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Bulletins of American paleontology (Bull. Am. paleontol.) Vol 110-351

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110,

NUMBER

1895

SEPTEMBER

351

Neogene Paleontology

in the

Northern

Dominican Republic
16.

The Family Corbulidae (Mollusca; Bivalvia)

i

by

Laurie C. Anderson

17,

The FamiHes Cuspidariidae and Verticordiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)
by

Peter Jung

Paleoiitol<>j:;ical

Research Institution

1259 Trumansburg Road


Ithaca, New York, 14850 U.S.A.

27,

1996


,

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.

.

.

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Director

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.

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MCZ

LIBRARY

I

Begun

Neogene Paleontology

in the

in

1895

Northern

Dominican Republic
16.

The Family Corbulidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)
by

Laurie C. Anderson

17.

The Families Cuspidariidae and Verticordiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)
by

Peter Jung

Paleoiitolojjical

Research Institution

1259 Tiumansburg Road
Ithaca, New York, 14850 U.S.A.


ISSN 0007-5779
ISBN 0-877 0-442-5
i

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 96-70358

Printed in the United States of

America

Allen Press, Inc.

Lawrence,

KS 66044

U.S.A.


CONTENTS
16.

The Family Corbulidae (Mollusca:

Bivalvia)

Page

Laurie C. Anderson
Abstract

5

Resumen

5

IntrotUiclion

5

Acknowledgments

6

Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology

6

Biogcography

11

Abbreviations of Repository Institutions
Systematic Paleontology

11
11

Introduction

11

Systematics

12

Family Corbulidae Lamarck, 1818
Subfamily Corbulinae Lamarck, 1818
Genus Corhula Bruguiere, 1797
Subgenus Boihrocorbula Gabb, 1873a

12
12
12
12

Corbula {Bothrocorbula) viminea Guppy, 1866b
Subgenus Caryocorbula Gardner, 1926
Corbiihi {Caryocorbula) dominiccnsis Gabb, 1873b

12

Corbula {Caryocorbula) sericea Dall, 1898
Subgenus JuUacorbula Olsson and Harbison, 1953
Corhula {JuUacorbula) fossUis Pilsbry, 1922

15

14
14

17
17

18

Subgenus Panamicorbula Pilsbry, 1932
Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae, new species
Corbula {Panamicorbula) sp
Subgenus Varicorbula Grant and Gale, 1931
Corhula {Varicorbula) sanctidominici Maury, 1925

19
1^

References Cited

17

-

20
20
22

Appendix 1
Appendix 2

26
26

Plates

28

Index

31

The

families Cuspidariidae

and Verticordiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

Peter Jung
Abstract

35

Resunicn

35

Introduction

35

Acknowledgments

35

Biostratigraphy and Paleobiogeography

35

Abbreviations of Repository Institutions

37

Introduction

39
39

Systematics

39

Family Cuspidariidae

40
40

Systematic Paleontology



Genus Cardiomya A.Adams, 1864
Subgenus Cardiomya
(Maury, 1917)

C. (C.) islahispaniolae

Subgenus Bowdenia

Dall,

1903

C. (B.) dislira (Dall, 1903)

'^^

40
^^
"^^

Genus Plectodon Carpenter, 1864
P. ^ranulatus (Dall, 1881)

"^"^

Family Verticordiidae

Genus Haliris

"^^

Dall, 1886

H. jamaicensis (Dall, 1903)
Genus Trigonulina d'Orbigny, 1842
T.

ornata d'Orbigny,

T. pacifica,
T.

new

bowdenensis

1

842

species
(Dall, 1903)

References Cited
Plates

Index

^^
^"^


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

16.

The Family Corbulidae (Mollusca:

AND TABLES

Bivalvia)

Laurie C. Anderson
Text-figure
1.

Index

2.

page

map

of areas investigated

Cibao Valley, Dominican Republic

6

Part of the Rio

7

3.

Part

8

4.

Plot

5.

Plot

Cana section showing the stratigraphic distributions of Corbula species
of the Ri'o Gurabo section showing the stratigraphic distributions of Corbula species
of first and second principle component scores (PCI and PC2) of right valves of Corbula sericea
of PCI and PC2 of right valves of Corbula sericea from shallow-marine deposits of the Rio Cana and

Rio
6.

Plot of

Mao

PCI

in the

9

sections

9

versus stratigraphic section (upper) and

PCI

^^

versus sediment type (lower) for Corbula viminea

Table
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

17.

Corbula viminea valves from various sediment types for each stratigraphic section
Measurements of Corbula (Caryocorbula) viminea

Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Measurements
Measurements

1'

13

of Corbula (Caryocorbula) dominicensis

l5

of Corbula {Caryocorbula) sericea

l6

of Corbula {Juliacorbula) fossilis

1^

of Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae

l9

of Corbula {Panamicorbula

20

)

sp

of Corbula {Varicorbula) sanctidominici

21

The Famines Cuspidariidae and Verticordiidae (Mollusca: BivavUa)
Peter Jung
Text-figure

map showing

1.

Index

2.

Columnar

3.

4.
5.

6.

location of investigated areas in the Cibao Valley,

^6

Dominican Rcpubhc

37

Rio Gurabo showing occurrences of species dealt with herein
Ri'o Gurabo; upper part of columnar section showing occurrences of species dealt with herein
Columnar section of Ri'o Cana showing occurrences of species dealt with herein
Section exposed in Maury's Bluff 2 on Rio Mao showing occurrence of Cardiomya {Cardiomya) islahispaniolae
(Maury, 1917) and stratigraphic positions of NMB localities
Section exposed at mouth of Arroyo Bajon on Rio Mao showing occurrence of Cardiomya {Cardiomya) Islahispaniolae
section of

37
38

38

NMB

7.

39

(Maury, 1917) and stratigraphic positions of
localities
Section exposed at the downstream (eastern) end of Maury's Bluff 3 on Ri'o Mao showing occurrence of Cardiomya
{Cardiomya) islahispaniolae (Maury, 1917) and stratigraphic positions of
localities

NMB

^^

Length/height diagram of Cardiomya {Cardiomya) islahispaniolae (Maury, 1917)
9. Length/height diagram of Cardiomya {Bowdenia) distira (Dall, 1903)
10. Length/height diagram of Plectodon granulalus (Dall, 1881)

'^^

8.

^^
45

46

Length/height diagram of Haliris jamaicensis (Dall, 1903)
12. Length/height diagram of Trigonulina ornata d'Orbigny, 1842
11.

13.

Histogram showing

14.

Length/height diagram of Trigonulina pacifica,

15.

Histogram showing
Histogram showing

16.
17.

rib

rib
rib

number

number
number

^8
48

distribution of Trigonulina ornala d'Orbigny

new

49

species

distribution of Trigonulina pacifica,
distribution of Trigonulina

new

^^

species

^^

bowdenensis (Dall, 1903)

Length/height diagram of Trigonulina bowdenensis (Dall, 1903)

^^

Table
1.

Numbers of
in this

2.

Number

lots

and specimens of each of the seven species of Cuspidariidae and Verticordiidae dealt
with

.40

paper

of specimens available from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic
and from the

Bowden Formation
40

of Jamaica
3.

Diagnostic features of the three species of Trigonulina dealt with herein

.

.

^^


-X -

NEOCENE PALEONTOLOGY IN THE NORTHERN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
THE FAMILY CORBULIDAE (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA)

-^Jl-TxJx'-L^.^ji.

16.

Laurie C. Anderson

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803

ABSTRACT
Corbulid bivalves (Myacea: Corbulidac) are an important constituent of fossiIilA:rous Ncogcne sediments of the Cibao Valley,
northern Dominican Republic. Six corbulid species referred to live subgenera within the genus Corbula are described and figured
{Bothrocorhula, Caryocorbula, Juliacorhula, Panami corbula, and Varicorbula). One species is new, Corbula {Panamicorbula)
canae. This is the first description of a fossil Panamicorbula species and the tirst description of a Panamicorbula species outside
ot the eastern Pacific.
salinity, depth,

The

Dominican corbulids is strongly influenced by paleoenvironmental conditions such
Corbulids are most common in Miocene sediments that were deposited predominantly

distribution of

and bioclastic

fabric.

as
in

shallow-marine waters. Corbula (Caryocorbula) sericea Dall, 1898 has the widest stratigraphic and geographic distribution within
the study area and is especially abundant in brackish- water and very shallow-marine deposits. Corbula (Bothrocorbula)
vimmea

Guppy, 1866b

common

shallow-marine and l:)rackish-watcr deposits. Corbula (Varicorbula) sanctiilominici Maury,
1925 occurs predominantly in shallow-marine sediments, whereas Corbula {Panamicorbula) canae n. sp. is restricted to brackishwater deposits of the Upper Miocene Cereado Formation in the Rio Cana section. Corbula (Caryocorbula) dominicensis Gabb,
is

also

in

1873b and Corbula (Juliacorbula) fossilis Pilsbry, 1922 are rare. Corbula dominicensis is apparently
to lower Middle Miocene Baitoa Formation of the Rio Yaque del Norte section, and C. fossilis

restricted to the
is

found

in

upper Lower

Upper Miocene

sediments ol the Cereado and Gurabo Formations. Dominican corbulid species show close morphologic affinities to species of
the Pliocene Bowden Formation of Jamaica, Neogenc units of the Caribbean coast of Central America such as
the Galun
Formation and sediments of the Limon Basin, Miocene and Pliocene deposits of Trinidad, and Miocene to Pleistocene sediments
of Florida.

RESUMEN
Los bivalvos corbiilidos (Myacea: Corbulidae) constituyen una parte importante de los sedimentos fosiliferos del Neogeno en
Valle de Cibao al norte de la RepubJica Dominicana. A conlinuacion, se describe y se dibuja seis especies pertenecientes a

•il

cmco subg6ncros dentro

del genero Corbula, es dccir, Bothrocorbula, Caryocorbula, Juliacorbula, Panamicorbula, y Varicorbula.

Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae forma una nueva especie. For primcra vez se describe ia especie fosil Panamicorbula y es la
pnmera vez que se describe la especie Panamicorbula fuera del Pacffico estc. La distribucion de corbulidos dominicanos esta
infiucnciada fucrtementc por condiciones paleoambientales tales como la salinidad, profundidad dc agua
y /abrica bioclastica.
Los corbiilidos se encuentran mas comiinmente en aquellos sedimentos del Mioceno depositados predominantemente en aguas
Fi

marinas someras. Dentro del

zona de estudio, Corbula (Caryocorbula) sericea Dall, 1898 mueslra tener la distribucion estratigrafica y geografica mas amplia
y abunda sobre todo en agua salobre y en depositos marinos de agua muy someras. Corbula
(Bothrocorbula) viminea Guppy, 1866b tambien sc encuentra comunmente en dep6sitos marinos de agua somera y en depositos
de agua salobre. Corbula (Varicorbula) sanclidominici Maury, 1925 aparece en sedimentos marhios de poca profundidad mientras
que Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae, n. sp. se encuentra rcstringida a depositos de agua salobre en la formaci6n Cereado del

Mioceno superior en

la

seccion del Rio Cana. Corbula (Caryocorbula) dominicensis Gabb, 1873b y Corbula (Juliacorbula)
fossilis Pilsbry, 1922 son poco frecuentes. Aparetmeiitc, C. dominicensis queda restriiigida cutre la parte superior del Mioceno
la

inferior y la parte inferior del Mioceno intcrmedio
se encuentra en los sedimentos dc las formaciones

de

la

formacio Baitoa en

la

seccion del Rio Yaque del Norte. Corbula fossilis

Cereado y Gurabo con edad del Mioceno superior Las especies de corbulidos
dominicanos muestran una afinidad morfologica a las especies de la formacion Bowden del Plioceno en Jamaica, a las unidades
Ncogenas de la eosta caribefia de centroamerica tales como la formacion Gatun y los sedimentos de la cuenca Lim6n, a los
tlcpositos de edad Miocena y Plioccna en Trinidad y a los sedimentos de Florida que comprcnden desde el Mioceno hasta el
Pleistoceno.

INTRODUCTION
ms work is one of a series of taxonomic mono^^^^Phs on Neogene fossils of the Cibao Valley in the
^^^fthern Dominican Repubhc
(Text-fig. 1). Saunders
«^.

(1986) provide detailed information on mea-

^^ sections and samples, and a general biostrati-

graphic framework.

The

imits studied include the up-

Lower to lower Middle Miocene Baitoa, Upper
Miocene Cereado, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene
Gurabo, and Lower Pliocene Mao Formations. Al-

per

though not highly diverse, corbulid bivalves occur
throughout the stratigraphic section. They are most
abundant, however, in brackish-water and shallow-


6

Bulletin 351

marine sediments, which are typical of Miocene dc

BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOECOLOGY

posits in the study area.

Within the study area (Text-fig. 1), it is possible to
trace changes in corbulid species distributions and in-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

traspecific variabihty in a
I

am

especially grateful for the generosity and as-

sistance of Peter Jung, of the Naturhistorisches

seum

Basel, Switzerland and

University

Mu-

Emily Yokes of Tulane

who

provided long-term loans of extensive
collections. A number of other institutions generously
lent samples and specimens, and I would like to thank

Warren Allmon of the Paleontological Research Institution; Thomas Waller, Warren Blow, and Jann

Thompson of

the United States National

Museum

of

Natural History, Smithsonian Institution; Gary Rosenberg and Elana Benamy of the Academy of Natural

Sciences of Philadelphia; Silvard Kool of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; Paul

Taylor and Paul Jeffery of The Natural History Museum, London (British Museum, Natural History); and

Klaus Westphal of the Museum of Geology, University
of Wisconsin-Madison. Thanks also to Juan Lorenzo

Emily Yokes, Jay
Schneider, and John Kruger for reviewing the manuscript. This research was supported by the National
Science Foundation (EAR-93 16363), Sigma Xi, the
Paleontological Society, and the Geological Society of
for translating the abstract,

America.

and

to

number of

stratigraphic sec-

tions that record the interplay of paleocnvironment,

time, and geography.
detail

Anderson (1994) documents in
the relationship of corbuhd species distributions

and

intraspecific

variability

to

paleoenvironmcntal

conditions in these sediments and those findings are

reviewed here. Distributions of the most common spe^
cies, Corhula {Caryocorbula) sericea, Corbula {Bothrocorbula) vimlnea, Corbula (Varicorbula) sanclidom-

and Corbula {Panarnicorbula) canae, track p^'
leoenvironmental conditions, and represent migrations
into and out of the study area over time rather than
inici,

speciation and extincdon events

(Anderson,

1994)-

Corbulid abundance and diversity reflect a preference
for marginal -marine and shallow to intermediate marine habitats (< 100 m), which is compatible with hab
itat

distributions of living corbuUds. This correspon-

dence of species distributions

to paleoenvironmcntal

conditions causes a temporal pattern in species

butions

because

paleoenvironmcntal

changed systemafically through time
(Saunders et

al.,

distri-

conditions

in the study area

1986). In the study area, corbuiids are

most abundant and diverse in Miocene marine sediments deposited primarily in shallow (approximately

upper Cenozoic
'; ' "]

MH

Oligocene-Early Miocene?

Rio Cana
2 Rio Gurabo
3 Rio Mao
1

4 Rio Amina

Mesozoic

5 Cafiada Zaiaya

6 Rio Yaque del Norte
7 City of Santiago
8 Arroyo Pufial
9 Rio Verde

Text-figure

1.


1

J»^l£^ll:^«^^

-fc^^^Hr^f^^^^M-

CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

7

j

c
o

CO
0)

700 m

Rio

Cana Section
Communities

Coral
m-'
7\ -^-tV.s-^n

600 m

Q-ass

flats

Reefs

in

(0

"w**^

shallow,

clear

water

Reefs

in

turbid

deeper, more

waters

{>10 -20 m)
0)

c
o
o
a:

Environments

Wi

500 m

Brackish

c
o

Very

E

Marine

shallow

marine

(<30m)
(approximately

30 to< 100 m)

o
CO

^^

400 m

7^^
FV*^

Tfl

III

300 m

^ <
T^
H"*"

-

^

TS-f

T.
yM

F

J

^m
^

V' V^ VH

V' V- V-

^ ^ ^

ri^

^

A A

rf

^ ^ A

200 m

100 m

—Part of

Rfo Cana section showing the slraligraphic distributions of Corhula species. Coral communities are based on
avci^ge linkage cluster analysis of coral assemblages from Budd et at. (1996). Criteria used to distinguish cnvhonmcntal categories are outlined
^^t-iigure 2.

"Appendix

the

1.

^

intermediate depths (approximately 30lOn^
^), whereas corbulids are much less common and
^.
"^) to

^rse in Pliocene sediments deposited in deeper

^^e (> iQQ
j^^ waters (Text-figs. 2, 3;
Or criteria
used to construct these
^ categories).

masee Appendix

paleoenvironmcn-

Slight differences in environmental preferences exist

among Dominican Republic
sericea

is

most abundant

corbulid species. Corhula

in brackish-water

and shallow-

marine to intermediate-marine deposits, although it is
conspicuously absent from sediments deposited in
erass-flat habitats such as the lower part of the Gurabo


.

Bulletin 351

8

to
q>

Ro Gurabo

Section

to

I

Communities

Coral

WM

Grass
Fteefs

flats
in

deeper, more

turbid waters

T Transported

(>10-20 m)
corals

Environments
I

^ ^

A
b

A

Jb

j^

A

.^

Brackish

Very

shallow

marine

(<30m)
S
o

Marine

(approximately

30 to < 100 m)
Deeper marine

(>

100 m)

a
I

'cO

CO

o

I

Text-figure

3.



Part of the

Rio Gurabo

section

showing the

average linkage cluster analysis of coral assemblages from
in

Appendix

Corhula species. Coral communities are base
tline'
ou
are
(1996). Criteria used to distinguish environmental categories

stratigraphic distributions of

Budd

et al.

1

4

Rio Cana section (Text-fig. 2; Anderson, 1994). Corhula viminea also occurs in brackishwater and shallow -marine to intermediate-marine deposits in the study area, whereas C sanctldominici oc-

Formation

in the

curs primarily in shallow- to intermediate-marine sedi-

Corhula canae only occurs
"^^^
section,
brackish-water deposits of the Rio Cana
were probably deposited in or near a mangrove sw^
and
sericea
Corhula
(Text-fig. 2; Anderson, 1994).
sanctldominici also occur in deeper marine scdimc^

ments

(Text-figs. 2, 3).

^y

^


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

C.

ser/cea-Rght

3n

Valves

2-

c
O

Shallow

sericea

Right Valves

2-

c
O

EI
EH

"s

a

C.

o Deeper Marine
o Intermediate

9

Shallow Marine
a

Marine

a R.

CO

A Brackish

1

c
o

o

CO

-

R.

B

Mao
Cana

-a
Di

a

ULi
1

c

0-

o

l/

tficff

0)

>

i

0-

Q)

-1-

D

.V

CM

-1

o

s

-

aa

Q.
"2-

,^*

a SB

I

i

-2-

1,

-3

-3

PC1
Text-figure
Scores

4.

-1

:

Text-figure



Plot of

first

and second principle component

right valves of

Co rbula

sericea. Procedures

of the principal components analysis (PCA) are outlined

Anderson (1994). PCI (explaining about 55 % of the variance)
represents size and size-conclalcd shape variability. PC2 (explaining

%

3

1

5.—Plot

PCI and PC2 of

of

right valves of

sericea from shallow-maiine deposits of the Rfo

'n

^houi 16

-1

1

Size and Size-correlated Shape

(PCI and PC2) of

^"tl results

-2

PC1: Size and Size-correlated Shape

"T
-2

1

I

-3

sections,

where

this species is locally

Corbula

Cana and Rio Mao

abundant. Size and shape dif-

ferences are related to differences in bioclastic fabric. This plot

shows a subset of data

illustrated in Text-figure 4.

See Appendix 2

for samples used for each category. (After Anderson, 1994.)

of the variance) represents valve elongation, more elon-

gate valves

have negative principle component scores. Criteria used
^ distinguish environmental categories arc outlined in Appendix 1.

^^ec

Jp

Appendix 2

for

(Saunders et al, 1986; Bold, 1988), these sediments also are rich in irregular echinoids and massive
ters

samples used for each category.

reef corals (Saunders et

al.,

1986) indicating a signif-

icant marine infliience. Alternatively, the other brack-

(^100 m deep) that show evidence of downslope
^ovement, such as the top of the Rio Gurabo section
(Text-hg. 3), the top of the Rio Yaque del Norte sec^^on, and in the Canada Zalaya section (Saunders et
^^•,

1986; Anderson, 1994).

two most abundant

•^orbulid species, C. sericea

and C. viminea, are also
^elated to paleoenvironmental factors. Corbula sericea
^•^ows continuous morphologic variability along a paleoenvironmcntal gradient of salinity, depth, and biofabric (Text-fig. 4).

S^fe C. sericea valves are

The smallest and
found

least elon-

in intermediate

and

marine deposits. Intermediate morphologies oc^^^ in shallow-marine deposits, and larger (bul not
^ore elongate) valves generally occur in brackish~wa^1"
deposits. A few valves categorized as '*brackish^ater'' from the Lopez section of the Rio Yaque del
^^ite, however, do not fit this trend (triangles with
'^'^cper

l^^gative values on the first principle component axis
ll^Cl
0] in Text-fig. 4). This anomaly is caused by

Cana

signal.

These sediments of the Rio

section are rich in brackish-water mollusks, in-

eluding beds of Anadara pat ricia (Sowerby, 1850) (=

beds of Saunders et

closely related to or

is

al.,

1986), This species

a subspecies of

is

Anadara gran-

and Sowerby, 1829), a Recent species
inhabiting intertidal mud banks bordering mangrove
swamps in the eastern Pacific (Maury, 1922; Olsson,
1932, 1961; Woodring, 1973; Saunders et al., 1986).
Geographic variation related to bioclastic fabric also
can be discerned within C. sericea from roughly contemporaneous Miocene sediments of the Rio Cana and
Rio Mao secdons (Text-fig. 5; Anderson, 1994). Corbula sericea is larger and more elongate in the Rio
Cana section, where it occurs mainly in silts with bioclasts concentrated in lenses. In the Rfo Mao secdon,
sericea is smaller and less elongate, and occurs in
dis (Broderip

C

lenticular beds rich in bioclasts with a silly matrix.

assigning these sediments to an environ-

Variation in C. viniinea shows a morphologic cline
from west to east in contemporaneous sediments, with

category because of conflicting environmental

variabihty related to sediment type and bioclastic fab-

<

*^'ificulties in

l^^ental

uous brackish-water

''Area''

Intraspecific variability in the

*^liistic

ish-water valves are from sediments with an unambig-

^terprctations based

on

different faunal components,

^^en though the ostracode and foraminiferal faunas of
^^e Lopez section indicate
deposidon in brackish wa-

Anderson, 1994). Corbula virelatively small in the west (Rfo Cana section,
occurs in pebbly shell beds), whereas to the

ric (Text-fig- 6;

minea
where

is
it

Table

1;


Bulletin 351

10

viminea

C.
Q.
CO

Mao
Qjrabo

D0)

2-

i

jO

Yaque

CD

Can

O
o

i

I

N



CO

oc
(0
0)

N

-2

CO
t

*

o
Q_

-4

Section

4n
Cl.

(0

CO

o
TO
0)
k-

i

o
o
cb
N

i

OH

i

B

CO
I
(0
0)

N

-2-

I

CO
«

a.

-4

"T

T

1

2

3

4

Sediment Type
Text- figure
results of

6.—Plot

PCA

of

PCI versus

Sediment types

burrows, 3

=

silts

are:

1

=

silts

with bioclasts scattered, and 4

Mao

section).

=

due
is

to a lack of information

for samples used for each category. (After Anderson, 1994.)

east (Rfo

Gurabo and Rio

sections,

where

it

oc-

curs in lenticular-, burrow-, or lens-shaped shell con-

within

becomes progressively
Rfo Yaque del Norte section

silts)

=

into
concentrated
bioclasts
silts with

on sediment type. Note

apparently related to differences in sediment type

Appendix 2

centrations

of the variance) represents size and size-correlated shape

sands with bioclasts either scattered or concentrated.

silty

Geographic variation

Mao

%

with bioclasts concentrated into lenticular beds or lenses, 2

del Norte section are not included in the lower plot

(Rio Cana to Rio

and PCI

nd
a
Procedures
versus sediment type (lower) for Corbula viminea.

Anderson (1994). PCI (explaining about 46

are outlined in

variability.

stratigraphic section (upper)

it

Two

valves from the Rio Yaqu^

clinal

variation from west

among

sections (see Table

to east
1)-

^^^

particular corbuli
species within their stratigraphic ranges and total rang'
In

summary, both abundance of

es within stratigraphic sections arc controlled by V^"

Valves from the
are from older deposits of the Baitoa Formation and
do not follow this trend. Morphological differences

corresponds strongly with specific paleoenvironment^

among

conditions. Although aspects of intraspecific variabi

larger.

the four sediment-type/bioclastic-fabric categories are significant using the nonparametric Krus-

kal-Wallis analysis of variance
0.005).

(H=103, df=3, p

<

leocnvironmental

morphologic

ity in

both

factors.

In

variability in C. sericea

intraspecin^

and

C

vimi^^^

tafabric,
species are related to bioclastic

phonomic processes do not
variability

addition,

control the morpholog|

observed (Anderson, 1094). Morpholog*




CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

Corbula viminea valves from vaiious sediment types
each stratigraphic section. Sediment type categories are based on

Tabic
for

1.

descriptions in Saunders et al (1986)

Categories are: 1)
silts

in

silts

with bioclasts

and on personal observation.
with bioclasts in lenticular beds or lenses, 2)

filling

burrows, 3)

silts

with moUusks dispersed

matrix, 4) silty sands with bioclasts dispersed or concentrated.

Samples used are

listed in

Appendix

2.

sediment type
section

1

2

88

Miocene and Pliocene sediments of Trinidad

(includ-

ing the Manzanilla, Springvale, I'Enfer Formations;
Maury, 1925; Jung, 1969), the Miocene Gatun For-

mation of Panama (Woodring, 1982), Upper Miocene
Santa Rosa beds of Veracruz, Mexico (Perrilliat
[19841, who assigns these beds to the Agueguexquite
Formation; E. Yokes [1989] states, however, that this
formation only occurs farther north, near Coatzacoal-

4

3

cos, and

is

Pliocene), and

Miocene

to Pleistocene sed-

iments of Florida (Dall, 1898; Gardner, 1928; Olsson
and Harbison, 1953).

98

14

11

11

44

Two

valves from this section were not included
^^cause sediment lypc was unknown.

ABBREVIATIONS OF REPOSITORY

15

8
in

INSTITUTIONS

the analysis

The following abbreviations
change within these species over time is relatively mi'^or or is a side effect of systematic changes in environmental conditions.

tions are

used

ANSP:

Academy

Recent corbulid faunas are nearly identical
^t the subgenus
level, except for a few apparently en•^emic, low-diversity taxa. Widespread and abundant
^^hgcncra include Varicorhula Grant and Gale, 1931
(^otocorbula Ircdale, 1930 of some authors) and Cary^corbula Gardner, 1926, and to a lesser extent Both^^corbula Gabb, 1873a and Juliacorhula Olsson and
Harbison, 1953. Endemic subgenera typically inhabit
^he Recent Panamic-Pacific province and include Ser^^corbula Olsson, 1961 and Tenuicorbida Olsson,
1^32

to

found in the Tertiary of Peru, Venezuela,
^^d Trinidad). Panamicorbula Pilsbry, 1932 was first
^^scribed from the Recent Panamic-Pacific province,
"^t also is reported from the Miocene of the Pacific
coast of Costa Rica (Punta Judas; Scy fried et al.
.^^^5), the Miocene Cercado Formation of the DominJean
Republic (Anderson, 1991, 1994), and the Pliocenc PEnfer and Springvale Formations of Trinidad

IGM:

Instituto

BMNH:
NMB:

Naturhistorisches

Museum

Basel,

Switzer-

Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca,

PRl:

NY, U.S.A.
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.
United States National Museum of Natural
History, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
Museum of Geology, University of Wiscon-

TU:

USNM:
UW:

sin-Madison, Madison, WI, U.S.A.

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY
Introduction
All species described here are assigned to the genus

Corbula; other supraspecific taxa are considered subgenera, following Vaught (1989). All subgenera share
the

same basic hinge

structure

and

differ primarily in

shape, ornamentation, and the degree of disparity in
size, shape, and ornamentation of the left and right

A

majority of species described here are abun-

son, 1991,

^
^^rbula

Natural His-

land

species with the

sericea,

Museum,

tory)

valves.

Dominican fauna, Corbula viminea
and contains a species of Varicorhula.

D.F.,

gland, U.K. (British

Dominican corbulid species show affinities to a
^^mber of other Miocene to Pleistocene faunas. The
Pliocene Bowdcn Formation of Jamaica shares two

C

de Geologia, Ciudad Universitaria

Mexico
The Natural History Museum, London, En-

(:

(see p.
19).

'''"^

of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,

PA, U.S.A.

BIOGEOGRAPHY

Miocene

in this paper:

de Mexico,

In tropical America (including the Caribbean Sea,
eastern Pacific Ocean, and western Atlantic Ocean),

for repository institu-

dant enough to incorporate intraspecific variation into
interpretations of species boundaiies (see also Ander-

ity

is

1994 for quantitative treatments). Vanabilconsidered intraspecific if it can be related to

morphologically very similar to C. sanc-

and/or
to
ontogenetic)
(presumably
differences
size
changes in paleoenvironmental conditions. In compai*-

^^^ominicL Corbula viminea and C. sericea also are
^ported from Neogcne deposits of the Lim6n Basin,

ison to this approach, the taxonomy of Hving corbulids
has been more typological because taxonomic and sys-

(Varicorbula) heterogena

^^^), that

is

Guppy

(in

Dall,

^^o^ta

Rica (Dall, 1898; Olsson, 1922). In addition, the
^^lowing units all contain a number of corbulid spc-

""'^^

with strong aflinities to Dominican corbulids:

tematic studies have not incorporated potential phenotypic variation caused by ontogenetic, environmental,

or geographic factors.


Bulletin 351

12

Only forms considered identical to described species
are listed in the synonymy. A question mark (?) before
an item in a synonymy indicates that material was insufficient to confirm conspecific status. The abbreviation '*sp." indicates that the described species could

be identified to the subgenus but not to the specific
level. Diagnoses are used both for species and for supraspecific categories and indicate the diagnostic features of a particular taxon. Descriptions are used for

quilateral

smooth

and inequivalved;

valve smaller. Shells

left

to concentrically ribbed.

Hinge with cardinal

tooth in right valve and cardinal socket in left valve.
socket-like resilifcr present behind

In type species,

most species, however, left
valve with chondrophorc and right valve with socketdentition in both valves; in

H. Yokes, 1945.)

like resilifcr. (See



species only, and outline overall species morphology.

Remarks. The generic name Corbula was first
used in Bruguiere (1797) in a plate title, and the name
is generally credited to him, although he did not de-

The Remarks

scribe the genus.

section provides information on the par-

and may include a taxonomic
discussion, taphonomic and paleoenvironmental information, and geologic and geographic ranges (ranges
for supraspecific taxa only). The Comparisons section
outlines differences between the species being described and morphologically similar species. Detailed
ticular taxon described,

Dominican Republic samples
is listed in the Occurrence section, whereas the Distribution section is a more general statement of a species' geographic and stratigraphic distribution Inside
and outside the Dominican Repubhc. A question mark
locality information for

(?) after a

formation indicates that synonymy

is

un-

certain.

Lamarck (1799)

first

described Cor-

bula but did not specify a type. Schmidt (1818) subsequently designated Corbula sulcata as type (sec
Stewart, 1930). Aloidis Megerie von Muhlfcldt (1811)
is

synonym of Corbula (H. Yokes, 1945, 1980). Unmost other members of the genus, the type species,

a

like

Corbula {Corbula) sulcata, has no chondrophore
the left valve; the resilium instead

in

received in ^

is

socket-like resilifcr behind the cardinal socket.

Geologic range of the genus is Cretaceous to Recent
(Moore, 1969). The genus is found worldwide in tropical to temperate waters that range from marine to
brackish salinities (Boss, 1982).

Some

erant of waters low in dissolved

species are

tol-

oxygen (Lewy and

Samtleben, 1979).

SYSTEMATICS
Family

CORBULIDAE

Diagnosis.SmdiW(length typically 2

to

cm

erally strongly inflated.

ved

Lamarck, 1818

moderate- sized sturdy shells

or less), inequilateral, and gen-

Shghdy

to strongly inequival-

and shape; left valves smaller than right
valves. Hinge simple with anterior cardinal tooth in
right valve and socket in left valve. Resilifcr present
behind hinge; typically a projecting chondrophorc in
in size

valve that corresponds to socket-like resilifcr in
right valve. PaUial sinus small to obsolete. (See H.
Yokes, 1945; Moore, 1969.)

Bolhrocorbula Gabb, 1873a,

CORBULINAE

Diagnosis.

—Left

Lamarck, 1818

valve typically shghtly

than right valve. Chondrophorc in

most species,
valve.

left

smaller

valve present in

fitting into socket-like resilifcr in right

Posterior

typically

rostrate.

(See H.

Yokes,

1945; Moore, 1969.)

Genus

CORBULA

radial striations. Characteristic
in front of

Type

species,

p.

— Corbula sulcata Lamarck, 1801; by

subsequent designation, Schmidt (1818); Recent, Sen^
egal.

Diagnosis,



Shell sturdy, moderately inflated, ine-

10, figs. 3, 3a.

deep lunular depressioi^

umbos. Right valve hinge with cardina

tooth in front of socket- like

resilifcr.

Left valve hing^

with cardinal socket in front of chondrophore. (S^^

Gabb, 1873a; Gardner, 1926; II. Yokes, 1945.)
to
Remarks. This subgenus ranges from Miocene
Pleistocene in Florida, the West Indies, and easteri^
Central America (see p. 13-14). It is found in scd^'
ments deposited in shallow-marine and marginal-^f^^'
rine waters. The Mioccne-to-Recent taxon Hexacof
bula Olsson, 1932 closely resembles Bolhrocorbula^



pit.

Corbula (Bothrocorbula) viminea Guppy, 1866b
Plate

67

pi.



Corbula Bruguiere, 1797, pi. 230.
Corhula Lamarck, 1799, p. 89.
Aloidls Megerle von Muhlfcldt, 1811,

274,



but lacks a lunular

Bruguiere, 1797

p.

Gabb, 1873a

Type species.
Corbula viminea Guppy, 1866b; ^j
monotypy. Pliocene, Bowden Formation, Jamaica.
Diagnosis.
Shell moderately large and thickened.
Yalves subequal, with coarse concentric ribs and fi^^^

left

Subfamily

BOTHROCORBULA

Subgenus

1,

figures 1-8, 10, 11, 13, 14

Corhula viminea Guppy, 1866b,
p.

270,

pi.

28,

fig.

p.

293,

pi. 18, fig. 11;

Olsson

25.

Corhula (Bothrocorbula) viminea Guppy. Maury, 1917,
234,

pi.

1922

39, figs. 20, 21; 1925, p. 108-109,

pi.

p-

'^

^^^

P'
19, Hg- i^;
f^

bry, 1922, p. 428; Woodring, 1925, p. 189-190, pi. 26, fig*^^
^
ng
8; Ramirez, 1950, p. 38-39, pi. 7, f]g. 9; Anderson, 1994,

2.1-2.4.

'


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

Diagnosis.

— Species

large size,

prominent lunule, thick valves, coarse concentric ribs, fine radial striations, evenly rounded anterior margin, and evenly rounded to slightly sinuous

—Valves moderately

Description.

large, subequal in

size

and shape. Right valve shghtly larger than left,
Only overlapping left vcntrally. Valve thickness widely
Variable, although variability in part preservational be'^ause

valve inner layers tend to slough off. Valves
Elongate-ovate with rostrum and arcuate keel. On some
Valves, posterior slope has midline depression parallel
to keel.

Continuous variation seen in expression of ros^^^m and ventral margin, ranging from subdued ros^^m and evenly rounded ventral margin, to short pos^riorly-pointing rostrum and evenly rounded ventral
Margin, to short ventrally-pointing rostrum and gendy

^inuous ventral margin (concave just anterior of ros^i^m).

Valve ornamented with coarse concentric ribs
nut die out before reaching keel.
Fine concentric and
radial striadons superimposed
on coarse ribs, and especially visible between ribs. Posterior slope and neP^onic shell with fine concentric striadons, but lacking
adial

and coaise concentric ribs.
^oth valves with deep lunule anterior of umbo. Lu~
^^^ larger and deeper in left valve, encompassing en-

2.

—Measurements

Figures are in

BMNH

margin.

'central

Table

characterized by relatively

13

of Corhula {Bothrocorbula) viminca.

mm.

64088: syntype
64099: syntype

PRI 919:

(figured

(figured by

PR! 919:

NMB G 14103: (PI. fig.
NMB locafity 16923
NMB G 14104; (PL fig.
NMB locality 16923
NMB G 14105: (PI. fig.
NMB locality 15900
NMB G 14106: (PI. fig.
NMB locafity 15900
NMB G 14107: (PI. fig.

6.3

left

15.1

10.3

5.0

right

17.5

12.0

4.8

left

14.0

9.6

4.1

right

15.5

10.6

4.8

left

15.9

11.8

4.9

right

17.4

12.3

6.0

left

15.3

11.3

5.4

right

16.3

11.5

6.0

left

14.1

9.7

5.0

right

14.2

9.9

5.2

left

13.3

9.3

3.8

right

14.0

9.7

4.8

13);

1,

11);

1,

1,

1,

locality

10);

8);

TU

1230

14108:

locality

TU

13.9

14);

1,

(PI. 1, fig. 7);

TU

1230

14109;

locality

NMB G

19.1

Maury,

1917)

TU

right

by Maury,

1917)

NMB G

width

115648: (figured by

Woodring, 1925)

NMB G

height

(PI. 1, fig.

6)

USNM

length

(PI. 1, fig.

3)

BMNH

valve

1364

14110:

locality

(PI. 1, figs. 2, 5);

(PI.

1,

figs. 1, 4);

1364

^^e

hinge plate. Right valve hinge with large, trianfc^iar,
hooked-shaped, cardinal tooth and posterior
0ckct4ike, broadly-open resilifer. Broad short ridge
escends from resihfer roof and extends across part of
'nge plate.
'^tt

Hinge plate surface depressed at resihfer.
valve hinge with deep, triangular, hook-shaped

terior

socket

and

broad

posterior chondrophore.

^nge plate strongly sinuous resulting in obliquely'^nted cardinal socket. Dorsal surface of chondrop-

/^ with anterior and posterior ridges separated by
|dline trough.
^th

denticle.

and u

more prominent and

Posterior ridge

Adductor muscle scars

large
relatively
J
!=>

1

mickened; posterior scar

^te.

anterior scar

circular,

PaUial sinus obsolete.

BMNM

^>pe Afar^r/a/.— Syntypes:
04088 (left
^
^^^^). BMNII 64099 (right valve). Right valve fig^^^^ by Guppy (1866b, PL 18, fig.
I) Both valves
I

^^

figured here (PI.

ype

p

locality,

(==

Bowden

Jamaica. The type locality
705: type locality of Bowden

^

is

Formation,

here restricted

Formadon

Bowden, Parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica

.

'I*^),

figs. 3, 6).

— "Miocene"

^^^^*^)*
to

I,

^kes,

(Plio-

(fide

H.

Measured and/or figured specimens:
l4l09

14103, 14104, 14105, 14106, 14107, 14108,

^"^^ ^^' ^"-'^^^

are
valves)
specimens
(over
600
Cat'^oged by locality, which arc listed in the Occur-

'^^^ secdon.

—This

is

a

common

species in upper

Mio-

cene shallow-marine and brackish-water deposits of
the Rio Cana, Rfo Gurabo, Rfo Mao, Rio Yaque del
Norte, and Rfo Amina sections. It is typically found
in silty shell beds or thin shell-rich stringers interbed-

ded with silts. This species also is found in bioclastrich sediment filling burrows, scattered in silts, and in
pebbly and conglomeradc layers. Woodring (1925)

Dominican forms of C vlminea are smaller
and slightly more elongate than Jamaican forms.
Corbula (Bothrocorbula) wilcoxii
Comparison.
Dall, 1898, a Pleistocene species from the Caloosahatchee and Bermont formations of southern Florida
(Anderson, unpublished data), shows some morphostates that



Corbula viminea tends
to be shghtly larger and has a more evenly rounded
anterior margin than C wilcoxii. The valve margin of
logic overlap with C. viminea.

C. wilcoxii typically

is

flattened into a short horizontal

ledge anterior of the beak, resulting in a projecdng
anterior. Although the two species typically are disintermediate forms can be found in both species.
Corbula {Bothrocorbula) synarmostcs Dall, 1898 of

tinct,

1989)

G

Remarks.

the

Miocene Chipola Formadon of Florida

and has a much smaller lunule than

C

is

smaller

viminea. Cor-

bula {Bothrocorbula) radiatula Dall, 1898 of the Miocene Oak Grove Formadon of Florida is also smaller


Bulletin 351

14

than C. viminea, has a reduced lunule, and more pronounced radial ornament.

Occurrence.

—This

species

was collected from

following areas (see Saunders

et al.,

the

1986 for locaHty

information):

Rio Cana: Cercado Formation:

TU

1230, and

NMB

16835, 16836, 16837, 16838, 16839, 16844, 16857,
16988, 16989, 16993, 17005. Lower Gurabo Forma16831, 16832, 16833, 16820. Upper Gurtion:

NMB

abo Formation: TU 1354, and
16824. Mao Formation (Mao

16817-16819,
Adentro Limestone

NMB

TU

1359, 1373,

15896, 15900, 15901, 15903,

15904, 15906, 15907, 15908, 15910.
Formation: TU 1297, 1298, and

NMB

Lower Gurabo
15876, 15878,

NMB
NMB

is

Eocene

to

1873b
Gabb,
dominicensis
(Caryocorbula)
Corbula
Plate

1,

figures 9, 12; Plate 2, figures

1, 2, 4,

5

247; Pilsbry, 1922,

p. 427,

ICorbula {Cuneocorbula) dominicensis Gabb. Maury, 1917,

p. 232,

Corbula dominicensis Gabb, 1873b,
pi.

pi.

46,

figs.

p.

12, 13.

39, figs. 14, 15.



Species characterized by elongate
Diagnosis.
shape and sculpture of concentric, closely-spaced,
moderately coarse ribs and no radial striations. Also
distinguished from other Dominican corbulids by rel^^-^^^^ uninflated valves, moderately thickened shell

and large

15882, 15887.

Rio Mao: Cercado Formation: TU 1294, and
16913 (all correspond to Maury's Bluff 3);

geologic range

marine environments.

NMB

Member): NMB 16873.
Rio Gurabo: Cercado Formation:
1377, 1419, and

Recent in North and
South America and East Asia (Moore, 1969). Garyocorbula species inhabit shallow-marine to marginalIts

size.

Description.

—Right and

and shape; right valve

left

valves subequal in siz^

slightly larger than left.

slightly anterior of valve

Umbos

midhnc. Greatest convexity

16915, 16917, 16918, 16923, 16924, 16926, 16927,
16914, 16930, 16932
16928 (all Arroyo Bajon);

^f ^^ntral

Maury's Bluff 2).
Rio Amina: Gurabo Formation: TU 1412.
Rio Yaque del Norte: Baitoa Formadon: TU 1226,
1363, 1364, and NMB 16935, 16936, 16938, 17286,
17288, 17289 (all Lopez section). Unnamed formation: TU 1445 (Angostura).
Upper Lower to lower Middle MioDistribution.
cene Baitoa, Upper Miocene Cercado, Upper Miocene
to Lower Pliocene Gurabo, and Lower Phocene Mao

topped ribs with steep dorsal and more gradual ventral
slopes. Ribs do not spht and double towards posterior
j^^el as described by Pilsbry (1922). Radial sculpti'*"^
very
with
somewhat
distinct,
absent. Nepionic shell
witn
valve
fine concentric ribs. Posterior region of

NMB

(all



Formadons, Dominican Republic; Miocene Thon :nde
and Las Canobas Formations (?), Haiti (see Guppy,
1876; Woodring et al., 1924; Woodring, 1925); Phocene Bowden Formation, Jamaica; Pliocene Rio Banano Formation, Costa Rica.

Subgenus

CARYOCORBULA

Caryocorbula Gardner, 1926,

Type species.

Gardner, 1926

p. 46.

Middle Eocene (Claibornian

Stage) of Alabama.

Diagnosis.

—Small-

to moderately-sized,

right. Shells typically elongate,

moderate-

with posterior keel and

Valves with moderately coarse concentric
some also with fine radial striations. Right valve

rostrum.

hinge with anterior cardinal tooth and posterior socketlike resilifer. Left valve hinge with anterior cardinal
socket

and posterior chondrophore.

1926.)

— Caryocorbula
___^

(See

Gardner,

f

and small rostrum. Left valve hing^
venopens
that
socket
triangular
large,

with anterior,

socK'
cardinal
of
posterior
chondrophore
Broad
trally.
et, continuous with dorsal margin, and with midli^^

hooklarge,
anterior,
hinge
with
Right valve

cleft.

shaped, triangular cardinal tooth. Widely open socket-

Long
tooth.
cardinal
posterior
of
like resilifer present
an
anterior
furrows for reception of left valve located
posterior of, and continuous with, right valve hing
scar circular, anterior scar ovate.

nus present.
Type Material.— Leciotypc:
46, figs. 12, 13),
is

now

includes most

Very small

ANSP2691

lost (G.

who

pallial

s

(articulate

Specimens figured by Pilsbry (1922,

p.

d

427, P^

designated the lectotype, wlu'^

Rosenberg, pers. comm., 1993)-



desig
here
Type locality. None designated. It is
nated as
17281: Baitoa Formation (upper Lon^^

NMB

Va^
Rio
Lopez
section,
to lower Middle Miocene),
del Norte, Dominican Republic.
Material.
Measured and/or figured spccim^



NMB G

14111, 14112, 14113. Other specimens

right valves,

American
species assigned to Cuneocorbula Cossmann, 1886 by
a number of authors (e.g., Dall, 1898; Maury, 1917).
Remarks.

|

gj^arp arcuate keel

shell).

ly thickened valves. Left valve slightly smaller than

ribs;

left

posterio
thickened;
Adductor muscle scars large and

— Corbula alabamiensis Lea, 1833, by

original designation.

valve but
^^^^ ^j^jj ^j- anterior of umbo in right valve. Valves
not strongly inflated and shells not greatly thickened
flat
closely-spaced,
concentric,
of
consists
Sculpture

margin anterior of umbo in

one

two

and two

cataloged by locality, which
rence section.

left

^

(f^^^^^

^^^
articulated
valves,
three
left

internal mold,

J

'

valve fragments)

are listed in the

Oco
\


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

Table
Sis.

3.

—Measurements of Corbula {Caryocorbula) dominicen

Figures are in

mm.
valve

length height width

2691: Icctotype (figured

by Pilsbry, 1922)
PRI 29033: (figured by Maury,
1917; refigured in PI. 2,

fig.

3)

aiticulated

14.6

9.0

6.0

left

13.4

8.6

3.3

PRI 29033: (figured by Maury,
1917; refigured in PI. 2,

1

NMBG

14112:

TU

5);

NMBG

14113:

TU

4);

NMBG
12);

NMB

was collected from the

fig.

Rfo Yaque del Norte: Baitoa Formation: TU 1226,
and NMB 17281, 17283.
Upper Lower to lower Middle MioDistribution.
cene Baitoa, Upper Miocene Cercado (?) Formations,



Dominican Republic.
6)

12.6

right

3.2

8.6

Corbula (Caryocorbula) sericea

1226

left

13.6

8.2

3.1

right

14.2

9.0

4.0

Dall, 1898

Plate 2, figures 7-21

(PI. 2, figs. 1,

locality

14111:

species

information):

(PI. 2, figs. 2,

locality

—This

following areas (see Saunders et aL, 1986 for locality

specimen

^NSP

Occurrence.

15

1226

(PI.

1,

figs. 9,

17281

locality

articulated

15.3

9.2

6.9^

diameter of articulated shell.

Corbula lavaleana Orbigny. Gabb, 1873b, p. 247; 1881,
Corbula {Corbula) sericea Dall, 1898, p. 848-849; 1900,

p.

371.

pi.

36,

fig.

Woodring, 1925, p. 186-187, pi. 25, figs 19-22.
Corbula {Cuneocorbula) cercadica Maury, 1917, p. 232-233,

pi.

8;

39, figs. 16, 17.

Corbula {Cuneocorbula) caimitica Maury, 1917,



Measurements,
See Table 3.
Remarks.
This is a rare species found in conglomerates or conglomeratic
lenses containing mollusks. In



I

was found only in the upper Lower to
ower Middle Miocene Baitoa Formation of the Rfo
study,

l^is

^ection (Zone
ent to

H

of the Rfo Cana

at

Cahuito; equiva-

TU

1230 [Saunders et aL, 1986; H. Yokes,
^9]). Maury's specimens (refigured in PI. 2, figs. 3,
differ from the Baitoa Formation specimens in sev^al Ways.
Maury's specimens are smaller, less clonpie, have a
more centrally located umbo, more strongy arcuate keel, larger posterior slope, and coarser con^ntric ribs. Smaller specimens from the Baitoa Foration closely resemble Maury's specimens, but with
-*

^ limited material available,
nite

or separate the

was not possible to
specimens from the two formait

tions.



,

1

^^^parison.
Corbula (Caryocorbula) deniocracia
Hodson, in Hodson and Hodson, 1931, from the
eocene of Falcon, Venezuela is much kugcr (hoioP*^ length is
22.5 mm), is less elongate, has a more

I

39, figs,

18, 19.

Corbula sericea Dall. Pilsbry, 1922, p. 427.
Corbula {Caryocorbula) cercadica Maury. Anderson, 1994,

figs.

1.1-1.5.

Diagnosis.

—Species characterized by

small, inflat-

ed, elongate-ovate to subtriangular valves with relatively fine, closely

and very

and evenly spaced concentric

ribs,

fine radial striations.

Description.

moderately



small

Shells

inflated.

to

moderately

sized;

Valves thin to relatively thick,

and right valves
valve larger and

variability in part preservational. Left

subcqual in size and shape; right
shghtly less elongate than left. Umbo

at

or slightly

anterior of valve midline. Keel nearly straight to ai-

from triangular to elongate
ovate; elongate valves more rostrate. Ornament of
cuate. Valve shape vaiies

closely spaced concentric ribs. Fine radial ribs present

but variably expressed. Radial striations present, beaded under magnification.

Right valve hinge with anterior, large, triangular.
hook-shaped, cardinal tooth, and posterior, large, wide-

Ridge bisects roof of reC. viminea. Long fuiTow present on either

ly open, socket-like resilifer.
silifer,

as in

side of right valve hinge for reception of left valve's

thickened dorsal margin. Posterior furrow continuous
with resilifer. Left valve hinge with anterior, large, tri-

/^ii^ation

hore. Anterior half of chondrophore's dorsal surface
concave, posterior half convex. Small denticle present

^

(Upper Miocene) of Panama and the Upper
eocene Angostura
Formation of Ecuador is about the

^'^e size as C.
dominicensis but is more strongly rose with
the rostrum located in a more dorsal position
^
Oil fu

^

Lue posterior
margin,

^1^
p

and has a more strongly

ar-

keel, giving Ihc rostrum a twisted appearance,

^ '^^a

(Caryocorbula) dominicensis veracruzana
1984 from the Upper Miocene Santa Rosa

bed^*^^'^^'
s,

Veracruz,

i

pi.

nvex ventral margin, and has coarser concentric ribs
^
dominicensis. Corbula (Caryocorbula) pren^^'uta
Olsson, 1964 of the lower and middle Gatun

C

[

233,

it

Yaque del Norte section (see Saunders et aL, 1986).
naury (1917), however, reports C. dominicensis from
Jie upper Miocene Cercado Formadon of the Rio Cana
I

p.

^^^^'f~acia

than

Mexico more

C

closely resembles C. de~

dominicensis

s.

s.,

^ subspecies of C. dominicensis.

and probably

is

angular, cardinal socket

at posterior

and broad posterior chondrop-

edge of chondrophore. Adductor muscle

scars slighUy thickened. Posterior scar circular; anterior scar ovate. Pallial sinus small to obsolete.

Type MateriaL

—Lectotype:

USNM

135655

(right

Lectotype designated by Woodring (1925).
Specimen figured by Dall (1900, PI. 36, fig. 8) and

valve).

Woodring (1925,
here (PL

PI.

25, figs. 19, 20),

and refigured

2, fig. 7).

Type locality.—VSGS

locality 2692: track ballast


.

Bulletin 351

16

Table

4.

—Measurements of Corhula (Caryocorbula)

Figures are in

mm.

specimen

USNM
fig.

PRI 29035':

(figured

PI. 2, fig. 9)

TU

locafity

left

5.6

3.9

2.0

right

6.6

4.6

2.3

by Maury,
2, fig. 8)

shallow marine deposits of the Rio Mao have a subtriangular valve oudine (PI. 2, figs. 16, 17). Average
height to length rado (H:L) is 0.72 (all height to length

based on data
from Anderson, 1994). The ventral margin of these
forms is directed upward at a shght angle in both di-^
rections from the midline. There is no invagination of

left

5.6

4.0

1.8

right

6.1

4.5

2.1

left

4.2

2.9

1.4

right

4.9

3.2

1.6

lelt

7.5

4.7

2.4

right

7.0

5.0

3.0

left

7.1

4.6

2.3

the ventral margin in association with the keel or rostrum. The rostrum is very subdued to nearly absent

and is directed downward. Most forms have an evenly
is
umbo
the
in
some,
although
margin,
dorsal
rounded
somewhat set off and projecdng.
oi
sediments
marine
very
shallow
Specimens from
be
to
tend
figs.
12,
secdon
(PL
13)
the Rio Cana
2,
larger and more elongate (average H;L = 0.63) than
those of the Rio Mao section. In addition, the rostrum
in Rio Cana specimens is located in a more dorsal
position on the posterior margin, and it tends to poin^
posteriorly rather than ventrally.

1227A

14123:

tinuous and are closely related to paleoenvironmental
conditions (Anderson, 1994). Specimens from very

ratios for C. sericea reported here arc

NMB G 14114: (PI. 2, fig. 17);
NMB locality 16928
NMB G 14115: (PI. 2, fig. 16);
NMB locality 16928
NMB G 14116: (PI. 2, fig. 19);
NMB locality 15869
NMB G 14117: (Pi. 2, fig. 18);
NMB locality 15869
NMB G 14118: (PI. 2, figs. 11,
15); NMB locality 16848
NMB G 14119: (PI. 2, figs. 10,
14); NMB locafity 16848
NMB G 14120: (PI. 2, fig. 13);
NMB locafity 16855
NMB G 14121: (PL 2, fig. 12);
NMB locality 16855
NMB G 14122: (PL 2, fig. 21);

NMB G

2.0

by Maury,

1917; refigured in PI.

locafity

4.0

5.3

right

(figured

width

(PI. 2,

7)

1917; refigured in

TU

length height

valve

135655: lectotype

PRI 29035':

sericea.

right

8.1

4.8

2.7

left

5.6

3.9

2.0

(PI. 2, fig. 20);

1227A

6.0

right

4.2

2.3

Mislabeled as cotypes (syntypes) of Corhula {Cuneocorbula) caimitica but are Corhula (Cuneocorbula) cercadica illustrated in pi. 39,
figs. 16, 17 of Maury 1917). The syntypes of Corhula {Cuneocorbula) caimltica are apparently lost (W. Allmon, pcrs. comm., 1994).

for railroad 1.5 miles west of

source of the aggregate

is

Limon, Costa Rica. The

USGS

Limon Reef (= Moin Formation,
Measured and/or
Material.



locality 2694: in situ

point of the valve

the Occurrence section.



sections.

Corbula sericea

iment types

in the

occurs scattered

is

found in a variety of sed-

study area although

in silts

and

in shell

it

predominantly

beds with a

silty

m atri x
Corbula sericea is morphologically variable, although most shape variation is highly correlated with
size. Size and size-correlated shape, in turn, are con-

anteriorly than

^

H:L

15) also are large, ovate, and elon= 0.68), although not as elongate

the
of
as valves from very shallow-marine deposits
nior
is
slope
dorsoanterior
the
addition,
Rio Cana. In

The rosand whe

rounded than in very shallow-marine forms.
is

moderately expressed
is

to obsolete,

ventral margin
the keel less sinuous than

directed ventrally.

strongly rounded, and

The

i"

shallow-marine forms of the Rfo Cana section.
d
marine
and
deeper
Valves from intermediate
^n
Cana,
posits of the Rfo Gurabo, Rfo Mao, Rfo

Rfo Yaque

Measurements.
See Table 4.
Remarks. This species is locally abundant in Upper Miocene shallow-marine (< 30 m) and brackishwater deposits of the Rfo Cana, Rfo Gurabo and Rfo
Mao secdons. It also occurs in Miocene and Pliocene
intermediate and deeper marine (> 30 to + 100 m)
sediments of the Rfo Cana, Rfo Gurabo, Canada Zalaya, Rfo Amina, Rfo Verde, and Rfo Yaque del Norte

is

located more

specimens.

gate (average

present,

valves) are cataloged by locality, which are listed in

Mao

2, figs. 10, 11, 14,

figured specimens:

UW

a result, valves

(?'
secdon
Rio
Cana
from
the
water
forms
Brackish

trum

14114, 14115, 14116, 14117, 14118, 14119,
14120, 14121, 14122, 14123. Addidonal material:
1863/25, 1863/26. Other specimens (thousands of



Rfo

Pliocene).

NMB G

\

have an ovate oudine. Convexity of the keel varies,
The
keel.
sinuous
slighUy
have
a
but most specimens
dorsoanterior slope is nearly straight, and the highes
the

'

As

\

tha
smaller
del Norte sections tend to be

those of other paleoenvironments but are very
in shape to the Rfo Mao specimens. For these

sinii

^

*^^^P-^

water forms (PL 2, figs. 18, 19), H:L is 0,72 to 0-7-^
on average. Pliocene valves of deeper marine depos
of the Canada Zalaya section (PL 2, figs. 20, 21) ^^^
^^^
deeper
similar in both size and shape to other
forms, except that the ventral margin tends to be

I

ter.

o'd^t
small
Comparison. Jung (1969) noted diat
ocorbulids of the Miocene and Pliocene of Trin'

were oversplit and
Maury, 1912, and
Maury, 1925 and C.
nior synonyms of C.
it is

similar in

Corbula smii'^'
possibly C. caribaea perg^^,^^
be
J
to
Maury,
1925,
daphnis
^
helenae Maury, 1912. ^"^^^^ /;
o
morphologies
shape to Rfo Cana
considered

I

)


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

helenae has a larger

^^^ricea, C.

mm

maximum

size (up to

can
be more coarsely sculptured, can have more prominent radial striations, and tends to have a more bulbous and projecting anterior. The species
manzani-^lensls Maury, 1925 of the Miocene Manzanilla For13

long),

more

is

elongate,

is

less inflated,

C

i

"^^ation

of Trinidad

^otnparable sizes,

is

is

very small, has coarser ribs

at

strongly triangular, and less elon-

gate than C. sericea.

I

I

Corbula {Caryocorbula) oropendula Olsson, 1922
has coarser sculpture, has a straighter keel and more
Centrally located rostrum, is more elongate, and has
a niore strongly and evenly rounded ventral margin
*^han
sericea. Corbula (Caryocorbula) oropendula

i

is

(Santiago).

a

more prominent notch

in the ventral

margin

than seen in C. sericea.

Occurrence.

—This species was collected from

the

following areas (sec Saunders et al, 1986 for locality
^'^formation):

NMB

Rio Cana: Cercado Formation: TU 1230, and
1*^^38, 16839, 16841, 16843, 16844, 16845, 16846,
^6848, 16850, 16851, 16853, 16854, 16855, 16856,
16986, 16987, 16988, 16989, 16990, 16993, 17001,
1*^003.

P^f

Lower Gurabo Formation:

Gurabo Formation:

TU

1354,

NMB 16832. Upand NMB 16865,

17009.

Rio Gurabo: Cercado Formation: TU 1277, 1419,
^nd
15900, 15904, 15910, 15911, 15912,
15925. Lower Gurabo Formation: TU 1211, 1215,
1278, and
15842, 15846, 15854, 15860, 15863,
15864, 15869, 15871, L5873, 15882, 15936, 15937,

NMB

NMB

15941, 15944, 15945, 15947, 16808, 16809, 16810,
1^836, 15835, 15952. Upper Gurabo Formation: TU

—Upper Lower

lower Middle Miocene Baitoa, Upper Miocene Cercado, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene Gurabo, and Lower Pliocene
Mao Formations, Dominican Republic; Pliocene
Bowden Formation, Jamaica; Pliocene Moin Formation, Costa Rica; Miocene Gatun Formation (?), PanDistribution.

ama

(see

Brown and

Pilsbry, 1911).

JuUacorbula Olsson and Harbison, 1953,

p.

148-149.



Corbula acquivalvis Philippi, 1836
Type species.
(^ Corbula cubaniana Orbigny, 1846; = Corbula
knoxiana Adams, 1852b); by original designation.
Recent, West Indies.

— Shell small-

medium-sized, nearly
equivalved. Subrectangular with strong keel and
sharply truncated posterior. Well-defined escutcheon
located behind beak. Hinge as in Caryocorbula. (See
Diagnosis.

to

Olsson and Harbison, 1953; Olsson, 1961.)
Remarks. JuUacorbula differs from Caryocorbula in shape and in the presence of an escutcheon. The



C

cubanitype species was originally designated as
ana, which generally is agreed to be a junior synonym of C. acquivalvis (see McLean, 1951; Weisbord, 1964; Rios, 1975).

Uacorbula

is

Miocene

to

The geologic range of JuRecent in the West Indies,

eastern Pacific, Central and South America, and Florida (Moore, 1969; Olsson and Harbison, 1953). Mem-

bers of this group inhabit shallow-marine environ-

ments.

NMB

plO, and

15933, 15935, 15939, 15964, 15966,
1^969, 15805, 15804, 15814, 15815. Mao Formation:
^^ 1352, and
15822, 15827, 15832, 15833.
Rio Mao: Cercado Formation: TU 1294, and

Corbula (JuUacorbula)

NMB

NMB

16912,

to

Subgenus JULIACORBULA
Olsson and Harbison, 1953

similar in shape to C. or-

opendula but has finer sculpture. Corbula {Caryocorbula) oropendula stena Woodring (1982) is much
^ore rounded, tends to be smaller, and its rostrum
*^reates

f

Rio Yaque del Norte: Baitoa Formation: TU 1226.
Unnamed Formation: NMB 17273 (Arroyo Lopez),
NMB 17278 (Angostura). Gurabo Formation: TU
1403, 1405, 1448, 1449 (La Barranca), TU 1206

C

^olicha Woodring, 1982

17

correspond to Maury's
^^uff 3 (1917));
16915, 16916, 16917, 16918,
1^922, 16923, 16924, 16926, 16927, 16928 (all Ar'^yo Bajon);
16914, 16929, 16930, 16931,

17269

16913,

(all

NMB

NMB

Maury's Bluff 2); NMB 16802 (located
J^^^32
ptWeen Bluff and 2); TU 1293, and NMB 16910
|aU BlulT
1), and TU 1225 (down stream and up sec^^^n from Bluff
1).
(all

1

Rio Amina: Gurabo Formation:

TU

1219, 1411,

1412.
)

Canada Zalaya: Gurabo Formation: TU
1^27A, 1453, 1453A.
^lo Verde: Gurabo Formation: TU 1250.

1227,

fossilis Pilsbry,

Plate 2, figures

1922

22-26

Corbula contracta Say. Gabb, 1873b, p. 247.
Corbula knoxiana fossilis Pilsbry, 1922, p. 427, pi. 46, fig. 14.
ICorbula (Cuneocorbula) cubaniana Orbigny. Maury, 1925,
103-104,

pi.

p.

20, figs. 2-4.

pi.
IJuliacorbula acquivalvis (Philippi). Jung, 1969, p. 410-411,
39, figs. 11-15.
Perrilliat, 1984, p. 17,
Philippi.
acquivalvis
{JuUacorbula)
Corbula

pi. 16, figs.

1-4.

Z)/<7^noA/^.— Species characterized by straight to
posangled
strongly
margin,
ventral
slightly concave
subtrapand
rostrum,
and
keel
strong
margin,
terior
ezoidal shape.

Description.
idal,

—Valves

and moderately

relatively small, subtrapezo-

inflated. Ventral

margin flattened


Bulletin 351

18

concave at midline. Dorsoanterior margin
also slightly concave in front of umbo. Directly posterior of beak, valve margin planar, gently sloping
to slightly

ventrally (sloping

trum so

more

steeply in left valves) to ros-

rostrum nearly as high as entire valve.
Posterior of rostrum, valve margin nearly planar and
vertical. Keel sharp and gently sinuous. Valve ornament of relatively coarse ribs with steep dorsal and
that

very similar to the Dominican species, although the
posterior slope

is

nearly vertical in the Trinidad spec-

imens and more oblique

in

Dominican forms.

It is

not

possible at this time to determine whether this differ-

ence

is

of taxonomic significance because of the pau-

beak and posterior
broad chondrophore. Dorsal surface of chondrophore
with anterior, midline and posterior ridges; small denticle present at end of posterior ridge. Adductor muscle scars large and moderately thickened; anterior

Corbula {Juliacorbula) scutata Gardner, 1943 of the Florida Pleistocene is very similar to
fossilis but has coarser ribs, a more arched and less
sinuous keel, a less concave dorsoanterior margin, and
can be more elongate. The Pleistocene to Recent Caequlvalvis Philippi, 1836 (— C. knoxlana C. B. Adams, ~C. cubaniana Orbigny) may be a peramorphic
descendent of C. fossilis. Smaller specimens of C. aequlvalvis overlap in morphology with C. fossilis. Corbula aequivalvis differs from
fossilis, however in
attaining a larger size, having a more rounded ventral
margin that shows its greatest convexity anterior of the
midline, not having a concave dorsoanterior margin,
being more elongate, having a more sinuous keel, and
tending to have finer ribs.
Occurrence.
This species was collected from the
following areas (see Saunders et al., 1986 for locality

scar ovate, posterior scar circular. Pallial sinus ob-

information);

gentle ventral slopes. Faint radial striations present on

umbo.
Right valve hinge with moderately projecting, triangular, hook-shaped, cardinal tooth directly beneath
beak. Posterior socket-like resilifer present beneath

umbo. Hinge

making resilifer
nearly obsolete. Posterior of hinge, long L-shaped
furrow present on right valve's posterior margin for
reception of

plate strongly sinuous,

left valve.

Left valve hinge with large,

triangular, cardinal socket beneath

solete.

Type Material— no\oiy\)o:
by Pilsbry (1922,

valve). Figure

ANSP

2689

PI. 46, fig.

(right

14)

and

locality.

nated as

NMB

—None designated.

It is

here desig-

15914: Cercado Formation (Upper

Miocene), Rio Gurabo, Dominican Republic.
Material Measured and/or figured specimens:
G 14124, 14125.
Measurements. See Table 5.
Remarks. This rare species is found in shell-rich
sediments with a silty matrix.
Comparison. Species of JuUacorhula from the
Tertiary of Trinidad (Maury, 1925; Jung, 1969) are



NMB







Table

5.

Figures are

—Measurements of Corhula {Juliacorbula)
in

ANSP

2689; liolotype

valve

uncat.: paratype

NMB G 14124; (PI. 2, fig. 26);
NMB locality 15914
NMB G 14125: (PI. 2, fig. 25);
NMB locality 16817
USNM 306431; (figured in Pcrrilliat,

width

right

8.7

6.1

2.7

left

8.4

5.8

2.8

left

6.7

4.4

1.8

right

5.7

4.1

1.6

uncat.; paratype (PL 2, fig.

24)

ANSP

length helghl

(PI. 2, figs.

22, 23)

ANSP

fossilis.

mm.

specimen

1984);

PRl 870:
PRI 871:

PRI 872:

IGM

locality

2851

Maury, 1925)
(figured in Maury, 1925)

(figured in

(figured in

Maury, 1925)

C

C



Rfo Cana: Upper Gurabo Formation: NMB 16817.
Rio Gurabo: Cercado Formation: NMB 15914.
Distribution.

—Upper

Miocene Cercado, Upp^^

Lower Pliocene Gurabo Formations, D^'
minican Republic; Upper Miocene Santa Rosa beds,
Veracruz, Mexico; Lower Pliocene Melajo Clay MeiTi'
Miocene

refigured here (PL 2, figs. 22, 23).

Type

city of material.

to

ber of the Springvale Formation(?), Phocene Foin^

Courbaril Sand and Clay

mation

Member

of the I'Enfer Fof'

PHocene Matura Sand and Clay Memhef

(?),

of the Talparo Formation

Subgenus
Panamlcorhula

(?),

Trinidad.

PANAMICORBULA

Pilsbry, 1932

Pilsbry, 1932, p. 105.



Type species. Potamomya inflata Adams, 185^^
{=P. aequalis Adams, 1852a, =P. trigonalis Adaitis.
1852a, = Corbula macdonaldi Dall, 1912); by original
designation. Recent, Pacific Coast of Panama.
Diagnosis,
Valves moderately large and inflatct^
but relatively thin, not rostrate. Surface smooth or witn
very fine concentric ribs. Hinge of right valve wi^i^
anterior cardinal tooth and posterior socket-like r^^''
lifer. Left valve hinge with anterior cardinal socket an
posterior chondrophore. (See Pilsbry, 1932; H. Vokes.



1945; Olsson, 1961.)



n
description,
Contrary to the original
lateral teeth are present. What Pilsbry (1932) described
as long laterals in the right valve are actually buttresses

Remarks,

right

5.6

3.7

1.4

left

8.7

6.8

2.2

left

6.2

4.3

1.9

for grooves that receive the dorsal margin of the

right

7.4

5.1

2.3

valve (H. Vokes, 1945; Moore, 1969). Living P^^'

right

7.9

6.0

2.7

amicorbula are found

in the

Panamic Province

'*^

(eastef


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

Mazatlan

Pacific;

1932; Olsson,

water (Pilsbry,

to Peru) in brackish

The subgenus

1961).

is

reported as

abundant but poorly preserved from Middle Miocene
sediments at Punta Judas, Pacific Coast, Costa Rica
(Seyfried et

al.,

1985).

also present in

is

It

Table

USNM

6.

NMB G
figs.

14126: holotype

I, 2);

of the Lower Pliocene I'Enfer Formation (USGS
21842, USGS 20433) and Lower Pliocene Springvale
Formation (USGS 20421, USGS 21083, USGS 20423)

NMB G

NMB G

NMB

Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae, new species

NMB

NMB G

1994,

aff. C. inflata

(C. B.

fig. 3.1.

diagnosis,



Species characterized by roughly

^'^gular shape, thin valves, fine concentric ribs,
'^nd right

and

tri~

left

valves subequal in size and shape.

description.

—Valves

length about 15

mm),

inflated,

and

'

Valve height shows

^o

positive allometry relative

whereas
^iTiallcr valves more quadrate. Ventral margin most
"Convex anterior of midhne, whereas umbo located at
i^idline. Ventral margin of right valve rounded, of left
^alve shghtly sinuous. Valve ornament of very fine,
valve length; larger valves

more

16841

locafity

Remarks.

triangular,

left

13.5

10.4

4.3

right

13.9

11.2

4.8

right

12.4

10.2

3.4

left

8.3

7.0

2.3

right

7.1

5.5

1.5

10);

(PI. 3, fig.

Measurements.

Left and right

3.6

(PI. 3,

16841

locality

14132:

9.9

(PI. 3, fig. 9);

diameter of articulated

^^Ives subequal in size and shape; right valve slightly
^^^""ger.

14131:

12.2

locality

(maximum

relatively large
thin.

NMB G
NMB
NMB G
NMB

left

9.6'

(PI. 3,

16841

Adams). Anderson,

11.8

(PI. 3,

locality 16841

NMB

14.4

(PI. 3,

16841

locality

14130: paratype

figs. 3, 4);

articulated

height width

locality

14129: paratype

fig. 5);

length

locality

14128: paratype

NMB G

^orhula {Panamicorbula)

NMB

valve
(PI. 3,

16841

fig. 8);

Plate 3, figures 1-iO

NMB

14127; paratype

figs. 6, 7);

Trinidad.

'^f

mm.
specimen

16845

l^ers)

—Measurements of Corbula (Panamicorbula) canae. Fig

urcs are in

Geological Survey locality num-

^collections (with U.S.

19



shell.

—See Table

6.

^This is the first description

of a

fossil

Pan-

amicorhula species and tlie first description of a Caribbean Panamicorbula. This species is restricted to the
""Area" beds of the Upper Miocene Cercado Formation

Rio Cana section

(see Saunders et

in interbedded shelly silts

and

al.,

1986).

silty clays,

It is

and

found

in shell

beds. Living representatives of Panamicorbula are re-

of Central America where

•closely-spaced, concentric ribs. Radial ribs absent. Arcuate keel and subtle rostrum present. Right valve

stricted to the Pacific coast

hinge with large, anterior, triangular, hook-shaped, car^^iial tooth. Posterior, socket-like resilifer present be-

mouUis of sU-eams (Pilsbry, 1932; H. Yokes, 1945; Keen,
1971). Corbula canae apparendy had similar environ-

^^ath beak and opening ventrally. Elongate furrow

mental preferences because

P*"esent

on both

sides of right valve hinge for reception

tliey

mangrove swamps and

inhabit

posited in or near



it

areas

near the

occurs in sediments de-

mangrove swamps (Anderson, 1994).

Phore.

Corbula {Panamicorbula) inflata (AdComparison.
ams, 1852a) (synonyms: C. aequalis [Adams, 1852a], C.
trigonalis [Adams, 1852aJ, and C. macdonaldi Dall,

'^•^d

1912)

^f

lt:ft

valve. Left valve hinge with large, anterior,

tri-

cardinal socket and broad posterior chondro-

^^^gular,

Choudrophore continuous with valve margin
not strongly projecting. Low anterior, midline, and

is

shape.

Posterior ridges present

in

*^^ophore.

1852a)

on dorsal surface of chonAdductor muscle scars large but not thick-

^ned. Posterior scar circular; anterior scar ovate. Palhal
^^*^us



Etymology of name. Name after Rio Cana.
'^ype Material.— lloUAypc: NMB G 14126 (articuFigured in Plale

—NMB

3, figures

1,

2.

NMB

^^e

same lithologic unit.
^aterial.
Measured and/or figured specimens:



line, the

keel

and 20

left

1

articulated shells,

is

—This

species

was collected

following areas (see Saunders et

al.,

froin the

1986 for locality

information):

NMB

16843, 16845,
16990, 16841, 16993, 16987, 16989, 16840, 16844,
16852, and 16842.
Upper Miocene Cercado Formation,
Distribution.



Dominican Republic.

Corbula (Panamicorbula)

sp.

Plate 3, figure 11

32 right

valves) are cataloged by locahty,

^Uch are fisted in the Occurrence section.

margin of C inflata (Adams,
and is most convex near the valve midless arcuate, and the rostium is absent.

ventral

is flatter

14126, 14127, 14128, 14129, 14130, 14131,

^^32. Other specimens (1
^^Ivcs,

The

than C. canae and differs somewhat

Rio Cana: Cercado Formation:

^>pe locality.
16845: Cercado Formation
(U PPcr
Miocene), Rio Cana, Dominican Republic.
P aratypes
are from
16841, a nearby locality in

^Mb g

lai'ger

Occurrence.

obsolete.

'^'ted shell).

much

Diagnosis.

—Small

uninflated valves

Panamicorbula with rectangular shape.

(<

6.5

mm)

of


1

Bulletin 35

20

7.—Measurements
mm.

Table
are in

of Corhula {Panamicorbula) sp. Figures

specimen

valve

NMB G 14133: (PI. 3, fig.
NMB locality 16990

length height

width



Remarks.
Some workers (Stenzel et al, 1957;
Weisbord, 1964; Jung, 1969) consider Varicorbula to
be a junior synonym of Notocorbula Iredaie, 1930.
Woodring (1982), however, advocated continued use

11);

right

5.4

4.0

1.3

of Varicorbula until the type species of Notocorbulci
(1957) state thai the
nepionic shells evident in both valves of the type spe-

was

NMB
4

left

—Measured

and/or figured specimens:
G 14113. Other specimens (15 right valves, and
valves) are cataloged by locality, which are listed

Material.

Occurrence section.
Measurements.
See Table 7.
Remarks.
These are small, apparently immature
valves of a Panamicorbula species. Although these
valves may be small individuals of Corbula {Panamin the





number of valves for comparison and lack of intermediates makes assignment
icorbula) canae, the small

better

known. Stenzel

et al.

Corbula {Notocorbula) vicaria
can be seen in a more subdued form in
cies,

(Iredale,

1930),

C

(Olivi,

gibba

1792), the type species of Varicorbula, and use this

synonymy. Corbula vicaria^ however, does apparently differ from C. gibba in that left
and right valves are subcqual in size and shape, wheretrait as

a basis for

Varicorbula

as

Varicorbula

is

strongly inequivalved. Therefore,

used here.

is

Eocene to Reeastern North America, Europe, and the eastern

The geologic range of Varicorbula
cent in

is

uncertain.

These valves co-occur with C. canae in interbedded shelly silts and silty clays, and shell beds
dominated by Anadara patricia in the upper part of
the Upper Miocene Cercado Formation of the Rio

and western Pacific (Moore, 1969). Varicorbula species inhabit marine waters and can locally dominate
the bcnthic fauna {e.g., Yonge, 1946).

Cana

Corbula (Varicorbula) sanctidominici Maury, 1925

section.



Comparison. Valve shape of Corbula {Panamicorbula) sp. resembles Caryocorbula, but these valves are
not as inflated as Caryocorbula, and the resilifcr of the
right valve opens ventrally (as in Panamicorbula).
These valves differ from Corbula {Panamicorbula)
canae in that they are small, much less inflated, and
rectangular (rather than triangular) in shape.

Occurrence.

—This

following areas (see

was collected from the
Saunders et ah, 1986 for locality
species

information):

Rio Cana: Cercado Formation:

NMB

16845, 16990,

16993, 16987, 16989, 16846, 16852, 16986.
Distribution.
Upper Miocene Cercado Formation,



Dominican Republic.
Subgenus

p.

Grant and Gale, 1931
420, footnote

1.

Type species.^Tellina gibba Oiivi, 1792; by original designation. Recent, west coast of Europe and
Mediterranean Sea.
Diagnosis.

—Valves small

Corbula disparilis Orbigny. Gabb, i873b, p. 247.
Corbula vieta Guppy. Pilsbry, 1922, p. 427.
Corbula {Aloidis) vieta Guppy. Maury, 1917, p. 231-232,
fig.

pi-

39,

pi-

19,

13.

Corhula (Aloidis) sancti-dominici Maury, 1925,

p.

98-99,

fig. 2.

Corbula {Varicorbula) vieta Guppy. Anderson, 1994,

Diagnosis.

fig. 3.2.

—Species characterized by highly

inflat-

ed right valve with concave dorsoanterior slope, evenly rounded ventral margin, relatively narrow and anteriorly directed umbo, and near absence of rostrum
and keel. Left valve characterized by quadrate shape

and uninflated umbo.

VARTCORBULA

Varicorbula Grant and Gale, 1931,

Plate 3, figures 12-18

— Shells

of moderate size. Valves
strongly inequivalved in size, shape, and ornamentation. Right valve larger, gready inflated, and subtrianDescription.

gular.

Right valve also with very subtle

to obsolete

keel and rostrum, evenly spaced moderately coars
fiat-topped concentric ribs, and evenly

convex ventra

moderate in size with
right and left valves strongly unequal in size, shape,
and ornamentation. Right valve larger, more inflated
and relatively higher; left valve smaller, more elongate,
and much less inflated. Right valves with strongly expressed concentric ribs. Left valves with fine, widely
spaced, radial ribs and fine concentric growth-lines;
thicker concentric ribs may be present on beak and
umbo. Right valve hinge with anterior cardinal tooth
and posterior socket-like resilifer. Left valve hinge

margin. Valve shape varies with

with anterior cardinal socket and posterior chondrophore.

o
absent
distinct radial striations. Radial striations

to

size.

Small

rig^^

valves inflated with concave dorsoanterior slope, unit"^
directed anteriorly, and obsolete keel. Inflation increases, dorsoanterior slope becomes less concave, an

umbo becomes more
size.

dorsally oriented with incrcasitig

^
develop
Subtle keel and slight rostrum also

size increases.

Left valves

more elongate and quadrate, and

less inflated than right. Left valves
trie

growth

lines

with

and widely spaced and

mii^

faint, conceti'

slightly

iri^^

posterior slope. Small left and right valves (2-3

mm


CoRBULiD Bivalves: Anderson

very similar in shape, but radial ribs more

in length)

prominent on left valves and concentric ribs more
Promincnt on right valves. As size increases, left
halves

become more quadrate and

keel

become more

strongly expressed.

Hinge of

right valve with small, blunt, anterior car-

dinal tooth directly

beneath beak and posterior, broad,

socket-like resilifer that extends slightly beneath beak.
Resilifer,

appears reduced because hinge plate con-

cave. Subsidiary denticle

may

occur above cardinal
l^ooth, formed by projection of valve margin beneath
^eak. Furrows present on either side of right valve
''inge for

reception of

left valve.

Left valve hinge with

^n anterior small subtriangular socket, and posterior

chondrophore. Dorsal surface of chondrophore
^ith prominent anterior ridge, niore subdued midline
^i"oad

^idge,

and posterior ridge with small denticle. Posterior
portion of chondrophore projects strongly upward and
^ay be visible externally. Muscle scars not thickened,
f^osterior scar circular; anterior sear ovate. Pallial sinus
•obsolete.

T^ype

Material

figured by
fig-

—Holotype:

Maury

(1917,

PRI 903

(right valve),

PI. 39, fig. 13;

1925, PI. 19,

and refigurcd here (PL 3, fig. 12).
Type locality,
Rio Cana at Caimito, Dominican
Republic (designated by Maury, 1925). The type locality is here restricted to TU 1230; Cercado Formation
(Upper Miocene), Rio Cana, Dominican Republic
2),

(fide



Jung, 1986).

^MB G

—Measured

and/or figured specimens:
14134, 14135, 14136, 14137. Other speci-

Material.

mens (over 1,100) are cataloged by locality, which are
isted in the Occurrence section.
Measurements,
See Table 8.
Remarks,
Corbula sanctidominici typically occurs
Scattered in silts and in bioclastic beds with a silty





Matrix, This species also occurs in bioclast-rich lenses
^'^*J

burrow-fills within

The

^y
^^e

Varicorbula

^^'-

Caribbean Neogene and Quatercomplex. Of primary concern here

whether Corbula (Varicorbula) sanctidominici

ruble 8.

.

is

is

Figures are in nun.

specimen
3, fig.

12)

valve

Icui^th

height

width

right

9.5

9.6

5.1

right

7.8

7.9

4.6

"^^G
-

a

— Measurements of Corbula {Varicorbula) sanctidomin-

v?I^*^3:hoIolype(Pl.
^8);

14135:(P1. 3, figs. 13,
Nfv^g locality 16837

^^G

^^^

^
G
^^

N\!i^^'

NtI^

14134: (PL

G

locality

14136: (PL

'reality

16837

1250

3, fig.

left

4.6

4.0

1.7

right

5.5

5.4

2.6

right

4.4

4.1

2.0

14);

1250

14137: (PL

locality

3, figs. 16,

3, fig.

synonym of

Guppy, 1866a, a species
originally described from the Miocene Manzanilla Formation of Trinidad, or 2) C c^p^rcwtoa Philippi, 1848
(=C. disparilis Orbigny, 1846?), a Recent Atlantic
species. Gabb (1873b) placed Varicorbula from the
Dominican Republic in C. disparilis and also consid-

junior

15);

1) C. vieta

ered C. vieta to be a junior synonym of C. disparilis.
Recent specirnens of Varicorbula of the western At-

taxonomic quandary, and they have
been variously assigned to Corbula disparilis Orbigny,
1846?; C. operculata Philippi, 1848; and C. philippii
Smith, 1885 (see Weisbord, 1964 and Woodring, 1982
lantic represent a

The synonymy of these names is not
controversial, although authors differ on which is senior. Woodring (1982) states that Orbigny's illustration
for discussion).

poor and the dates of publication controversial; the
imprinted date is 1846, although the probable publication date is 1853 (Keen, 1971). Those who doubt
operculata Philippi,
the 1846 publication date use
1848 for this species. However named, the Recent species appears distinct from C. vieta s. s. and C. sancis

C

tidominici, because
is

more elongate

in

attains a larger

it

maximum

size,

shape with gentler anterior and

posterior dorsal slopes, has coarser ribs,

and has a

stronger rostrum and keel.
Pilsbry (1922), in his revision of Gabb's

C

Dominican

and C.
disparilis are not synonymous, and assigned Gabb's
specimens to C. vieta. Maury (1917) first placed her
Dominican Varicorbula in C. vieta, but later (Maury,
1925) considered her Dominican form to be distinct,
species, concurs with Dall (1898) that

and named

it

C. sanctidominici.

vieta

Maury (1925)

stated

Dominican specimen was larger (10 mm long,
10 mm high compared to 6 mm X 6 mm for C. vieta
from the type area), more inflated, and had more numerous (about 26 rather than about 25) and more
that her

closely spaced ribs.

Maury

(1925), however, did not

place Gabb's (1873b) Dominican Varicorbula speci-

silts.

literature for

21

mens

in

synonymy with

are either

C

C. sanctidominici, stating they

vieta or C. sanctidonuiucL

(USNM

115650; left
vieta were assigned to Erycina tensa Gupvalves of
preserved,
and
not
well
are
15652)
USNM
1866a,
py,
the margins of the larger right valve aie not complete,

The type material of

C. vieta

C

1

making comparison difficult. Corbula vieta from the
type locahty shows the same size range as Dominican
varicorbulids, but tends to be more elongate, have a
wider umbo, less concave dorsoanterior slope, and
stronger keel.

The

material

from

this

study

agrees

well

with

Gabb's (1873b) material (ANSP 2690) from the Dominican Repubhc. Maury's type (PRI 903) of C. sanctidominici is, however, somewhat unusual for Dominican Varicorbula. Her specimen is a right valve that is


Bulletin 351

22

unusually large and coarsely ribbed. Unfortunately, the
ventral margin is not intact so it is difficult to deter-

mine

original valve shape, a diagnostic feature.

ertheless, the traits that

Maury

Nev-

noted as diagnostic for

C. sanctidominici seem to be correlated with size in
Dominican Varicorbula. Therefore, I place both my
material and Gabb's Dominican material in C sancti-

dominici.



Corbula {Varicorbula) sanctianderComparison.
aea Maury (1925) of the Miocene Manzanilla Formation of Trinidad has a left valve with a very convex
beak that is subequal in size to the right valve's beak.
In addition, the right valve of C. sanctianderaea is
relatively more elongate and subequilateral with a wider

umbo and

stronger rostrum than

C

sanctidominici.

Corbula heterogena Guppy (in Dall, 1898) of the
Pliocene Bowden Formation of Jamaica is very similar

and shape

in size

to

C

sanctidominici. In C. hetero-

umbos of

the right valve are less

gena, however, the
elevated and prominent, and are not as strongly di-

rected anteriorly because the dorsoanterior margin is
sanctidominici the right
less concave. Therefore, in

C

umbo

valve

appears narrower and more set off from

the ventral portion of the valve. In addition, the right

valve of C. heterogena

is

stronger rostrum and keel.

erogena are more

inflated

more elongate and has a
The left valves of C hetand have more prominent

beaks.

Woodring (1982) assigns specimens of the Miocene
and Pliocene of Panama and Costa Rica to Corbula

He

{Varicorbula) disparilis.

also considered C. wal-

tonensis Gardner, 1928 from the

junior

synonym

morphologic

Miocene of Florida a

of C. disparilis, thus allowing

variation

in

species.

the

much

Woodring's

(1982) figured specimens are very similar to C. heterogena. These Central American forms differ from C.

sanctidominici in having a stronger rostrum and keel,

beaks directed dorsally rather than anteriorly, and a
somewhat sinuous rather than straight ventral marginOccurrence.

—This

species

was

following areas (see Saunders et

collected from the

1986 for

al.,

locality

information):

Rfo Cana: Cercado Formation:

TU

1230, and

NMB

16835, 16838, 16837, 16842, 16857, 17005. Lower
16828, 16832, 16833,
Gurabo Formation:

NMB

16834. Upper Gurabo Formation:
16817, 16818, 16959, 16824.

TU

1354, and

NMB

Arroyo Ballaco: Cercado Formation; TU 1420.
Rfo Gurabo: Cercado Formation: NMB 15895,
15896, 15906, 15900. Lower Gurabo Formation: TU
1215, 1277, 1211, and NMB 15846, 15860, 15863,
15864, 16810, 15869, 15871, 15873, 15874, 15878,
15882, 15836, 15944, 15952, 15954. Upper Gurabo
15804, 15805.
Formation: TU 1210, and

NMB

Rfo Mao: Cercado Formation: NMB 16927, 16915,
16926, 16924 (all correspond to Arroyo Bajon); NMB
16929, 16914 (all Maury's Bluff 2); TU 1410, and
TU
and
Maury's
Bluff
1
2);
(between
16802
NMB
1293, NMB 16910 (Maury's Bluff 1); TU 1225
(downstream of Maury's Bluff 1).
Cafiada Zalaya: Gurabo Formation: TU 1227,
1227a, 1453, 1453a.

Rfo Yaque del Norte: Baitoa Formation: TU 1363,
and NMB 16938 (all Lopez section). Unnamed Formation: NMB 17273 (Arroyo Lopez). Gurabo ForTfJ
Barranca);
1403
(La
mation: TU 1449, 1448, 1405,
1206 (SanUago).
Rio Verde: Gurabo Formation:

TU

1250.

lower Middle Mi*^^
ccnc Baitoa, Upper Miocene Cercado, Upper Mioccn^
to Lower Pliocene Gurabo Formations, Dominican R^'
Distribution.

—Upper Lower

to

public.

REFERENCES CITED
Adams, C. B.
1852a.

Bold,

Catalogue of shells collected
their

synonymy,

Lyceum

station,

at

Panama, with notes on

W.

1988.

and geographical distribution.

of Natural History of

New

York, Annals, vol. 5,

pis.

Descriptions of

new

species of Corbula from Jamaica.

Contributions to Conchology,

vol. 12, pp.

233-241.

Neogene corbulid bivalves of

the

and Florida: Species distributions,

Dominican Republic

Or-

1982.

Broderip,
1829.

ity,

1994.

174 pp.
Paleoenvironmental control of species distributions and

Neogene CorbuUdae (Bivalvia:
Dominican Republic. Journal of Paleon-

intraspecific variability in

Myacea) of

the

tology, vol. 68, pp.

460-473.

Mollusca. in. Synopsis and Classification of Living
ganisms. S. Parker, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, volpp. 945-1169.

intraspecific variabil-

and patterns of naticid gastropod prcdation. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison,

1-13.

Boss, K.

Anderson, L. C.
1991.

Neogene paleontology in the northern Doniijiican Rep^
Crustacea)lie. 7. The subclass Ostracoda (Arlhropoda:
1-^^
vol.
Paleontology,
of
American
94,
Bulletins
pp.

pp. 1-334.

1852b.

A. van den

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