Winter sweet potato
4. Spring rice –
seasonal rice
- Winter vegetables
5. Spring maize seasonal rice
6. Spring-cultivated
peanut – seasonal rice
7. cigarette plantions –
season rice
8. Spring-cultivated
maize – seasonal
maize
9.
Autumn-summer

Total
Area

Subarea 1

Subarea 2

Subarea 3

1.890,00

662,5

426,4
5

801,0

236,82

67,7

65,9

103,2
2

65,95

22,5

11,0

32,45

105,10

12,0

55,6

37,5

260,60

83,3

85,5

91,8

99,03

38,0

9,5

51,53

22,90

0,4

22,5

0

508,00

197,5

156

154,5

617,00

469,7

123,5

23,8


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cultivated maize
10. Spring-cultivated
soybean – season
maize
11. Taro
12. Cassava
2.
Perennia
l crops

2.1.Industria
l crops
(LUT 4)
2.2.
Fruit
trees (LUT
5)

42,00

32,5

7,0

2,5

53,30
300,8

21,8
75,0

8,5
70

23,0
155,8

13. Tea

658,71

0

658,7
1

0

14. Mandarin

434,00

104,3

312,7

15. Persimmon trees

417,18

17,0
303,0
8

83,1

31

(Source: Survey results and data from Cho Don Office of Agriculture)

3.2.4. Effective Assessment of Land Use Types for Agricultural
Production
Cho Don has a diverse plant system with five types of land use
and 15 sub-types of land use. The results of socio-economicenvironmental assessment show that:
a. Economic effectiveness
* 2 rice crops (LUT1): This type of land use is a priority in
Cho Don district and widely cultivated across the district and
prefered by farmers because the initial cost is not high and less
vulnerable to climate change and weather conditions. This will
therefore ensure the food demand for consumption and livestock.
This LUT is most effective in sub-zone 2 because it is the largest rice
area of the district, grown on alluvial soils and compacted with flat
terrain, so it is low cost.
* Land use types for rice and seasonal crops (LUT2):
- Rice and seasonal crops 2LM: has a small area of 71.95 ha,
accounting for 1.3% of the total area of annual crops of the district,
including land use types: spring - winter rice, winter vegetables,
spring rice – seasonal rice – winter sweet potato. The most
productive land use type showed in spring - summer rice, while
winter sweet potato has a net income of 113,976.2 thousand VND,
the value of labor day is 140.48 thousand VND / capital reached 2.32
times. However, this is only a crop ensuring local people’s stable life
and food security, and these crops have not been identified as
economic crops.
- Land use type: 1 rice - 1 other crop: includes Spring peanut -


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seasonal rice; Spring maize - seasonal rice; cigarettes plantingseasonal rice. This LUT has average economic efficiency. The lowest
economic turnover was found in Lac Xuan commune, with a net
income of 44,821.65 thousand VND, labor cost was 96.18 thousand
VND / labor, efficiency of using capital 1.69 times; in the land use
types of LUT3: The highest land use type cigarette - seasonal rice has
a net income of VND 74,457.51 thousand, the value of labor is
122.87 thousand VND, and the capital use efficiency reached 1.81.
* Crop-based land use type (LUT3): has an area of 2,068.2 ha,
accounting for 2.42% of the total area of agricultural land of the
district, including the land use types: Spring maize – seasonal maize,
soybean, cassava, sesame are not high economic efficiency due to the
changes in weather conditions such as flooding in rainy season,
falling trees, water shortage in dry season, poor productivity and
product. Economic efficiency has a clear hierarchy between land use
types, from low to medium and high
* Prerennial industrial crop - LUT4 (tea): has an area of 658.71
ha, accounting for 0.76% of total agricultural land in the district. Tea
only in sub-zone 2 is popular and is invested in commodity-oriented
production so it has high economic efficiency, net income is
96,385.66 thousand, effective capital of 2.82, value working day
182.90 thousand VND / labor. This LUT is not widespread in subareas 1 and 3. In these two sub-areas tea is grown only in home
gardens, small areas or as fences that mainly serve the needs of the
family.
* LUT5 (fruit trees), has two types of land use: seedless
persimmon and mandarin. Seedless seedlings were planted widely
and popular in sub-areas 1 and 2 for economic efficiency from high
to very high, efficiency of capital reached 4.08 times, value of labor
day was 314.65 thousand / labor. At present, Cho Don seedless
persimmon is targeted by Bac Kan province to develop geographical
indications and expand areas.
Orange and mandarin fruits cover an area of 468.9 hectares
(0.54% of agricultural land) scattered throughout the communes in
the district. However, large area and good quality are found in
communes in sub-area 3 of the district. Orange and mandarin net
income is 90128.23 thousand, the efficiency of capital is very high


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(5.79 times) and the value of labor is 345.32 thousand VND /
public. Along with seedless persimmon, Cho Don mandarin fruit is
also located in the geographical indications of Bac Kan mandarin
brand. This is not only acknowledged for quality but also actively
promoted products, raising awareness of local authorities,
awareness of farmers in planting, proper care to expand area, and
constantly improve fruit quality
b. Social effectiveness
Social effectiveness is imbalanced between the different types
land use. LUT 2 attracts the highest number of farmers (809 labours /
1ha); LUT4, LUT5 attracts many farmers, and the LUT 3 (seasonal
crop only) has lowest numbers of farmers (124 - 330 labours / 1 ha),
the remaining LUTs attract the lowest number of labours, from 350
labours to 600 labours/ 1 ha. LUT6 has high value (from 305.230 548.080 đồng / 1 labour), LUT7 has the lowest payrate (80.630
VDN / 1 labour day), followed by LUT5, LUT3, LUT2, LUT4, and
LUT1.
c. Environmental Efficiency
The environmental efficiency of LUT4, LUT5 and LUT2
(spring rice - Seasonal rice - winter sweet potato, spring peanut –
seasonal rice) was significantly high, and other types of land use such
spring-summer rice, vegetables and Cassava were low efficiency. The
remaining land use types provide medium efficiency.
The results of LUT assessment on all three aspects of
economic, social and environmental performance show that LUT2 is
highly efficient in terms of economic efficiency, social and
environmental aspects, LUT1 and LUT2 ensure food security; LUT 2
(2LM) for economic efficiency, but it shows limited environmental
efficiency due to the use of pesticides. LUT4 and LUT5 are highly
effective and fairly balanced on all three economic, social and
environmental aspects with the advantage of the district's crops and
the province's special geographical indications. The low economic,
social and environmental effects of LUT are cassava, summer rice,
summer-autumn maize. The remaining LUTs have medium-to-high
economic-environmental benefits.


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Long-term land use needs to maintain the maximum land area of
rice (LUT1, LUT2) to ensure food security, strengthen the development
of LUT2 based on LUT1, increase the LUT4, LUT5 area. The
remaining land is expected to use the unused land fund, minimize the
transfer of land from LUT1, LUT2 to other LUTs, and continue to
invest in creating added value to the processing, post harvesting with all
LUTs for comprehensive agricultural land use on all three aspects of
economic, social and environmental sustainability in Cho Don district.
3.2.5. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages
of land use for sub-zone agricultural production
Cho Don has advantages in agricultural and forestry
production with many special agricultural products such as local rice,
taro, Shan Tuyet tea, orange, mandarin, seedless persimmon.
However, the market system of agricultural products of the district is
small, not corresponding with the ability of agricultural production.
Local agricultural products are mainly consumed in the district.
Consumption of agricultural products also occurs,but not
continuous. On the other hand, the consumption market of the district
is resulting in the quantity and quality of agricultural products are not
stable in time and place of sale is not fixed, causing difficulties for
the consumption and processing of agricultural regular products.
Therefore, in the coming time, the district needs to restructure the
agricultural sector in the direction of concentrating, specializing
in intensive cultivation, applying new technology in production,
branding for agricultural products of the locality, build
consumers’ trust on the quality and origin of products, find stable
output for the product.
3.2.6. Choosing effective soci-economic and environmental land
use types
Based on the selected criteria and the results of socioeconomic-environmental assessment together with analysis of
advantages and disadvantages of LUTs in sub-regions. Selected
topics were LUT and type of agricultural land use for Cho Don
district as follows.


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Table 3.18. Land use types and agricultural land use types selected
TT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

LUT
Rice growing area
(LUT1)
Rice and
intercropping area
(LUT2)
Annual crop (LUT3)
Prerennial industrial
crops (LUT4)
Fruit trees (LUT5)

Land use

Sub-zone

1.1. Spring rice – seasonal rice

1,2,3

2.1. Spring rice – seasonal rice- winter
sweet potato
2.2. Cigarettes plantation – seasonal rice
3.1. Taro
4.1. Tea

1,2
2
3
3

5.1. Orange, mandarin
5.2. Persimmon

3
1,2

3.3. The potential evaluation of land use in Cho Don district, Bac
Kan province
3.3.1. Land resources in Cho Don district, Bac
Kan province
Based on the soil maps prepared by the Institute of Agricultural
Planning and Design for Bac Kan province with a scale of 1:
100,000, the land in Cho Don district is divided into 3 categories with
8 types of land.
Table 3.19. Areas of various land use types in Cho Don
District
No
I
1
II
2
III
3
4
5
6
7
8
IV
V

Land Use Type
Alluvial Soil (P)
River alluvial soil (Py)
Valley soils
Alluvial valley accumulated soil (D)
Redish yellow soils
Reddish brown soils on limestone (Fv)
Redish brown soils on magma rocks (Fk)
Reddish yellow soils on acid magma (Fa)
Reddish yellow soils on shale (Fs)
Reddish yellow muddy soils on clay shale (Hs)
Reddish yellow muddy soils on acid magma (Ha)
Survey area
Natural land area

Area (ha)
7.296,06
7.296,06
168,06
168,06
78.785,55
191,39
633,92
13.224,79
60.583,55
518,98
3.632,92
86.250,47
91.135,65

Percent (%)
8,01
8,01
0,19
0,19
86,45
0,21
0,69
14,51
66,48
0,57
3,99
94,64
100,00

(Source: Report of Bac Kan soil map 2005)
Table 3.19 shows that the redish soils has the largest area of
78,785.55ha, accounting for 86.45% of the total area, followed by the
alluvial soil, accounting for 8.01% of the natural area, sloping area,
accounting for 0.19% of the total area.


19
Cho Don district has generally abundant land resources, which
are distributed in different terrain types, and in different
characteristics, agronomic and diversified potential. By identifying
the area and physical and chemical characteristics of each group and
type of land, this is an important ground for orienting the sustainable
use of land for the district in the coming time.
3.3.3. Building land unit map for Cho Don district,
Bac Kan Province
3.3.3.1. Choosing factors and classified indicators to build land unit map
Based on the land map of Bac Kan province and the results
of the investigation and re-examination of the characteristics of
land types in Cho Don district, seven criteria for building a
mammogram are selected: soil type, soil depth, irrigation supply,
slope, organic matter and acidity.
3.3.3.2. The result of land unit map
Cho Don has 42 land units. The properies and area of each land
unit is shown in table 3.28.
Table 3.28: Characteristics of Land Mapping Unit in Cho Don
Land
Group

Area
(ha)

3
2
1
2
3
2
1
3
2

126
27
145
234
69
114
89
115
61

389,85
302,99
452,32
4521,23
106,78
460,58
750,06
312,25
19,63

0,43
0,33
0,50
4,96
0,12
0,51
0,82
0,34
0,02

Characteristics
LMU
LMU1
LMU2
LMU3
LMU4
LMU5
LMU6
LMU7
LMU8
LMU9
LMU1
0
LMU1
1
LMU1
2
LMU1
3
LMU1
4

Group

Percen
t (%)

G

P

M

I

D

1231223
1231222
1232221
1321212
1331213
1421122
1421211
1422213
2121212

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
1

3
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2

1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1

2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2

S
L
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

2221122

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

96

12,15

0,01

2221212

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

137

17,20

0,02

2312123

2

3

1

2

1

2

3

64

23,94

0,03

2322133

2

3

2

2

1

3

3

90

26,10

0,03

2321211

2

3

2

1

2

1

1

19

24,63

0,03

T


20
Land
Group

Characteristics
LMU
LMU1
5
LMU1
6
LMU1
7
LMU1
8
LMU1
9
LMU2
0
LMU2
1
LMU2
2
LMU2
3
LMU2
4
LMU2
5
LMU2
6
LMU2
7
LMU2
8
LMU2
9
LMU3
0
LMU3
1
LMU3
2
LMU3
3
LMU3
4
LMU3
5
LMU3
6
LMU3

Group

Area
(ha)

Percen
t (%)

G

P

M

I

D

S
L

T

2331123

2

3

3

1

1

2

3

33

24,89

0,03

2422112

2

4

2

2

1

1

2

109

20,32

0,02

3212232

3

2

1

2

2

3

2

126

53,53

0,06

3222222

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

139

63,21

0,07

3222232

3

2

2

2

2

3

2

63

23,00

0,03

3222322

3

2

2

2

3

2

2

112

51,65

0,06

4253241

4

2

5

3

2

4

1

233

1982,10

2,17

4253361

4

2

5

3

3

6

1

114

2550,83

2,80

4263351

4

2

6

3

3

5

1

238

3604,16

3,95

4353342

4

3

5

3

3

4

2

112

1618,35

1,78

4363361

4

3

6

3

3

6

1

165

3469,35

3,81

5243252

5

2

4

3

2

5

2

129

4326,52

4,75

5243252

5

2

4

3

2

5

2

136

5126,54

5,63

5243343

5

2

4

3

3

4

3

115

4032,62

4,42

5243353

5

2

4

3

3

5

3

114

8001,36

8,78

5243352

5

2

4

3

3

5

2

471

6203,21

6,81

5253343

5

2

5

3

3

4

3

215

4488,56

4,93

5253342

5

2

5

3

3

4

2

305

7773,33

8,53

5343253

5

3

4

3

2

5

3

314

8818,87

9,68

5343252

5

3

4

3

2

5

2

122

3158,68

3,47

5343342

5

3

4

3

3

4

2

310

8653,86

9,50

6223232
6223243

6
6

2
2

2
2

3
3

2
2

3
4

2
3

126
118

431,14
87,84

0,47
0,10


21
Characteristics
LMU
7
LMU3
8
LMU3
9
LMU4
0
LMU4
1
LMU4
2
N

Group

Land
Group

Area
(ha)

Percen
t (%)

G

P

M

I

D

S
L

T

7253261

7

2

5

3

2

6

1

20

1220,07

1,34

7243262

7

2

4

3

2

6

2

171

1256,65

1,38

7253142

7

2

5

3

1

4

2

183

1156,20

1,27

8253353

8

2

5

3

3

5

3

95

105,23

0,12

8353343
N

8
N

3
N

5
N

3
N

3
N

4
N

3
N

93
671

528,69
4885,18

0,58
5,36

6538

91.135,6
5

Area Total

3.3.4. Land Suitability in Cho Don District, Bac Kan Province
The results of classification of land suitability of Cho Don
district in Bac Kan province are shown in table 3.30.
Table 3.31. Area statistics of land suitability types in Cho
Don, Bac Kan

Unit: ha
Suita
bility
Class
S1
S2
S3
N

LUT1

LUT2

LUT3

LUT4

LUT5

LUT6

LUT7

6.621,73
510,62

1.256,36
5.875,99

6.621,73
843,19

5.797,22
2.998,00

137,86
21.133,44

12.476,08
24.265,22

332,57

332,57

137,86

29.613,78

17.137,70

41.012,27

78.785,5
5

78.785,5
5

78.647,6
9

47.841,47

47.841,47

8.496,90

5.503,23
1.588,93
31.316,8
4
47.841,4
7

The classification results of the LUTs generally compared with
the characteristics of the LMUs in Cho Don and it shows the
appropriate consistancy. However, in order to propose a rational,
sustainable and efficient land use structure, there should be scientific
selection and comprehensive solutions.
3.4. The monitoring results and evaluation of land use models for


22
agruicultral sustainable in Cho Don, Bac Kan province
3.4.1. The results of past models
Based on the assessment of sustainable land use types in Cho
Don District, we monitored and chose some land use types to verify
the results of the assessment and to base for proposing sustainable
land use strategies in the study area. The models selected for
monitoring include: 2 rice seasons (2L); seasonal rice (tobacco –
seasonal rice) (taro); cucumber (tea); fruit trees (seedless persimmon
and orange).
3.4.2. The assessment of model practicality.
The assessment of sustainability of LUT for agricultural
production in Cho Don is based on three aspects: economic, social and
environmental sustainability. The results are shown in table 3.53.
Table 3.53. The result of sustainability assessment of LUTs
for agricultural production in Cho Don, Bac Kan province
LUT

LUT1
LUT2
LUT3
LUT4
LUT5

Land Use
Types
2L
2LM
1LM
Taro
Tea
Mandarin
Seedless
persimmo
n

Environment
al
Sustainability Poin
t
Indic Indic Indic Indic Indic
Indicat
Indicat
ator ator ator ator ator
or 2
or 2
3
1
2
3
1
M
H
H
M
H
M
M
19
M
M
H
M
H
H
H
21
H
H
H
M
M
M
M
20
M
H
M
M
M
H
H
19
H
H
H
M
M
H
H
22
H
H
M
H
M
H
H
22
22
H
H
M
H
H
H
M

Economic
Sustainability
Indicat
or 1
M
H
H
M
H
H
H

Social
Sustainability

Level

Moderate

High
High
Moderate

High
High
High

Note: Economic sustainability (Criterion 1: production value; criterion 2:
added-value crops; Criterion 3: capital efficiency); Social sustainability
(Criterion 1: Labour attractiveness; Criterion 2: payrate/ day; Criterion 3:
Market); Environmental sustainability (Criterion 1: vegetation cover;
Criterion 2: Soil protection and improvement)

The results of the study showed that the sustainability of land
use types in the district as these land use patterns demonstrated high
sustainable results on all three socio-economic and environmental
aspects: spring rice, sweet potato, tobacco, seasonal rice, and tea. The


23
remaining types of land use had average levels because they can
achieve high levels of economic sustainability but only average in
social and environmental aspects and vice versa.
However, Cho Don is a mountainous district, so it is very
difficult to secure land use or sustainable LUT in all three aspects.
Therefore, it depends on the specific conditions of each sub-region,
the selection of suitable land use types and specific solutions to
overcome its challenges.
3.5. Directions of land use for sustainable agricultural production
in Cho Don District
3.5.1. Application of optimization model to determine the land
suitability for agricultural production in a more sustainable and
effective way.
3.5.1.1. Classification of land suitability
From the results of classification of land suitability, this study
has developed different land use suitability types:
Table 3.54. Results of Suitability Land Use Types in Cho
Don
Class
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI

LMU
Area (ha) LUT1 LUT2 LUT3 LUT4 LUT5 LUT6 LUT7
1,2,5,15
824,51 S1
S2
S1
S2
S2
S3
S1
3,7,10,11,14
1.256,36 S1
S1
S1
S1
S2
S2
S2
6,12,13
510,62 S2
S2
S2
S3
S3
S3
S3
8,16
332,57 S3
S3
S2
S3
S3
S3
S2
4,9
4.540,86 S1
S2
S1
S1
S2
S2
S1
18,19,20
137,86
N
N
S3
S2
S1
S2
S1
17,21
2.035,63
N
N
N
S2
S2
S2
S3
23,26,27,29,30,
39.344,57
N
N
N
N
N
S3
N
33,34,41
24,35,36,37,40,4
2
12.476,08
N
N
N
S3
S2
S1
S3
28,31,32
16.294,51
N
N
N
S3
S3
S2
S3
22,25,38,39
8.496,90
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

3.5.1.2. Determining target, target function and constraints
The objective of using the optimization model of the project is
to find out the land use plans suitable to the natural conditions,
economic, social and environmental efficiency as the basis for
proposing land use for the district and emphasized on high efficiency
and sustainability.


24
a) Finding model parameters
Based on collected data, we define the variables as follows:
Xi_j_k (ha)
i – Types/ land suitability area (i=1÷11; 11 land suitability
area). Land suitability is land units of the same levels for 7 types of
land use on the basis of appropriate land evaluation.
j – Land suitability levels (j=1,2; levels S1, S2)
k – Land use types (k=1,2,3,4,5,6,7 ; 7 LUT)
For example: X1_2_1: LUT 1 has level S2 of LUT1 (LUT for rice).
b) Finding target functions
* Land suitability target (Z1)(ha): Z1 (ha) = x111 + x112 + x321 + x411 +
....+ x1027 → Max
* Highest added-value target (Z2)
Z2 (million VND) = → Max where ck increased value (million
VND/ha) of each land use type.
* Highest labour payrate target (Z3)
Z3 (labour days) = → Max where mk is the number of labour
days in each land use type.
* Highest environmental efficiency target (Z4)
Z4 (point) = → Max where tk is the total point of all environmental
assessment criteria for each land use typed)
c) Finding the constraints
* Constraints on suitable area threshold: are the total area of each
appropriate LUT per type and not greater than the type area
appropriate for the selected LUT: ≤ di ,
+ The area of each type of land use shall not exceed the
appropriate (S1, S2) area of the land use type: ≤ dk
* Area constrains for market expansion
* Constraints for food security
The area of cultivated rice should meet the regional food
demand ≥ S;
* Constraints on development criteria of LUT
Specified:
≥ D
* Model conditions
Xi_j_k ≥ 0 (i=1,...,10 ; j=1,2; k=1,2,3,4,5,6,7).
3.5.1.3. Optimization solver


25
Use the "concession step by step" method as this is a fairly
common and simple method. This method consists of two steps:
Step 1: Make a Pay-off table: solving the problem with
each of the objective functions Zi, the results of the problems
shown in Table 3.57.
Table 3.57. Values of target functions for optimal alternatives
Optima
l Group

Z1 (ha)
19.235,6
7
4.553,23
5.809,56
2.881,78

Z1
Z2
Z3
Z4

Z2
(million
VND)
1.721.947,26

7.026.037,54

48.648,31

3.152.843,83
3.047.581,67
2.855.368,42

13.713.454,30
14.785.101,58
13.439.006,07

85.742,99
85.742,99
87.296,11

Z4 (Labour cost)

Z5 (Point)

Step2: Compensation for additional objectives: based on the
results of the model for each objective, based on the policy and
development policy in Cho Don district, the immediate objective is to
achieve value added (VA) is more meaningful. Thus, the remaining
targets are expected to achieve 75% of the optimal value
(concession). Based on that, the multi-objective problem is solved by
requiring the single-target problem with the objective Z2 plus the
constraint Z1 ≥ 14.426,75; Z3 ≥ 11.088.826,19 and Z4 ≥ 65,472.08.
The results of optimization model:
Table 3.58. The results of optimization model
Class
I

LMU

II

1,2,5,15
3,7,10,11,1
4

III

6,12,13

IV

8,16

V

4,9

VI

18,19,20

VII

LUT2

0,01

LUT3

LUT4

IX
X

28,31,32

LUT5

LUT6

824,48

0,05

439,45

816,86

0,03

510,55

0,04

LUT7
0,03

332,57
2.249,9
1

2.028,8
4

262,11
0,00
70,00

17,21
23,26,27,29
30,33,34,41
24,35,36,37
40,42

VIII

LUT1

137,86

1.965,6
3
5.354,1
6

7.121,92
5.354,16


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