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3 tóm tắt luận án tiếng anh hoàn thiện chính sách đối với đào tạo theo nhu cầu xã hội của các trường đại học việt nam

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
THUONGMAI UNIVERSITY
-------------------------

HOÀNG VĂN MẠNH

IMPROVING COMPLETION IN GOVERNMENT POLICIES
ON SOCIAL NEED-ORIENTED TRAINING AT HIGHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN VIET NAM

Major

: Economic Management

Code

: 62.34.04.10

PhD DISSERTATION SUMMARY

Ha Noi - 2018



The study has been completed at: Thuongmai University

Supervisors:
1. Prof. Dr. Bùi Xuân Nhàn
2. Dr. Nguyễn Hóa

Examiner 1:
Examiner 2:
Examiner 3:

The dissertation will be orally defended at the University Examining
Committee:
Venue: ……………………………………………………………………
Time: ……………………………………………………………………

The origin of the dissertation is accessible at:
National Library of Vietnam
Library of Thuongmai University


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LIST OF AUTHOR’S PUBLISCATIONS
1. “Developing Current Teaching Staff in Vietnam: Situation and Solutions”,
Economy and Forecast Review, vol. 12/2012 (524).
2. “Developing Teaching Staff under “Training for Social Demands””,
Conference proceedings “Current World Context and Issues on Vietnam”,
Program of KX 04/11-15, State-level project, Center for Training Political
Theory Teachers, National University, Ha Noi.
3. “Quality of Teaching Staff: from Research Capability”, Economy and
Forecast Review, vol. 12/2014 (572).
4. “Research Capability of Teaching Staff from International Publication”,
National conference proceeding “Developing training for comprehensive
reform of higher education in Viet Nam”, Thuongmai University, 2015.
5. “Internal Factors Affecting the Development of University Education
Services for Social Demands”, Journal of Science and Technology,
University of Thai Nguyen, vol. 156, ed. 11, 2016.
6. “Enhancing Accountability of Public Universities in Reforming


Performance under Resolution No. 77/NQ-CP”, National conference
proceeding “University training management in Autonomy”, National
Economics University, 2016.
7. “Roles of Accountability in Promoting University Training for Social
Demands”, Vietnam Trade and Industry Review, vol. 5+6 – April 2018.
8. “Enhancing Accountability in Promoting Universities in Vietnam Training
for Social Demands ”, Vietnam Trade and Industry Review, vol. 7 – May
2018.
9. “Improving Human Resource Demand for Development of High-tech
Agriculture in Dak Lak Province”, National conference proceeding 2nd
“Socio-economic Developing in Central Highlands” in 2018, Kon Tum
Branch of Danang University, Faculty of Economics - Danang
University of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Accounting - Quy
Nhon University, Faculty of Chemistry – Danang University of Science
and Technology and Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, 2018.
10. “Improving University Training Quality of Human Resources to Meet the
Requirements of Industry 4.0”, International conference proceeding
“Industrial Revolution 4.0: Opportunities and Challenges to Economic
Development in”, Thuongmai University, Hue College of Economics,
Haiphong University, University of Toulon, France, Lunghwa University
of Science and Technology, Taiwan, 2018.


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FOREWORD
1. Rationale of the study
The Higher education (HE) plays a decisive role in the development of
high quality human resources. However, today, with the expansion of
globalization and the advancement of science, the HE in many countries is
facing a number of challenges. The positive effects of Vietnam's HE
development have played a very important role in the development of human
resources at the university level, thereby contributing to the country's
industrialization and modernization (industrialization and modernization),
socio-economic development (SEDP), and improvement in people’s living
standards. However, such a rapid growth has not met the social needs yet. In
fact, the published studies indicate that the HE in Vietnam hardly meets or just
meets the minimum social requirements due to a wide range of reasons. It is
possible that this limitation is caused by the HE system and other objective
reasons.
The subject who provides HE services may be the universities which are
known as the HE institutions which have many difficulties in identifying the
social needs for higher education in relation to their mission and their
objectives. Moreover, although the universities identify educational needs, it is
difficult to make the HE meet social needs. For this reason, the universities
must have a link with the employers. Nevertheless, the association between the
universities and employers in the HE in Vietnam is still limited. Therefore, it is
quite challenging for the universities in Vietnam to implement the social needs.
It was found that such limitations could result from the history of Vietnam's HE
development in the econometric economic mechanism.
Since the resolution on the basic and comprehensive renovation of Vietnam's
HE in a period of 2006-2020, Vietnam's HE has increasingly developed towards
actively removing the imprint of economic planning, enhancing adaptability to
the market economy, scientific and technological revolutions, and opening up
and international integration. In this view, the universities are gradually
expanded autonomy associated with the implementation of accountability. As a
result, the universities are increasingly operating in the same way as service
providers, including training services.


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There have been a number of studies related to the HE and the policy of HE
based on social needs, etc. Previous studies have contributed to the
interpretation of theoretical issues as well as giving solutions to the
development of higher education, pointing out the contributions as well as the
issues of higher education development institutions in Vietnam in various
aspects which could provide a basis for giving more effective solutions.
Several studies on the policy of HE Vietnam based on social needs were done in
previous years. However, today, due to the rapid change in the HE, it is
important for the universities to provide HE services based on social needs; for
example, business organizations can provide the commodity and service under
the marketing regulation. Thus, there is a need to further research and provide
the most effective educational policy of HE that could meet the requirements of
the development of HE in Vietnam. In this regard, the government should
monitor the universities and support the policy of HE to help the universities in
Vietnam to complete their missions to meet social needs.
There have need a number of studies on the policy of HE to help the
universities in Vietnam to complete their missions based on social needs.
However, within the scope of the thesis in the field of economic management,
this research emphasizes on “Improving completion in government policies on
social need-oriented training at higher education Institutions (HEIs) in
Vietnam”
2. Research objectives
Based on theoretical and practical issues, this study aims to give the best
solutions as well as make further suggestions for developing and improving the
policy of HE in Vietnam based on social needs. To achieve mentioned
objectives, this research attempts to review literature on a policy of HE in
Vietnam based on social needs, study international experiences and the current
status of meeting social needs level in HE in Vietnam, as well as explore policy
state that has a supportive role to ensure that the universities in Vietnam provide
their educational services based on social needs. A review of literature of this
study reveals both positive and negative points to provide a basis for giving the
most effective solutions, making suggestions to improve the policy of HE in
Vietnam based on social needs by the year of 2025 until 2030 and the next
years.


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3. Subjects and scope of research
Research subjects
The subjects of this research are theoretical and practical issues about
educational policy of the universities in Vietnam based on social needs.
Research scope
Content: This research limits studying theories and assessing the current status
of relevance as well as explore the impact of educational policy in HE that
plays a key role in supporting, promoting and assuring the universities in
Vietnam by providing educational services based on social needs, namely: (1)
policy of educational development, the identification of enrollment criteria of
the universities associated with social needs; (2) policy of capacity development
of the universities based on social needs; (3) policy of alliance and
collaboration development between the universities and employers (enterprises
are representatives); (4) policy for learners; (5) policy of the implementation of
accountability of universities. However, this research limits studying policy that
plays the most important role in HE in Vietnam based on social needs.
Moreover, it limits studying policy that has an impact on the system of
universities as well as studying other stakeholders nationwide. Noticeably, it
only studies social needs for university training in three basic aspects of scale,
structure of training majors and quality of higher education. It also aims to
study the evaluation of policy content based on the most appropriate criteria. It
finally aims to evaluate the impacts of policy of the universities through the
impact criteria of education based on social needs.
Secondary data is collected from documents published in a period of 20072017, updated to 2018, whereas primary data is collected from documents
published between March, 2017 and mid-November, 2017; aiming to focus on
the proposed solutions and proposals by the year of 2025 until 2030 and the
next years.
The subject of this research includes the universities and HE institutes in
Vietnam (excluding security universities, military universities, and international
universities).
4. Research questions
Based on the above research objectives, the key research questions of
this research are addressed as follows:


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RQ1: What is the theoretical framework of policy of HE in Vietnam based on
social needs?
RQ2: What ate international experiences in policy of HE based on social
needs?
RQ3: How do universities in Vietnam provide educational services based on
social needs?
RQ4: How does the educational policy of Vietnam ensure the appropriateness
and impact of education of the universities in Vietnam based on social needs?
RQ5: From the educational perspective based on social needs, what are the
advantages, the drawbacks and causes of educational policy of Vietnam?
RQ6: What should we do to improve educational policy of HE in Vietnam
based on social needs?
5. The contributions of this thesis
This thesis has the greatest following contributions.
In terms of theoretical aspects: It summarizes and clarifies the theoretical
issues of education of HE in Vietnam based on social needs. It attempts to
analyze, clarify and define the concept of educational policy of HE in Vietnam
based on social needs. In particular, it analyzes, clarifies and defines the
necessity of implementation of educational policy of HE in Vietnam based on
social needs, and followed by the analysis of important factors of educational
policy of HE in Vietnam based on social needs. This thesis presents the process
of education in HE in Vietnam based on social needs. It also presents a brief
summary of summary and explains the theoretical issues of educational policy
of HE in Vietnam based on social needs. It then analyzes and clarifies the role
of policy that has an impact on the system of universities. It also presents
policy that plays a key role in supporting, promoting for assuring the
universities in Vietnam to provide educational services based on social needs. It
finally analyzes the basic factors affecting the policy of HE in Vietnam based
on social needs as well as identifies the criteria used in the policy assessment
HE in Vietnam based on social needs.
In terms of practical aspects: These theses studied the experiences of some
countries, the current situation and then make conclusions as well as assess the
policy of HE in Vietnam based on social needs. It also clarifies the strengths,
limitations, and causes that contribute to the modification or confirmation of
previously published research results in the new contexts. This has contributed


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to the establishment of a scientific basis for giving solutions and making
recommendations to improve the educational policy of HE in Vietnam, thereby
contributing to the support, promotion and assurance of the education of
universities in Vietnam based on social needs.
6. Thesis Organization
This thesis is organized into four chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 presents an
overview of research situation and research
methodology.
Chapter 2 presents theoretical and international experiences in the educational
policy of HE in Vietnam based on social needs.
Chapter 3 describes the current status of the educational policy of HE in
Vietnam based on social needs.
Chapter 4 provides some solutions and presents further recommendations of
improving the educational policy of HE in Vietnam based on social needs.


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Chapter 1
LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.1. Literature Review of Previous Studies
1.1.1. Studies on social needs for higher education and Social need-oriented
higher education
There have been several studies on university training and other aspects of
university training development including social needs for university training
and training for social demands. The authors have analysed and presented some
theoretical and practical issues on social needs for university training and
training for social demands and business demands; situations of university
training in local, regional and national level. They then proposed some
assessment on the advantages and limitations of university training in relation
with social needs. Most studies generally concluded that university training in
Vietnam has yet to fully meet social needs for various reasons. Based on the
findings, researchers made some recommendations on improving the quality of
university training to meet social demands. Those studies are significant for the
dissertation to build the theoretical background, analyse and evaluate the
situation of different aspects in university training for social demands and
policies on university training for social demands in Vietnam.
1.1.2. Studies on government policies on Social need-oriented higher
education
A number of studies have been conducted on policies on developing
university training system and aspects of university training development. They
applied different approaches including theoretical and practical analyses as the
ground for suggested solutions. Almost none of them looked into the issue of
university training for social demands. However, they provided the ground and
information to form the theoretical background to determine the conclusions on
policies related to university training for social demands as presented in the
dissertation. Some research on policies on university training for or to meet
social demands analysed theoretical and practical issues on university training
for social demands as well as related state policies. It is noted that they were all
conducted a long time ago including one on college training from the
perspective of education management. However, some of their findings are still
valuable and developed in the dissertation.


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1.1.3. Conclusions from previous studies and research gap
From the previous studies, some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1)
The development of university training for or to meet social demands in
Vietnam has drawn the attention of individuals and organizations. Various
studies have presented different views on university training for social
demands, the affecting factors as well as the situation and solutions for
university training for social demands in Vietnam. However, there has yet to be
a systematic research on state policies as a tool to motivate and ensure
universities to train for social demands; (2) Some research studied policies on
developing university training as a system on national, local, public and nonpublic areas. Some studied the state administration and management policies on
university training with different aspects of its development, in which it is
commonly accepted that the state need to eliminate its direct intervention in the
performance of universities for their autonomy. However, they hardly studied
university training for social demands; (3) State policies on university training
development were studied in doctorate dissertations from such perspectives as
political economy, education management, public administration management,
Theory and history of State and law, economic management, etc. with specific
topics on different aspects of university training development. Among those,
there has not been any dissertation on policies on university training for social
demands with the economic management approach; (4) There is a doctorate
study on state policies on university training for social demands, but it studied
the issue at college level from the approach of education management. One
studied the supporting mechanism for university training for social demand
whose actual focus is on the supporting policies. However, it was conducted in
2010 when university education in Vietnam was far different from now; (5)
There has yet to be any research on public policies in relation with the
university training for social demands in Vietnam from the economic
management approach in which universities can be seen as an autonomous
service provider and the state as a stakeholder with the issuance of policies to
support and ensure universities to training for social demands.
The dissertation adopted the findings from some published studies to form
the theoretical background for the analysis and assessment of the situation, then
suggest some recommendations on completing policies on university training
for social demands in Vietnam.


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1.2. Research framework and methodology
1.2.1. Research framework

Relevance

Policies
on
Social
NeedOriented
Training
at HEIs

State policies on training majors, enrolment
targets of HEIs
State policies on university training capacity development:
- State policies on university management;
- Policies on training programs;
- Policies on personnel;
- Policies on facilities;
- Policies on finance;
- Policies on science and technology;
- Policies on international cooperation.
State policies on learners
State policies on cooperation between
universities and labor employers in training

Impact
State policies on university accountability

Correct social
Needs to develop
training majors,
set enrolment
targets

Training capacity:
- Autonomy;
- Training programs;
- Personnel;
- Facilities;
- Finance;
- Science & Technology;
- Intl cooperation.

Social needoriented
Training at
HEIs

Connection
between
universities
and employers
in training

Figure 1.1: Research framework for policies on university training for social demands


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1.2.2. Research methodology
1.2.2.1. Research methodology and approach
The dissertation takes the view of dialectical materialism and historical
materialism with the systematic approach under economic management major.
Accordingly, universities are seen as the autonomous service provider; the state
serves as the policy maker to support, motivate and ensure universities to
provide training services to meet social demands.
1.2.2.2. Data collection
Secondary data: The dissertation mostly uses secondary data from some
course books on policies and public policies, specialized books on public
policies, issues on university education, published doctorate dissertations
related to university education, its policies, ministry-level science projects,
journal articles; official state documents; and statistics from reports.
Primary data: The author collected primary data by questionnaires.
Questionnaires were designed with both closed and open questions. Most of
them are closed with a few open questions for additional information. Data
from survey questionnaires was collected in two stages, i.e. Pretest and official
survey. The respondents are divided into such groups as university leaders (214
respondents with 115 valid questionnaires); employers of university graduates
(378 respondents with 232 valid questionnaires); learners (258 valid
questionnaires). The questionnaires use Likert 5-point scale as follows:
1:
1.00-1.80 :
Very low
2:
1.81-2.60 :
Low
3:
2.61-3.40 :
Average
4:
3.41-4.20 :
High
5:
4.21-5.00 :
Very high
1.2.2.3. Data analysis
The dissertation uses Excel and SPSS 22.0 to analyse the collected data
with some other tools for analysis, description in charts, figures and tables to
present the data and evaluate the outcomes of university training for social
demands, the current policies on university training for social demands.


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Chapter 2
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND INTERNATIONAL
EXPERIENCE IN POLICIES ON UNIVERSITY TRAINING FOR
SOCIAL DEMANDS
2.1. Social need-oriented Training at Higher Education Institutions
2.1.1. Definitions
2.1.1.1. University
The dissertation uses the concept “university” as the higher education
institution defined in 2012 Law on Higher Education [1] and 2014 Law on
Vocational Education [2] issued by the National Assembly. In the dissertation,
the terms of university and higher education institution are interchangeably
used with the same concept. However, the above laws have not clearly defined
higher education institution or university, but only listed different types of
universities. Besides, within the scope of university level, higher education
institutions or universities as stated in the dissertation are classified as
universities, academies; local universities and national universities.
2.1.1.2. Education and university education
Among various definitions of training, the dissertation defines education as
“the development of capacity in professional knowledge, skills and attitudes of
learners, university training is conducted by universities including university
and higher education level (master and doctorate)”. The dissertation sets the
scope of study in university training.
2.1.1.3. Social needs for university education
In order to answer such questions as Whose are social needs for university
education? and What are their needs for university education?, the dissertation
adopts the concept of social needs for university education as “the relevance
between the needs of learners, employers and the State for the scale, structure
and quality of university education as well as its outcomes (graduates) in the
certain socio-economic context.” The dissertation sees social needs for
university education as a single unit combining the needs of learners, employers
and the State in terms of scale, structure and quality.
2.1.1.4. Social need-oriented Training at Higher Education Institutions
Among several different concepts, the dissertation adopts the definition of
university training for social demands as “a process in which universities, on
the basis of social demands, develop training programs, education personnel,
training implementation to meet the common needs of related parties in terms


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of scale, structure and quality. Universities are responsible for equipping
learners with professional knowledge, skills and attitudes (autonomy and
responsibility) relevant to certain levels of university education to ensure
graduates to meet the demands of employers, the work practice as well as the
national socio-economic development in certain context.”
2.1.2. Needs and conditions for Social need-oriented Training at Higher
Education Institutions
2.1.2.1. Needs for Social need-oriented Training at Higher Education
Institutions
University training for social demands plays a significant role in the
development of human resources with university degree to meet the demands of
related parties, then the requirements of national socio-economic development.
In order to improve the university education, it is vital for nations to foster a
university system in which each institution can provide training for social
demands with the proactive participation of the entities under the direction of
different forces including the State’s relevant policies for positive effect on
university training.
2.1.2.2. Conditions for Social need-oriented Training at Higher Education
Institutions
Necessary conditions for university training for social demands as studied
in the dissertation can be named as (1) Identification of social needs for
university education as a ground for the development of training majors,
enrolment targets in accordance with the university training capacity, mission
and training goals; (2) University training capacity, i.e. “all the conditions and
resources that universities can mobilize to provide training services which
equip learners with professional knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant to the
social demands in scale, structure and quality.” Conditions and resources for
universities to create their training capacity include the autonomy of
universities, educators, training programs, facilities, finance, technology,
international cooperation; (3)
Connection between universities and
stakeholders, especially employers, in training.
2.1.3. Procedure of at Higher Education Institutions at Higher Education
Institutions
The procedure of training for social demands of particular university and
the system starts with the identification of social demands for potential


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outcomes in scale, structure and quality (knowledge, skills and attitudes or
autonomy and responsibility) (see Figure 2.1).

(3) Input:
Enrolment
learners

(2) Training process combined from:
- University autonomy
- Training programs
- Education personnel
- Facilities
- Finance
- Sciences and technology
- International cooperation
- Participation of employers in training

(1) Social Needs
for
Training scale,
structure and
quality of
universities

Figure 2.1: Procedure of Social need-oriented Training at HEIs

Source: Training model based on business demands suggested by
Phung Xuan Nha (2009)
2.2. Policies on university training for social demands
2.2.1. Definitions, classification and functions of policies on university
training for social demands
2.2.1.1. Policies on university training for social demands
Policy and public policy: Policies and public policies are defined
differently based on different approaches. The dissertation refers to public
policies as “a system of goals, viewpoints, principles, rules, tools and measures
selected, issued and implemented by the State to resolve one or some public
problems in a certain context.”
Policies on university training for social demands: From reviewing the
literature on policies, public policies on education and public policies on
university education, the dissertation defines policies on university training for
social demands as “a system of goals, viewpoints, principles, rules, tools and
measures selected, issued and implemented by the State to directly or indirectly
create the environment and conditions for supporting, motivating and ensuring
universities to develop their necessary factors for training for social demands.”
Policies on university training for social demands also include goals, tools and
measures as sub-policies with their own objectives, tools and measures. Within
the scope of the study, policies on university training for social demands are


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referred as public policies issued by state administration units at different level,
which are different from policies of universities.
2.2.1.2. Classification of policies on university training for social demands
Policies on university training for social demands are a system of subpolicies to support, motivate and ensure universities to train for social demands.
There can different groups of policies based on different criteria. The
classification of policies on university training for social demands is relative as
a certain policy can be classified in different groups.
2.2.1.3. Effect of policies on university training for social demands
State policies are of great importance to the development of university
education, particularly university training for social demands. Policies on
university training for social demands as studied in the dissertation are public
policies used by the State as the tools. By using tools, measures or sub-policies
to reach the goals of policies on university training for social demands, the State
aims to generate the environment and conditions for supporting, motivating and
ensuring universities to build necessary factors for training for social demands.
2.2.2. Major policies on university training for social demands
Policies on university training for social demands consist of a number of
sub-policies. The dissertation studies some policies with major impact on
university training for social demands, namely (1) Policies on university
training programs, enrolment targets relevant to training capacity and based on
social demands; (2) Policies on university training capacity development; (3)
Policies on learners; (4) Policies on cooperation between universities and
employers; (5) Policies on university accountability..
2.2.3. Factors affecting policies on university training for social demands
There are many factors affecting policies on university training for social
demands including macro-environment factors (socio-economic conditions;
political state; industrial revolutions; globalization and international integration
in university education; trends in university education development in the
world); the capacity of policy makers, executors and policy-making procedure;
and policy implementation of universities. Policies on university training for
social demands are dependent on various factors, so it is significant for state
administration agencies to evaluate them in making and implementing policies
to ensure their positive effect on supporting, motivating universities to train for
social demands.


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2.2.4. Evaluation of policies on university training for social demands
It is vital to evaluate public policies, particularly policies on university
training for social demands as it provides a basis for related agencies to make
decisions and complete policies. The evaluation should be implemented based
on relevant criteria for specific policies. In addition to secondary data on the
outcomes of university education development and elements of university
capacity of training for social demands, the dissertation determines two criteria
including the relevance and impact of policies to survey the assessment of
related parties on the results of university training for social demands and state
policies on university training for social demands.
2.3. International experience in policies on university training for social
demands
2.3.1. Experience of some countries
The dissertation studies the experiences of some neighboring countries
with similar history of socio-economic, cultural and education development but
with more developed university education than Vietnam including Malaysia,
China and Korea. It then draws such lessons as (1) Strongly reforming state
administration on universities towards greater autonomy, especially in finance;
(2) Enhancing education personnel development including selection and
training in foreign countries; recruitment of experts and scientists from abroad,
i.e. Vietnamese or overseas Vietnamese; (3) Improving collaboration among
ministries, committees and trade associations in establishing and developing
national occupational skill standards based on practical occupations; (4)
Extending cooperation between universities and enterprises, employers for
practical education in training to improve the quality of training for social
demands; (5) Diversifying financial sources for university education including
state budget as a key factor; (6) Allocating the state budget for university
education based on the outcomes and the state and social demands for
university education instead of public or private sectors; (7) Building and
applying Law on Labour use tax; (8) Implementing policies on supporting
learners by building funds for learning.


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Chapter 3
CURRENT SITUATION OF GOVERNENT POLICIES ON SOCIAL
NEED-ORIENTED TRAINING AT HIGHER EDUCATION
INSITUTIONS IN VIETNAM
3.1. social need-oriented training at higher education Institutions in
Vietnam
3.1.1. Overview on higher education system in Vietnam
3.1.1.1. Features
Higher education in Vietnam has been formed under the provisions in 2012
Law on Higher Education and some recent documents for its amendments.
3.1.1.2. Development
Higher education in Vietnam has gained some strong development in scale,
institution types, forms of training with a greater number of social resources for
development and better meeting social demands. Therefore, despite some
limitations, higher education in Vietnam has positively contributed to the socioeconomic development for better national security, defence and international
integration.
3.1.2. Current Situation of Social need-oriented training at higher
education Institutions in Vietnam
The analysis of primary and secondary data showed the level of meeting
social demands in university training in such aspects as scale, profession
structure and quality is rated at low or average. There is the imbalance between
the university training service capacity and social demands. There exists
redundancy in conditions but lack of capacity.
3.2. Current Situation of Social need-oriented training at HEIs in Vietnam
3.2.1. Policies in training programs and enrolment targets based on social
Needs
There are some additional requirements for university training to meet
social demands in accordance with the mission and training goals of each
university in regulations on university training programs and enrolment targets.
Universities have now given greater autonomy in developing their training
programs and enrolment targets. However, the relevance between enrolment
targets and social demands was assessed by university leaders at low and
average. It shows some limitations in State policies. As the survey results,
university leaders rated the relevance and effect of current regulations on
starting training majors, recalling training major decisions, identifying
enrolment targets at average level.


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3.2.2. Policies on developing HEIs’ training capacity in Vietnam
3.2.2.1. Policies on state administration on HEIs
State policies are implemented towards greater autonomy for universities
for their active functions with positive effect on university training for social
demands. However, there still exist some limitations in policies on state
administration on universities. According to the survey on university leaders,
the relevance and effect of those policies in relation to university training for
social demands are rated low.
3.2.2.2. Policies on training program development
State policies on university training program development have facilitate
universities to better meet social demands. However, the training programs of
some universities have yet to reflect social demands. It is corresponding to the
assessment of university leaders. Training program development is one of the
important indicators showing the irrelevance between state policies and the
requirements of universities to meet social demands.
3.2.2.3. Policies on education personnel development
Over the past few years, under the State policies, university education
personnel have developed in both quantity and quality. However, they have not
been able to fully implement university training for social demands. This indicator
shows a mismatch between state policies and universities’ requirements for
personnel to improve their capacity of training for social demands. According to
university leaders, the relevance and effect of state policies on university training
for social demands are rated from average to good.
3.2.2.4. Policies on HEIs finance, facilities and science and technology
Investments in university education from state budget are still limited with
small value, irrelevant allocation and shortcomings in policies on university
facilities such as land, credit, etc. leading to the mismatch between university
facilities and the requirements of training for social demands. Finance for
science and technology in university education is also a problem with
unsuitable allocation of state budget. There have been some infeasible policies
on supporting science and technology for specific entities which regulates the
beneficiaries to satisfy relatively strict requirements. Therefore, these policies
have not had positive effect on universities to develop their science and
technology conditions for training. In the context of stricter requirements for
state budget for higher education, the State has applied the policies of sharing
training fees between learners, the State and related institutions to improve
financial resources for universities to adjust the tuition, and grant the autonomy
to determine tuition for private sector. In the study, university leaders evaluate


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policies on finance, facilities, science and technology and tuition fee at low
level in both the relevance and effect. Insufficient investment is also a reason
for limited capacity for university training for social demands.
3.2.2.5. Policies on university international cooperation
In addition to the support and development of training capacity of
universities, international cooperation activities are still inadequate, especially
in training and research, even problems in the international cooperation in
training. The results of international cooperation on research in Vietnamese
universities are very modest and thus the contribution to the development of
training capacity and university training for social demands can hardly be
appreciated. It shows that state policies on international cooperation of
universities have not really been relevant with positive impact on the
development of training capacity and capacity for university training for social
demands in Vietnam as targeted.
3.2.3. Policies on learners
Policies on credit, exemption, reduction of tuition fees for students have
recently enhanced the payment for education service users, i.e. students, thereby
ensuring that universities have revenues from tuition fees to improve their
financial capacity. However, according to the survey results, policies on credit,
tuition exemption and reduction for learners are rated by the leaders of the
universities as not really high with different points. Career guidance for the
learners has long been implemented with some specific results. However, it is
rated very low. The results of the survey indicate that among the policies on
learners, career guidance is rated “not very good” by the university leaders with
a score of 2.061; Their impact is assessed as “not very good”; Learners’
satisfaction with state policies for career guidance is also at low level.
3.2.4. Policies on cooperation between universities and employers
Besides the advantages, in general the cooperation between the employers
and universities in training is limited, which has greatly affected the university
training for social demands in Vietnam. The constraints in cooperation between
universities and employers are the important indicator for the inadequacy in the
relevance and impact of state policies. It is also consistent with the viewpoints
of several stakeholders collected from the survey.
3.2.5. Policies on university accountability
University accountability by inspection
The accountability by inspection has revealed some violations of
universities in performing their functions and tasks. However, the inspection


21

activities have not been relevant and effective to motivate university training for
social demands.
University accountability by accreditation
There have been some shortcomings in accreditation criteria, number of
accredited universities and training programs. Universities in Vietnam have
mainly been accredited by 04 domestic centers for education accreditation.
Only few universities have been accredited by international organizations.
University accountability by disclosure
Apart from some initial positive effect, disclosure policies on universities
have not been suitable and effective as expected to improve their training
quality and training for social demands.
3.3. General assessments
3.3.1. Achievements
Policies on university training for social demands in Vietnam have gained
following achievements: First, the state policies for the development of
university training majors, and enrolment targets have been adjusted suitably;
Second, the state policies have been amended and supplemented to support and
promote universities to develop training capacity as well as capacity for training
for social demands; Third, state policies are constantly improved, which has
been very supportive for learners universities to implement their training for
social demands; Fourth, state policies have initially facilitated universities to
develop cooperation with employers, thereby developing university training for
social demands; Fifth, the state policies have created the environment and
conditions for universities to implement their accountability.
3.3.2. Limitations
Policies on university training for social demands in Vietnam have still
faced some limitations as follows: First, the State policies have not actually
ensured universities to develop their training majors, determine enrolment
targets in accordance with social demands; Second, state policies are not really
relevant and effective for universities to enhance their capacity for training for
social demands; Third, state policies for learners have not generated positive
impact on universities to implement training for social demands; Fourth, the
state policies on cooperation between universities and employers are still
limited, unsuitable with the modest effect and unable to create a favorable
environment for cooperation; Fifth, policies on accountability of universities are
also inadequate, and ineffective in motivating universities to better perform
their functions.


22

Chapter 4
SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON IMPROVING
COMPLETION IN GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON SOCIAL NEEDORIENTED TRAINING AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN
VIETNAM
4.1. Viewpoints and objectives of higher education development in Vietnam
4.1.1. Viewpoints on higher education development in Vietnam
In addition to some certain viewpoints of the Party and the State, the
dissertation proposes a general viewpoint on the development of Vietnam
higher education by 2025, a vision to 2030 and the following years.
Accordingly, it is necessary to mobilize more resources from domestic and
international stakeholders in order to develop a diverse system of education
with the participation of all stakeholders. The development of an educational
system should correspond to the requirements of the socialist-oriented
intellectual economy in association with the international integration, and
industrial revolutions.
4.1.2. Objectives of higher education development in Vietnam
Beside the major objectives stated in the documents of the Party and the
State, the dissertation suggests a general objective for the development of
Vietnam higher education by 2025, a vision to 2030 and the following years. It
is significant to develop a higher education system in which each university has
the capacity and conditions to better implement the training for social demands
in terms of scale, structure and quality associated with the certain context of
socio-economic development in Vietnam and the intensive integration into the
regional and world economy.
4.2. Context, opportunities and challenges to higher education development
in Vietnam
4.2.1. Domestic and international context
The dissertation analyses some developments in domestic and international
context which have effect on the higher education development and policies on
higher education, particularly policies on university training for social demands.
They include economic and education globalization and international
integration; industrial revolutions; the development of information technology
and communication; the intellectual economy; the “reform” achievements in the
socio-economic development in Vietnam, etc.


23

4.2.2. Opportunities and challenges
The dissertation studies and presents issues as opportunities and challenges
to the development of higher education and policies on higher education, and
policies on university training for social demands in particular. They include
economic and education globalization and international integration; the
development of information technology and communication; political system;
the socialist-oriented intellectual economy; the socio-economic development;
the planning and implementation of public policies; capacity of Vietnam higher
education system; social concerns, etc.
4.3. Recommendations on Improving completion in government policies on
social need-oriented training at higher education Institutions in Vietnam by
2025, a vision to 2030
4.3.1. Policies on developing training majors and determining enrolment
targets
The government should complete the policies for the development of
training majors, and determination of the enrolment targets according to the
following main contents: First, expanding the autonomy of universities in the
development of the training majors; Second, supplementing criteria as the basis
for the development of training majors, and determination of the enrolment
targets based on factors associated with social demands in the university
training; Third, assigning independent accreditation organizations to appraise
the development of training majors, and determination of the enrolment targets
in addition to State administration agencies (3) Investigating the needs for
human resources development, the employment situation of the graduates for
specific training majors; Fourth, handling the violations of universities; Fifth,
supplementing regulations on investments in resources for inspecting and
supervising the implementation of regulations on development of training
majors, and determination of the enrolment targets; Sixth, completing strategies
and plans on the socio-economic development, human resources, and
universities; Seventh, information system and forecasting demand for national,
industrial and local human resources; realizing the objectives stated in the
Scheme “Establishing information system and forecasting demand for national
human resources” under the Prime Minister's Decision No.601/QD-TTg dated
24/5/2012; Eighth, building and implementing policies on customizing
university training for specific industries and occupations prioritized by the
society and the State, especially for the non-state sector.


24

4.3.2. Policies on enhancing university training capacity in social needoriented higher education
The State needs to improve the policies for the development of the
university capacity for training for social demands with such key elements as
follows: First, on the training programs, it is necessary to allow universities to
be more autonomous in their program development as well as supplement
conditions to promote universities to comply with the graduation standards and
training programs based on the social demands, the needs of the employers, the
need for human resources development in each period; build the national
occupational skill standards in collaboration with various ministries and
occupational associations; Second, for the teaching staff, it is vital to expand
and raise the quality of selection and assignment of teachers for further study in
Vietnam and other countries, especially for affiliated training program with
foreign partners. It is also necessary to improve the quality of postgraduate and
doctoral programs in Vietnamese universities, so as to raise the training
standards to the world’s; appraise the teaching staff returning from foreign
training programs; supplement the remuneration and rewards for the teaching
staff based on key performance indicators; adjust the policies on attracting
experts, lecturers and scientists from foreign countries, especially Vietnamese
or overseas Vietnamese; Third, on financial resources, it is significant to
increase investment and reform state budget investment for higher education by
schemes, projects, programs; policies on student credit and bidding for training,
scientific research, especially for high quality, specific majors, or universities
with strong potentials in science and technology to meet the national
requirements. Policies for bidding, ordering and decentralizing the state budget
for scientific research should be conducted in accordance with the principles of
competition, equality regardless of the types of institutions. It is important to
invest in science and technology development in education by larger state
budget and reform the allocation of the budget based on research results to
simplify the administrative procedures with negative impact. Tuition policies
need to be revised to enable university autonomy in determining tuition fees
associated with their service quality by increasing or eliminating the tuition
limit for the public universities; fourth, on the international cooperation, it is
advisable to improve policies to support and promote universities to develop the
international cooperation for their training for social demands. They are related
to the selection and assignment of teaching staff for further study, the


25

recruitment of experts and scientists from abroad to work in Vietnamese
universities; the development of foreign language skills, especially English for
the teaching staff to facilitate universities to establish cooperative relations with
foreign partners in the implementation of the training and research functions. It
is needed to establish national cooperation mechanisms with countries with
developed higher education and strengthen the supervision of the universities'
international cooperation activities to overcome the negative impacts.
4.3.3. Policies on cooperation between universities and employers
First, it is vital to enhance the responsibility of universities in the
cooperation with employers in training by issuing more detailed regulations;
Second, it is advised to specifically regulate the duties and interests of
enterprises and employers in particular in the cooperation for university training
for social demands; Third, it is necessary to make policies to facilitate the
development of business units in the universities; Fourth, policies should be
completed to create the business incubator with the proactive participation of
universities.
4.3.4. Policies on state administration for greater university autonomy
First, it is vital to adapt the state administration policies for greater
university autonomy with a single point of administration for universities
instead of the governing bodies. It is needed to support universities to exercise
their autonomy effectively and demand the governing bodies to build a specific
roadmap for the university autonomy. Second, regulations on university council
should be revised to ensure its role as an authorized body of the institution.
Third, it is important to define the state administration on universities.
4.3.5. Policies on university accountability
It is significant to improve policies on inspection in higher education, the
skills of inspectors; the policies on higher education accreditation in line with
the context in Vietnam and the standards of regional and international
accreditation organizations; policies on university disclosure by specific
regulations and tools to ensure universities to effectively perform their major
functions, especially in training.
4.3.6. Policies on learners
First, credit policies for students should be completed by restructuring
beneficiaries and increasing loan limits. Second, it is important to handle some
limitations in policies on tuition reduction and exemption as well as grant
different types of scholarships. Third, policies on career guidance need to be


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